Bismil Laahir Rahmaanir Rahim In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

Concept of God in Islam
Allah. This word is unique in its self. Allah is a name that is neither feminine nor masculine, and it cannot be made plural (i.e. god, gods, goddess, etc). Muslims believe that there is nothing in the heavens nor on earth that deserves worship except Allah, the One True Creator. God is beyond our sight and understanding, yet Allah is "nearer to us than our jugular vein.” Muslims pray to Allah, with no intermediary, and seek guidance from Him alone. Lord of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them! Therefor, worship thou Him and be thou steadfast in His service. Knowest thou one that can be named along with Him? (Qur’an 19:65) We verily created man and We know what his soul whispereth to him, and We are nearer to him than his jugular vein. (Qur’an 50:16) The main message Islam highlighted by the Qur’an is the concept on one God. Allah is the Almighty Creator and Sustainer of the universe. Moreover, nothing is comparable to Him. The Prophet Muhammad (s.w.a.s.) was asked by his contemporaries about Allah, thus; the answer came directly from Allah Himself which established the essence of the unity and the motto of monotheism. Say: He is Allah the One and Only; Allah, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him. (Qur’an 112:1-4) Allah is the name for a Self-Existing and Self-Sufficient Being Who comprises all perfect attributes, free from weakness and defect. Furthermore, God is Just. Hence, evildoers and sinners must have their share of punishment, and the virtuous must have God’s bounties and favors.  God’s attribute of Mercy has full manifestation in His attribute of Justice. Expecting similar treatment for all would amount to negating the very belief in the accountability of man in the Hereafter and thereby negate all the incentives for a moral and virtuous life in this world. The above notion is highlighted in the following verse: Lo! for those who keep from evil are gardens of bliss with their Lord. Shall We then treat those who have surrendered as We treat the guilty? What aileth you? How foolishly ye judge! (Qur’an 68:34-36)

Equally important, Islam rejects characterizing God in any human form or favoring certain individuals through, for example; wealth. However, God may favor certain individual by their virtue. Furthermore, the idea of God wrestling with one of His soldiers, God being an envious plotter against mankind, or God being incarnate in any human being, is considered blasphemy from the Islamic perspective. Islam considers associating any deity or personality with God as an unforgivable sin. And they say: The Beneficent hath taken unto Himself a son. (88) Assuredly ye utter a disastrous thing (89) Whereby almost the heavens are torn, and the earth is split asunder and the mountains fall in ruins, (90) That ye ascribe unto the Beneficent a son, (91) When it is not meet for (the Majesty of) the Beneficent that He should choose a son. (92) There is none in the heavens and the earth but cometh unto the Beneficent as a slave. (Qur’an 19:88-93) And they say: Allah hath taken unto Himself a son. Be He glorified! Nay, but whatsoever is in the heavens and the earth is His. All are subservient unto Him. (Qur’an 2:116) The Originator of the heavens and the earth! How can He have a child, when there is for Him no consort, when He created all things and is Aware of all things? (Qur’an 6:101) It befitteth not (the Majesty of) Allah that He should take unto Himself a son. Glory be to Him! When He decreeth a thing, He saith unto it only: Be! and it is. (Qur’an 19:35) And they say: The Beneficent hath taken unto Himself a son. Be He glorified! Nay, but (those whom they call sons) are honoured slaves; (26) They speak not until He hath spoken, and they act by His command. (Qur’an 21:26-27) Say (O Muhammad): If the Beneficent One hath a son, then, I shall be first among the worshippers. (81) Glorified be the Lord of the heavens and the earth, the Lord of the Throne, from that which they ascribe (unto Him)! (Qur’an 43:81-82) Moreover, the Creator must be of a different nature from his creation. Otherwise, He will be temporal and there will be a need for a Creator.  It follows, therefore; that nothing is like Him. Furthermore, if the Maker is not temporal, He must be eternal. If He is Eternal, however; He cannot be caused, and if nothing caused Him to come into existence, nothing outside Him causes Him to continue to exist. Consequently Self-sufficient. Further, if He does not depend on anything for the continuance of His own existence, then this existence can have no end, so the Creator is, therefore, Eternal and Everlasting. Hence, we can conclude that He is Self-sufficient or Self-subsistent, and Everlasting or ‘Al-Qayyum’ meaning ‘The First and Last.’

The Creator does not create only in the sense of bringing things into being, He also preserves them and takes them out of existence and is the ultimate cause of whatever happens to them. He is ‘Rabb al alamin,’ the Creator and Nourisher of the worlds. The previous topics are covered in the versed below: Have not those who disbelieve known that the heavens and the earth were of one piece, then We parted them, and We made every living thing of water? Will they not then believe? (Qur’an 21:30) Then turned He to the heaven when it was smoke, and said unto it and unto the earth: Come both of you, willingly or loth. They said: We come, obedient. (Qur’an 41:11) Allah is Creator of all things, and He is Guardian over all things. His are the keys of the heavens and the earth, and they who disbelieve the revelations of Allah - such are they who are the losers. (Quran 39:62-63) Allah's Light Allah says in the Qur’an: Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The similitude of His light is as a niche wherein is a lamp. The lamp is in a glass. The glass is as it were a shining star. (This lamp is) kindled from a blessed tree, an olive neither of the East nor of the West, whose oil would almost glow forth (of itself) though no fire touched it. Light upon light. Allah guideth unto His light whom He will. And Allah setteth forth for mankind similitudes, for Allah is Knower of all things. (Qur’an 24:34) God’s Attributes Allah manifests Himself to His creation through His Divine Names and Attributes, and they are many. The Creator is Eternal and Everlasting, hence, His attributes are also absolute. This may raise a question, can there be more than one Creator with such absolute attributes? Can there be, for example; two absolutely powerful Creators?  The Qur’an summarizes this argument in the following verses: Allah hath not chosen any son, nor is there any God along with Him; else would each God have assuredly championed that which he created, and some of them would assuredly have overcome others. Glorified be Allah above all that they allege. (Qur’an 23:91)

If there were therein Gods beside Allah, then verily both (the heavens and the earth) had been disordered. Glorified be Allah, the Lord of the Throne, from all that they ascribe (unto Him). (Qur’an 21:22) There are names of Incomparability and His Omnipotence. He is Allah, the Creator, the Shaper out of naught, the Fashioner. His are the most beautiful names. All that is in the heavens and the earth glorifieth Him, and He is the Mighty, the Wise. (Qur’an 59:24) The 99 Names of God 1. Ar Rahman (!"#$%‫ )ا‬The All Beneficent 2. Ar Rahim ('(#$%‫ )ا‬The Most Merciful 3. Al Malik ()*+‫ )ا‬The King, The Sovereign 4. Al Quddus (‫ )ا%/.وس‬The Most Holy 5. As Salam (‫ )ا%21م‬Peace and Blessing 6. Al Mu'min (!34+‫ )ا‬The Guarantor 7. Al Muhaymin (!"(5+‫ )ا‬The Guardian, the Preserver 8. Al 'Aziz (6768%‫ )ا‬The Almighty, the Self Sufficient 9. Al Jabbar (‫ )ا%<;:ر‬The Powerful, the Irresistible 10. Al Mutakabbir ($;=>+‫ )ا‬The Tremendous 11. Al Khaliq (?%:@%‫ )ا‬The Creator 12. Al Bari' (‫ )ا%;:رئ‬The Maker 13. Al Musawwir (‫ر‬BC+‫ )ا‬The Fashioner of Forms 14. Al Ghaffar (‫:ر‬DE%‫ )ا‬The Ever Forgiving 15. Al Qahhar (‫ )ا%/5:ر‬The All Compelling Subduer 16. Al Wahhab (‫:ب‬GB%‫ )ا‬The Bestower 17. Ar Razzaq (‫ )ا%$زاق‬The Ever Providing 18. Al Fattah (‫>:ح‬D%‫ )ا‬The Opener, the Victory Giver 19. Al Alim ('(*8%‫ )ا‬The All Knowing, the Omniscient 20.Al Qabid (KL:/%‫ )ا‬The Restrainer, the Straightener 21. Al Basit (MN:;%‫ )ا‬The Expander, the Munificent 22.Al Khafid (KO:@%‫ )ا‬The Abaser 23.Ar Rafi' (PO‫ )ا%$ا‬The Exalter 24.Al Mu'izz (68+‫ )ا‬The Giver of Honor 25.Al Mudhill (‫ل‬R+‫ )ا‬The Giver of Dishonor 26.Al Sami' (P("2%‫ )ا‬The All Hearing 27.Al Basir ($(C;%‫ )ا‬The All Seeing

28.Al Hakam ('=S%‫ )ا‬The Judge, the Arbitrator 29.Al 'Adl (‫ )ا%8.ل‬The Utterly Just 30.Al Latif (T(U*%‫ )ا‬The Subtly Kind 31. Al Khabir ($(;@%‫ )ا‬The All Aware 32.Al Halim ('(*S%‫ )ا‬The Forbearing, the Indulgent 33.Al 'Azim ('(V8%‫ )ا‬The Magnificent, the Infinite 34.Al Ghafur (‫ر‬BDE%‫ )ا‬The All Forgiving 35.Al Shakur (‫ر‬B=W%‫ )ا‬The Grateful 36.Al 'Ali (X*8%‫ )ا‬The Sublimely Exalted 37.Al Kabir ($(;=%‫ )ا‬The Great 38.Al Hafiz (Y(DS%‫ )ا‬The Preserver 39.Al Muqit (Z(/+‫ )ا‬The Nourisher 40.Al Hasib ([(2S%‫ )ا‬The Reckoner 41. Al Jalil (\(*<%‫ )ا‬The Majestic 42.Al Karim ('7$=%‫ )ا‬The Bountiful, the Generous 43.Ar Raqib ([(]$%‫ )ا‬The Watchful 44.Al Mujib ([(<+‫ )ا‬The Responsive, the Answerer 45.Al Wasi' (PN‫ا‬B%‫ )ا‬The Vast, the All Encompassing 46.Al Hakim ('(=S%‫ )ا‬The Wise 47.Al Wadud (‫دود‬B%‫ )ا‬The Loving, the Kind One 48.Al Majid (.(<+‫ )ا‬The All Glorious 49.Al Ba'ith (_`:;%‫ )ا‬The Raiser of the Dead 50.Ash Shahid (.(5W%‫ )ا‬The Witness 51. Al Haqq (?S%‫ )ا‬The Truth, the Real 52.Al Wakil (\(aB%‫ )ا‬The Trustee, the Dependable 53.Al Qawiyy (‫ى‬B/%‫ )ا‬The Strong 54.Al Matin (c>+‫ )ا‬The Firm, the Steadfast 55.Al Wali (X%B%‫ )ا‬The Protecting Friend, Patron, and Helper 56.Al Hamid (.("S%‫ )ا‬The All Praiseworthy 57.Al Muhsi (XCS+‫ )ا‬The Accounter, the Numberer of All 58.Al Mubdi' (‫ )ا+;.ئ‬The Producer, Originator, and Initiator of all 59.Al Mu'id (.(8+‫ )ا‬The Reinstater Who Brings Back All 60.Al Muhyi (X(S+‫ )ا‬The Giver of Life 61. Al Mumit (Z("+‫ )ا‬The Bringer of Death, the Destroyer 62.Al Hayy (dS%‫ )ا‬The Ever Living 63.Al Qayyum (‫م‬B(/%‫ )ا‬The Self Subsisting Sustainer of All 64.Al Wajid (.e‫ا‬B%‫ )ا‬The Perceiver, the Finder, the Unfailing 65.Al Majid (.e:+‫ )ا‬The Illustrious, the Magnificent 66.Al Wahid (.#‫ا‬B%‫ )ا‬The One, the All Inclusive, the Indivisible

67.Al Ahad (.#f‫ )ا‬The One, the Unique 68.As Samad (."C%‫ )ا‬The Long, the Impregnable, the Everlasting 69.Al Qadir (‫ )ا%/:در‬The All Able 70.Al Muqtadir (‫ )ا+/>.ر‬The All Determiner, the Dominant 71. Al Muqaddim (‫ )ا+/.م‬The Expediter, He who brings forward 72.Al Mu'akhkhir ($g4+‫ )ا‬The Delayer, He who puts far away 73.Al Awwal (‫ول‬h‫ )ا‬The First 74.Al Akhir ($gh‫ )ا‬The Last 75.Az Zahir ($G:V%‫ )ا‬The Manifest; the All Victorious 76.Al Batin (!i:;%‫ )ا‬The Hidden; the All Encompassing 77.Al Wali (d%‫ا‬B%‫ )ا‬The Patron 78.Al Muta'al (d%:8>+‫ )ا‬The Self Exalted 79.Al Barr ($;%‫ )ا‬The Most Kind and Righteous 80.At Tawwab (‫اب‬B>%‫ )ا‬The Ever Returning, Ever Relenting 81. Al Muntaqim ('/>j+‫ )ا‬The Avenger 82.Al 'Afuww (BD8%‫ )ا‬The Pardoner, the Effacer of Sins 83.Ar Ra'uf (‫ )ا%$ؤوف‬The Compassionate, the All Pitying 84.Malik al Mulk ()*+‫ )3:%)( )ا‬The Owner of All Sovereignty 85.Dhu al Jalal wa al Ikram (‫$ام‬am‫ )ذو ا%<1ل و ا‬The Lord of Majesty and Generosity 86.Al Muqsit (M2/+‫ )ا‬The Equitable, the Requiter 87.Al Jami' (P3:<%‫ )ا‬The Gatherer, the Unifier 88.Al Ghani (XjE%‫ )ا‬The All Rich, the Independent 89.Al Mughni (XjE+‫ )ا‬The Enricher, the Emancipator 90.Al Mani'(Po:+‫ )ا‬The Withholder, the Shielder, the Defender 91. Ad Dharr (‫ر‬pq%‫ )ا‬The Distresser 92.An Nafi' (PO:j%‫ )ا‬The Propitious, the Benefactor 93.An Nur (‫ر‬Bj%‫ )ا‬The Light 94.Al Hadi (‫ )ا%5:دئ‬The Guide 95.Al Badi (P7.;%‫ )ا‬Incomparable, the Originator 96.Al Baqi (d]:;%‫ )ا‬The Ever Enduring and Immutable 97.Al Warith (‫ارث‬B%‫ )ا‬The Heir, the Inheritor of All 98.Ar Rashid (.(s$%‫ )ا‬The Guide, Infallible Teacher, and Knower 99.As Sabur (‫ر‬B;C%‫ )ا‬The Patient, the Timeless (Note: Allah is the literal translation of the word God and so is not one of his names.)  Wikipedia. <Retrieved 1 February 2012>.  http:/ /

The Oneness of God The Qur'an reminds us of the falsity of all alleged gods. To those who worship what they themselves have carved: He said: Worship ye that which ye yourselves do carve (95) When Allah hath created you and what ye make? (96) (Qur’an 37:95). Say (O Muhammad): Who is Lord of the heavens and the earth? Say: Allah. Say: Take ye then (others) beside Him for protectors, which, even for themselves, have neither benefit nor hurt? Say: Is the blind man equal to the seer, or is darkness equal to light? Or assign they unto Allah partners who created the like of His creation so that the creation (which they made and His creation) seemed alike to them? Say: Allah is the Creator of all things, and He is the One, the Almighty. (Qur’an 13:16). To the worshippers of heavenly bodies: (Remember) when Abraham said unto his father Azar: Takest thou idols for gods? Lo! I see thee and thy folk in error manifest. Thus did We show Abraham the kingdom of the heavens and the earth that he might be of those possessing certainty: When the night grew dark upon him he beheld a star. He said: This is my Lord. But when it set, he said: I love not things that set. And when he saw the moon uprising, he exclaimed: This is my Lord. But when it set, he said: Unless my Lord guide me, I surely shall become one of the folk who are astray. And when he saw the sun uprising, he cried: This is my Lord! This is greater! And when it set he exclaimed: O my people! Lo! I am free from all that ye associate (with Him). Lo! I have turned my face toward Him Who created the heavens and the earth, as one by nature upright, and I am not of the idolaters. (Qur’an 6:76-79) To the People of the Book: O People of the Scripture! Do not exaggerate in your religion nor utter aught concerning Allah save the truth. The Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, was only a messenger of Allah, and His word which He conveyed unto Mary, and a spirit from Him. So believe in Allah and His messengers, and say not "Three" - Cease! (it is) better for you! - Allah is only One God. Far is it removed from His transcendent majesty that He should have a son. His is all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. And Allah is sufficient as Defender. (Qur’an 4:171)

A message to humankind from Allah: He is Allah, than Whom there is no other God, the Knower of the Invisible and the Visible. He is the Beneficent, Merciful. He is Allah, than Whom there is no other God, the Sovereign Lord, the Holy One, Peace, the Keeper of Faith, the Guardian, the Majestic, the Compeller, the Superb. Glorified be Allah from all that they ascribe as partner (unto Him). He is Allah, the Creator, the Shaper out of naught, the Fashioner. His are the most beautiful names. All that is in the heavens and the earth glorifieth Him, and He is the Mighty, the Wise. (Qur’an 59:22-24) Allah! There is no God save Him, the Alive, the Eternal. Neither slumber nor sleep overtaketh Him. Unto Him belongeth whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth. Who is he that intercedeth with Him save by His leave? He knoweth that which is in front of them and that which is behind them, while they encompass nothing of His knowledge save what He will. His throne includeth the heavens and the earth, and He is never weary of preserving them. He is the Sublime, the Tremendous. (Qur’an 2:255) The Creator of the heavens and the earth. He hath made for you pairs of yourselves, and of the cattle also pairs, whereby He multiplieth you. Naught is as His likeness; and He is the Hearer, the Seer. (Qur’an 42:11) Say: Is there of your partners (whom ye ascribe unto Allah) one that produceth Creation and then reproduceth it? Say: Allah produceth Creation, then reproduceth it. How then, are ye misled! Say: Is there of your partners (whom ye ascribe unto Allah) one that leadeth to the Truth? Say: Allah leadeth to the Truth. Is He Who leadeth to the Truth more deserving that He should be followed, or he who findeth not the way unless he (himself) be guided. What aileth you? How judge ye? (Qur’an 10:34-35) Is not He (best) Who produceth creation, then reproduceth it, and Who provideth for you from the heaven and the earth? Is there any God beside Allah? Say: Bring your proof, if ye are truthful! (Qur’an 27:64)

Alhamdulillah rabbil alamin.

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