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Mock Questions for the Exam of Anatomy II

1)Talk about the nerves that transmit sensation of pain due to ulceration in the body of the stomach.

2)Which nerves are most likely responsible for conducing the sensation of pain in the ureter?

3)Cells of Betz: location, shape, diameter and percentage target of their axons.

Betz cells are large pyramidal cell neurons located within the fifth layer of the grey matter in the

primary motor cortex, M1. They are named after Vladimir Alekseyevich Betz, who described them

in his work published in 1874. These neurons are the largest in the central nervous system,

sometimes reaching 100 μ m in diameter. Betz cells send their axons down to the spinal cord

where in humans they synapse directly with anterior horn cells, which in turn synapse directly with

their target muscles. While Betz cells have one apical dendrite typical to pyramidal neurons, they

have more primary dendritic shafts, and these do not leave the soma only at basal angles but

rather branch out from almost any point asymmetrically. These perisomatic and basal dendrites

project into all cortical layers, but most of their horizontal arbors populate layers V and VI, some

reaching down into the white matter. According to one study, Betz cells represent about 10% of the

total pyramidal cell population in layer Vb of the human primary motor cortex.

4) Corticospinal fibers arising from somatosensory cortex: where di they terminate, why?

5) Pretectal area.

The pretectum, also known as the pretectal area, is a region of neurons found between the

and is the region responsible for maintaining the pupillary light reflex. The pretectum, after

receiving binocular input, outputs to the Edinger-Westphal nucleus in the midbrain,

to the Cilio-spinal nucleus (Budge), which is located in the VIII cervical and I, II thoracic vertebral segments,

and to the nucleus of the posterior commissure.

The Edinger-Westphal nucleus projects onto the ciliary ganglion, whose output controls pupillary

constriction (miosis).

The Edinger-Westphal nucleus controls the Pupillary sphincter muscle (used in situations of bright

light to reduce the exposure of the retina) and the Ciliary muscle (used for eye focusing and

The Cilio-Spinal Nucleus projects onto the superior cervical ganglion, and controls the Pupillary

dilator muscle (used in situations of near dark, to increase the exposure of the retina)

6) Ansa cervicalis.

7)Pyramidal smile and Duchenne smile.

8)Nerves of the foot.

9)Spinal accessory nerve

10) In the past patients who had their corpus callosum sectioned were asked to read written words: in which cases they weren't able to read those words?

11) How can the hypothalamus (by way of which bundle) influence:

chewing, swallowing and shivering?

12) Corticopontocerebellar description.

pathway and other a ! erent pathways

The olivo-cerebellar pathway:

The very important climbing fibre input comes from a single source, the inferior olivary complex. The olivo-cerebellar fibres are crossed and pass through the inferior cerebellar peduncle. Afferents to the inferior olive come from many different areas, including the cortex, the spinal cord and the tectum. The vestibulo-cerebellar pathway:

The vestibular nuclei and to a certain extent the vestibular nerve itself project to the flocculonodular lobe of cerebellar cortex via the inferior cerebellar peduncle. The ponto-cerebellar pathway:

The largest set of afferents to the cerebellum comes from the pontine nuclei, which you can see on any Nissl stained section of the pons. These relay information predominantly from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum. After crossing the midline ventrally, they form the very large middle cerebellar peduncle which projects to the cortex of the cerebellum. The large size of the pontine nuclei and the corresponding size of the middle cerebellar peduncle reflects the great development of the human cerebellar cortex.

13) Dendritic tree of purkinjie cells.

14) E! erents from the Cerebellum.

The efferents from the cerebellum arise from the deep cerebellar nuclei. The dentate nucleus lies laterally, deep within the white matter of the cerebellum. It is the main source of efferents from the neocerebellum. In section this nucleus has a bag-like, crenulated appearance and gives rise to the major component of the superior peduncle. Adjacent to the dentate nucleus, closer to the mid-line lie the interposed nuclei: the emboliform and globose nuclei. These are the output nuclei of the spinal cerebellum. Finally, closest to the midline are the small fastigial nuclei that are the source of the efferent projections from the vestibular cerebellum.

15) Papez circuit, description.

The Papez circuit of the brain is one of the major pathways of the limbic system and is chiefly

involved in the cortical control of emotion. The Papez circuit plays a role in storing memory.

Described by James Papez in 1937, Papez discovered the circuit after injecting rabies virus into a cat's hippocampus and monitoring its progression through the brain. The initial pathway was described as follows:

Since then, new findings in neuroanatomy and brain function by Paul D. MacLean and others have elucidated a larger circuit that also includes the prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala, and septum among other areas. The PFC and amygdala are key components in this larger loop.

According to “Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain”:

“Reflecting on the earlier work of Cannon, Bard, and others, American neurologist James Papez proposed that there is an ʻ emotion system, ʼ lying on the medial wall of the brain, that links the cortex with the hypothalamus…Papez believed that the experience of emotion was determined by activity in the cingulate cortex and, less directly, other cortical areas. Emotional expression was thought to be governed by the hypothalamus. The cingulate cortex projects to the hippocampus, and the hippocampus projects to the hypothalamus by way of the bundle of axons called the fornix. Hypothalamic effects reach the cortex via a relay in the anterior thalamic nuclei.”

16) Sound attenuation reflex, description.

17) Spiral lamina and spiral ligament, description.

18) The inner ear, description.

19) Bulbourethral glands: location, stucture, function and specific site

where its excretory ducts open

(which orifice?)

20) The seminal vescicles produce a fluid rich in

21) What is and where does it originate from the innermost covering of spermatic cord?

22) Denonvillier's fascia, description.

The rectoprostatic fascia is a membranous partition at the lowest part of the rectovesical pouch. It separates the prostate and urinary bladder from the rectum. It consists of a single fibromuscular structure with several layers that are fused together and covering the seminal vesicles. It is also called Denonvilliers' fascia after French anatomist and surgeon Charles-Pierre Denonvilliers.

The structure corresponds to the rectovaginal fascia in the female. In post-operative transsexual women, the vaginal cavity is created along it. The retroprostatic fascia also inhibits the posterior spread of prostatic adenocarcinoma; therefore invasion of the rectum is less common than is invasion of other contiguous structures.

23) The patient is

supine: if some identical liquid is found in the

peritoneal cavity where does it most likely first collect?

24) Innervation of the mucosa of the tongue, description.

25) How many muscles abduct the rima glottidis?

26) Specify the name and attachment, macro and micro structure of the mucosa of the empty rectum and anal canal.

27) Liver acinus, description.

28) Which anatomical structure do you cut in order to interrupt the main pain fibers from the ovary?

29) What does the term retinal detachment mean?

30) Concisely description.








31) The










eventually empty into

e ! erent cochlear innervation: seek the fibers that travel to the cochlea and hint at their function

32) Specify secretion, circulation and reabsorption of the aqueous humour of the eye.

33) Nervo oculomotore e la chiocciola (cochlea).

34) Vetrini: la pelle, il timo e l'ipofisi (sulle slide).

35) Organizzazione del cervelletto e le fibre che ad eccezione delle altre proiettano dalla cortecccia del cervelletto direttamente fuori dal cervelletto.

36) Climbing fibers: corticoolivary cerebellar fibers (posterior lobe).

37) Accessory nerve.

38) Brachiomotor innervation of the trigeminal nerve (V )

39) Trigeminal Nerve.

The Trigeminal nerve is principally associated with sensory innervation of the face, oral and nasal cavities and motor innervation of the muscles of mastication. The trigeminal nerve emerges from the mid-lateral part of the pons, rostral and ventral to the middle cerebellar peduncle. It has two distinct roots, a smaller motor root which emerges more medially and a larger sensory root which lies lateral. The sensory root of the trigeminal leads to the trigeminal ganglion. The trigeminal ganglion, like dorsal root ganglia, contains cell bodies of sensory axons. From the ganglion three nerve roots pass to the periphery; the ophthalmic, the maxillary and the mandibular nerves. The ophthalmic nerve runs rostrally to the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus and into the superior orbital fissure. The maxillary nerve leaves the skull in the foramen rotundum. The sensory component of the mandibular nerve is joined by the motor root of the trigeminal as it leaves the ganglion. This mixed nerve exits the skull in the foramen ovale. Note that all three divisions of the trigeminal nerve supply the dura.

40) Vetrini: Liver e cromophils of the Adenohypophisis.

41) Sistema autonomico nervoso: generalità + simpatico.

42) Cellule del Purkinje, mossy e climbing fibers.

43) Funzioni del cervelletto e connessioni con corteccia e corda spinale.

44) Testes: epitelio germinativo, spermiation e dotti deferenti.

45) Riconscimento del liver da slides, con portal trial e di ! erenza istologica vena arteria.

46) Middle ear, walls and features, con riferimenti all'inner ear.

The roof of the middle ear is formed by part of the petrous temporal bone, which separates it from the cranial cavity.

The floor is a thin sheet of bone, which overlies the internal jugular vein.

The medial wall forms the outer wall of the inner ear. It contains the round and oval windows and two prominences formed by the nerves of the tympanic plexus and the facial nerve canal.

The lateral wall contains the eardrum.

The posterior wall has an opening the aditus, which communicates with the mastoid antrum or air sinus lying within the petrous-temporal bone.

The anterior wall contains the pharyngotympanic tube (Eustachian) which allows pressure equalisation between the outer and middle ears.

which allows pressure equalisation between the outer and middle ears. 47) Glossopharyngeal nerve. 48) Stapedial Reflex.

47) Glossopharyngeal nerve.

48) Stapedial Reflex.

Loud noise (including our own voices) causes activation of the facial nerve, which causes contraction of the stapedius muscle pulling the stapes bone onto the oval window and thereby reducing the transmission of movement to the cochlea.

reducing the transmission of movement to the cochlea. 49) Facial nerve. This is a mixed nerve

49) Facial nerve.

This is a mixed nerve which emerges laterally from the posterior border of the pons, medial to the larger VIII nerve, which it accompanies into the internal auditory meatus. Motor neurons in the facial motor nucleus, which supply the facial muscles, form a column of cells which lie caudal to the principal nucleus of the trigeminal, ventro-medial to the spinal trigeminal and dorsal to the superior olivary nucleus in the pons. Their axons have a characteristic course which loops dorsally around the nucleus of the abducens nerve, towards the floor of the forth ventricle, before turning ventrally to its point of emergence.

The motor fibres are joined by the parasympathetic and sensory fibres of the nervus intermedius, which can be considered as part of the VIIth nerve. The parasympathetic fibres arise from the superior salivatory nucleus.

The sensory component of the intermediate nerve, arising from cells in the geniculate ganglion, supplies the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. Centrally, their fibres enter the solitary tract and terminate in the nucleus of the solitary tract, which also receives similar sensory fibres from the IXth and Xth nerves (see Figure 20). This nucleus and its associated tract lie in the dorsal pons, medial to the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal.

The principal function of CN 7 is innervation of muscles of facial expression but it also conveys taste from the anterior 2/3rds of the tongue, supplies the stapedius and platysma muscles, and is secreto-motor to salivary and lacrimal glands. It is commonly evaluated by observing the a) action of the facial muscles e.g., tightly closing eyelids, puffing out of cheeks or b) symmetry of the nasolabial folds or ptosis of the eyelids of the face at rest. Facial muscles are affected differently if the peripheral nerve is lesioned as compared to its central connections. Paralysis of the lower face

only (forced eye closure is nearly normal) indicates a central lesion; paralysis of entire face (including eyelids and forehead) indicates a peripheral nerve injury.

50) Organ of Corti.

The basilar membrane supports the Organ of Corti which is the sensory apparatus for sound. It varies in width, thickness and stiffness systematically along its length.

The Organ of Corti has an inner and an outer row of supporting cells or rod cells, either side of a tunnel.

Internal to the inner of these supporting cells is a single row of inner hair cells and external to the outer rod cells are three of four rows of outer hair cells.

Each of the inner hair cells has 50-60 stereo-sensilla projecting towards the tectorial membrane.

When the baslilar membrane vibrates the hairs are deflected by the tectoral membrane and either depolarise or hyperpolarise.

Outer hair cells modulate the function of the inner sensory hair cells by changing length and therefore the relationship with the tectorial membrane. This is regulated by efferent fibres that innervate the outer hair cells.

The inner hair cells respond to vibration of the basilar membrane by opening channels in the tips of the stereocilia. These channels are gated by protein strands that run between the steroilia called tip-links. Opening of the channels causes a transient influx of potassium ions from the endolymph of the scala media. This results in depolarisation of the hair cell, opening of Calcium channels and the release of glutamate. The glutamate binds to receptors on auditory nerve fibres conveying information to the cochlear nuclei in the brainstem.

51) Slides: parathyroid, adrenal cortex dalle sue slide, skin. 52) Maxillary nerve. 53) Vestibulocochlear Nerve.

The auditory, or acoustico vestibular nerves, emerge laterally at the border of the pons, medulla and cerebellum – the cerebellar pontine angle. The sensory fibres supply the auditory and vestibular systems and have their cell bodies in peripheral ganglia – the vestibular and spiral ganglia. The central branches of these neurons project to a series of nuclei located in the pons.

54) Auditory Pathways.

The inner hair cells are innervated by fibres of the spiral ganglion neurons which form the auditory or cochlear nerve.

The cochlear nerve terminates in the dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei in the lateral part of the medulla.

From the cochlear nuclei two main fibre projections emerge, one which crosses the midline, the trapezoid body and the dorsal acoustic stria and the other, which is ipsilateral, is the lateral lemniscus.

On both the ipsilateral and contralateral sides of the brainstem projection neurons from the cochlear nuclei contribute to the lateral lemniscus.

The lateral lemniscus runs to the inferior colliculi where the fibres terminate. There are three pairs of auditory relay nuclei within the brainstem, the superior olivary nucleus (lateral and medial), the nucleus of the trapezoid body, and the nucleus of the lateral lemniscus.

he inferior colliculus has a complex organisation with a central core which has a series of onion- skin-like shells of neurons and a more diffuse lateral region. The fibres of the lateral lemniscus terminate within the inferior colliculus in tonotopic fashion. Reciprocal interconnections between the two inferior colliculi pass as commissural fibres.

From the inferior colliculus trace the efferent projection which forms the inferior brachium leading to the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus.

From the medial geniculate nucleus, information is sent to primary auditory cortex, which lies in the superficial temporal gyrus.

55) Vetrino sulla neuroipofisi tinta con immunoperossidasi--> che ormoni vi risiedono.

56) Parotid (semplice analisi di struttura e perché non può essere scambiato per il pancreas)

57) Oesophagus (sola analisi di struttura)

58) Liver relations, peritoneum, vasculature of liver.

59) Splancno: perineum relations and contents, ischioanal fossa and contents.

60) Neuro: femoral nerve and saphenous, pterygopalatine ganglion.

61) Basal Ganglia connections.

A major source of afferents to the striatum comes from the cerebral cortex. Essentially all cortical areas project to the striatum, the projections are organised so that different striatal segments receive afferents from different cortical areas.

In order to approach an understanding of the striatum it may be useful to focus upon the output of the striatum, before considering the afferents.

Most of the efferent fibres from the striatum go to the globus pallidus (GP) which has an external (GPe) and an internal (GPi) part.

The efferents of the globus pallidus either run rostrally and then medial to the internal capsule in the ansa lenticularis, or run directly through the fibres of the internal capsule as the fasciculus lenticularis. These two pathways join together and many of the fibres terminate in the ventral anterior (VA) and the ventral lateral thalamic nuclei (VL). These two thalamic nuclei form a part of the ventral subdivision of the thalamus lying between the internal and external medullary laminae

of the thalamus at rostral thalamic levels and that they receive afferents from the deep cerebellar nuclei and send efferents to the motor cortex. These nuclei thus form key relays of the motor system, serving to funnel cerebellar and striatal outputs to motor cortex. Other pallidal efferents go to the midbrain reticular formation, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and to the substantia nigra (SN). Those to the substantia nigra must traverse the cerebral peduncle, and form rather evident small bundles cutting between the bundles of the cerebral peduncle.

The substantia nigra has important connections with the basal ganglia. The pars reticulata receives inputs from the basal ganglia (globus pallidus) and the pars compacta (SNpc) forms the main source of dopaminergic input to the basal ganglia. It is the dopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta which are affected by Parkinson's disease. The pars reticulata (SNpr) also has outputs to the colliculus, thalamus and to the reticular formation. The pathway from the substantia nigra to the superior colliculus (SC) allows the basal ganglia to influence the tectospinal pathway.

62) Visceral plexuses.

63) Innervazione strutture genitali maschili e femminili, description.

64) Pudendal nerve (compreso il decorso e i muscoli che innerva)

65) Pelvic





decorso e sulle strutture innervate!



66) Polmoni, pleure, bronchi, dust cells.

67) Neuro: attività e corteccia motoria in generale, fasci discendenti, fasci sensoriali discendenti (quelli che vanno con il corticospinal tract), muscle spindles e co-activation.

68) Splanchno: Bronchial tree (i 6 tipi/nomi - principal, lobular, etc; microscopic features - cilliated o no etc), Lungs (functional unit, all cell types and function), Pancreas (endocrine and exocrine part, cells (alpha, beta, delta) and their secretions) and Liver (solo functional unit con portal triad).

69) Neuro: Occhio - flusso del liquido tra posterior and anterior compartments, da dove viene secreto e dove e assorbito, nome del altro liquido/gel del occhio e la sua function.

70) Blind spot (optic disc), musculi e loro innervazioni.

71) Lens accomodation, layers of eye and what they become anteriorly.

72) Quali obliterated artery sulla superficie interna del occhio?

73) Colour of eye (two epitheliums of pupillary muscles) di ! erence between dark eyes and bright eyes.

74) Cosa succede con l'anestesia ai vari pathways (auditory exception)

75) Reticular formation, description.

76) Parasympathetic nuclei in the brainstem.

77) Connessioni limbic system-hypothalamus.

78) Lumbar plexus: dove si forma, nervi, decorso dei nervi (in particolare sapere dell'inguinal ligament, la femoral sheath parlando del femoral nerve, il rapporto con la femoral artery, adductor canal, obturator canal) e tutti i muscoli che innervano.

79) Sacral plexus and sciatic nerve (its pathway till the foot, and it's sensory and motor innervation, names of all muscles )

80) Pudendal nerve (it's pathway and innervation and branches)

81) Nerve to obturator internus, description.

82) Limbic system, description.

The olfactory system is formed from the olfactory bulbs which project directly to olfactory areas of cortex in the basal, frontal and temporal cortex. Within the tip of the temporal lobe lies the amygdala. This also receives olfactory information, and is associated with other limbic functions including memory and fear. The hippocampus is associated with memory formation and is linked to other regions of the limbic system by the fornix . The fornix terminates in the septal nuclei (basal forebrain nuclei) and the mamillary bodies. The mammillary bodies in turn relay information to the anterior thalamus. The anterior thalamus connects with the cingulate gyrus (not shown). The pathway from the hippocampus through to the cingulate gyrus forms the limbic circuit of Papez.

83) The hippocamal formation and its component, description.

84) Amygdala, description.

The amygdala lies in the tip of the temporal lobe. It is formed by a series of nuclei with different connectivity and probable functions. The amygdaloid nuclei (which have connections with the septum and the cortex of the parahippocampal gyrus) are sometimes included in the limbic system, which may also, rather loosely and confusingly, be extended to include other parts of the thalamus and certain brain stem nuclei. Part of the medial amygdala is associated with processing olfactory information. The amygdala is also reciprocally connected to the hypothalamus by the stria terminalis, which is a long looping path that courses over the diencephalon to terminate in the septal region. A second pathway, the ventral amydofugal pathway runs medially to the hypothalamus. The link to the hypothalamus suggests strong links to the autonomic nervous system control pathways.

85) Olfactory System, description.

The sensory part of the olfactory system lies in the upper part of the nasal passages directly beneath the cribriform plate. Olfactory receptor neurons have fine unmyelinated nerves that project to the olfactory bulbs and terminate in glomeruli. These are one of the few places in the adult nervous system where new neurons are constantly generated. Every time we get a cold and blow our noses thousands of olfactory nerve cells are sloughed off with the cells of the nasal mucosa. This is why we often loose our sense of smell when we have a cold. However stem cells in the nasal epithelium replace the neurons and these send new axons into the CNS. This is currently being held as a hopeful source of neural stem cells for repairing the

brain and as a source of a unique glial cells, the olfactory ensheathing cell, that promotes axon growth. Olfactory transduction is by G-protein linked receptor signalling. The primary sensory neurons of the olfactory system send their axons through the cribriform plate to the olfactory bulb where they terminate.

Inside the olfactory bulb there are synaptic complexes called glomeruli (Figures 16 and 18). Each

is formed by about 25 mitral cells and receives from 1000 olfactory neurons.

Mitral cells are the output cells of the olfactory bulb. They form the olfactory tracts which are commonly seen on whole brain and often referred to erroneously as the first cranial nerve. An unusual feature of the olfactory system is that the mitral cells axons project directly to the cortex with no thalamic relay. Just in front of the optic chiasm the olfactory tracts bifurcate, forming a medial and lateral stria. The medial stria joins the anterior commissure and the lateral stria projects to the olfactory cortex and amygdala. The primary olfactory cortex lies beneath the tip of the temporal lobe in orbitofrontal cortex and in pyriform cortex.

86) The di! erence in cerebral cortex thickness between motor and sensory areas, description.

87) A ! erents

(also the orientation of utricle and saccule, the maculae and how they detect dynamic and static proprioception).

88) Uterus: isthmus, internal os, di ! erence between internal os and isthmus, ligaments, relationship of ureter and uterine artery.

89) Pupillary light reflex, description.

90) Hippocampus.

The Hippocampus lies in the medial part of the temporal lobe “tucked-in” to the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle. The hippocampus receives afferent input from the entorhinal cortex and sends its output via the fornix. Note that the alveus is the name given to these fibres as they emerge from the hippocampus and this becomes the fibria which then becomes the fornix. Perforant pathway afferents from entorhinal cortex connect to granule cells of the dentate gyrus. These small cells send their axons (mossy fibres) to the CA3 pyramidal neurons. The CA3 neurons have collateral branches (Schaffer) that terminate on CA1 pyramidal neurons (see Figure 37). It is this set of connections that was used to demonstrate long term potentiation.




Long term potentiation at these synapses involves the glutamate NMDA receptor. When a neuron is already activated by one input and receives further input from another source, the NMDA receptor is activated. This occurs by removing a Mg ion that normally blocks the channel. The channel allows both Na and Ca ions to enter the postsynaptic cell. This results in long term

changes to the cell that makes the synaptic inputs more efficient, i.e. they are potentiated. This is

a long lasting change that may be the basis of some aspects of memory.

91) Limbic loop, description.

92) Trochlear Nerve.

The trochlear nerve is the only cranial nerve to arise dorsally. Axons of each nerve cross the midline just before they leave the brain and innervate the opposite superior oblique muscle (trochlear). Paralysis of this nerve is difficult to detect but prevents the eye moving down and out.

93) Prefrontal cortex, description.

94) The female reproductive system (The question was about all the hormones involved with the system).

95) Splancno: Bronchi, vascular supply of respiratory apparatus (in particular lungs and bronchi), and where all of these veins drain.

96) Neuro: Purkinje cells, mossy and climbing fibers.

97) Inferior olivary nucleus (location and function), description.

98) Di ! erences in anatomical tracts between fibers responsible of both stereotyped and non-stereotyped movements.

99) Alpha/gamma co-activation, description.

100) Parotid gland, thymus, gastric mucosa.

101) Hypophysis and hypothalamohypophyseal connections (with examples of releasing factors & release-inhibiting factors secreted by adenohypophysis and hormones secreted by neurohypophysis + their actions).

102) Kidney and nephron: renal tubule and functions of PCT, loop of Henle, DCT, collecting duct; action of ADH and aldosterone.

103) Microscopic anatomy: Appendix, tongue, thyroid.

104) Light reflex, description.

105) Simple stretch reflex, description.

106) Thymus, lymph node, spleen.

107) Gubernaculum testis, description of its function

108) Vestibular System and something about the middle ear (oval and round windows).

109) Hypogastric Plexus, description.

110) Seminal vesicles, description.

111) Microscopic Anatomy: seminiferous tubules, adrenal gland and appendix.

112) Prostate, description.

113) Microscopic







regulating the cicle)

114) Scrotum, description.

115) Vision system, description.

116) Microstructure: appendix, thyroid, pancreas.

117) Ovary: follicles, stages of fertilization.

118) Why corpus luteum is called "corpus luteum"?

119) Endometrial glands and their changing during the menstrual cycle.

120) Respiratory system: cells of the walls.

121) How pressure gradient is formed?

122) Surface tension of alveoli--> explain mechanism.

123) Microscopic Anatomy: liver, adrenal medulla, large intestine.

124) Nucleus accumbens, description.

125) Control of pain sensation, description.

126) Phantom limb pain, description.

127) Allocortex, mesocortex, iso(neo)cortex, description.

128) E! erent projections (output) from the vestibular nuclei.

129) Substantia nigra, description.

130) Describe the jaw jerk (massenteric) reflex arc.

131) Prefrontal association cortex, description.

132) Hypothalamic Pathways.

Follow through the pathways and features described in the following text.

• The fornix carries fibres between the hippocampus and the mamillary bodies, septal region and hypothalamus.

• The stria terminalis is the pathway that links the amygdala and hypothalamus.

• The ventral amygdolofugal pathway is the short pathway between the amygdala and hypothalamus .

• The median forebrain bundle is a long pathway that runs from the septal region through the diencephalon to the midbrain.

• The dorsal longitudinal fasciculus runs from the dorsal hindbrain to the hypothalamus.

• The mamillo-thalamic and mamillo-tegmental tracts are the major output pathways of the mamillary bodies to anterior thalamus and midbrain tegmentum respectively.

• The stria medullaris interconnects the hypothalamus and the habenular nuclei which are part of the epithalamus.

• The retinohypothalamic tract are the retinal ganglion cells that connect with the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

• The hypohypophyseal tract is formed by the axons of the magnocellular neurons that form the posterior pituitary.

133) Pupillary dilation, description of the reason why it happens. 134) Left vagus nerve, description.

133) Pupillary dilation, description of the reason why it happens.

134) Left vagus nerve, description.

135) Phrenic nerves, description.

136) Follow the median nerve through the hand: from its entrance to the end.

137) Visceral sensory fibers.

138) Geniculate ganglion.

139) Tympanic plexus.

140) Pelvic splanchnic nerves.

141) Sacral splanchnic nerve

142) Referred pain.

143) Anterior corticospinal tract.

144) Median nerve

145) Radial nerve

146) Sural nerve

147) Somatic nerve to perineum.

148) What may a damage to ARAS cause?

149) Main input to hypothalamus.

150) Oculomotor Nerve, description.

The oculomotor nerve can be found at the rostral border of the pons emerging into the interpeduncular fossa. It leaves the skull via the superior orbital fissure. Its function is to innervate

all of the eye muscles except the lateral rectus and superior oblique (see trochlear nerve on the

next page). It also innervates the eye lid levator palpebrae muscles, so damage causes a dropping

eye lid or ptosis. The third nerve contains an important parasympathetic supply to the eye

regulating pupil size and lens shape.

151) Thalamic nuclei connected to limbic system. 152) Nuclei of Hypothalamus.

The hypothalamus can be divided into three areas in the medio-lateral plane: Lateral, Medial,

and Periventricular.

The hypothalamus is then further divided in the rostro-caudal plane into three regions; the

Anterior, Intermediate and Posterior nuclear groups.

The anterior group includes the anterior nucleus. Control of the pituitary is by factors released by

small cells of the anterior nuclei. For example, GnRH is released by pre-optic parvocellular

neurons, which project to the median eminence, where the hormone is carried in the blood to the

anterior pituitary.

The suprachiasmatic nucleus is involved in generation of circadian rhythms receiving direct

innervation from the retina. Complex neural pathways link this nucleus to the pineal. Melatonin,

released by the pineal, modulates the activity of the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

The supraoptic nuclei and the paraventricular nuclei control the release of Oxytocin and

Vasopressin via axons projecting to the posterior lobe of the pituitary. Oxytocin is released in

bursts and is involved in milk ejection and uterine contraction. Vasopressin is involved in body

fluid homeostasis.

The intermediate region by the dorsomedial and ventromedian nuclei are involved in feeding.

Lesions of the lateral nucleus result in aphagia and starvation, whilst lesions of the

ventromedian result in obesity. Complex feedback signals involve hormones and specific

neurotransmitters released after ingestion of specific foods and the limbic system.

Temperature is regulated in the anterior hypothalamus. Temperature sensitive neurons respond

to increase body temperature to dissipate heat. Lesions result in hyperthermia. The posterior

nucleus has opposite functions conserving heat, resulting in hypothermia after lesion.

The arcuate nucleus which contains leptin receptors involved in feeding behaviour. It also

releases dopamine to the portal system to control prolactin release by anterior pituitary.

The mammillary nuclei are relay cells for the output of the hippocampus.

153) Cause of crocodile tear syndrome.

The mechanism appears to be a misdirection of regenerating gustatory fibers destined for the salivary glands, so that they become secretory fibers to the lacrimal gland and cause homolateral tearing while the patient is eating.

154) Gross Anatomy of the Cerebellum, description.

The superior surface of the cerebellum is flat, corresponding to the contour of the inferior surface

of the tentorium cerebelli, but has a slightly raised median ridge, the vermis. The anterior and

posterior cerebellar notches lie in front and behind the vermis.

The lateral and posterior margins of the hemispheres are marked by the horizontal fissure.

The fissures and folia of the superior surface curve from postero-medial to antero-lateral,

converging on the horizontal fissure. One of these fissures is considerably deeper and more

conspicuous than the rest. This is called the primary fissure and marks the division between the anterior and posterior lobes of each cerebellar hemisphere. Other deep fissures mark the superior surface and divide the superior vermis into several segments. The inferior surfaces of the cerebellar hemispheres are irregularly convex with a prominent rounded swelling of the cortex, the tonsil, anteriorly on either side of the inferior vermis. The inferior vermis is divided into three sections by deep fissures which continue onto the hemisphere: The uvula lies between the two tonsils with the nodule ventrally, nearest to the inferior medullary velum, and the pyramid dorsally. These relationships can be seen clearly in a sagittal section of the cerebellum. Immediately caudal to the entry point of the VIIIth cranial nerve lies the flocculus. This somewhat separate part of the cerebellar cortex is approximately ovoid in shape with a crenated edge. It is closely related to the lateral foramen of the IVth ventricle on each side and may be partly covered by the tuft of choroid plexus protruding through the foramen. The flocculus of each side is continuous with the nodule of the inferior vermis via a peduncle of white matter, which is hidden by the tonsil. Together the flocculus and the nodule constitute the flocculo-nodular lobe of the cerebellum (Vestibulo-cerebellum), which is primarily concerned with vestibular functions. It is important to note the close topographical relationship between this vestibular part of the cerebellum and the VIIth and VIIIth nerves. You should also note that the IXth, Xth and XIth nerves pass close to the flocculus on their way to the jugular foramen. On the hemisected cerebellum identify the anterior part of the superior vermis which extends onto the superior medullary velum as a single lamella of cortical tissue, the lingula.