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# Basics of Geometry

Basic Geometry Concepts 1. Point: A point is a location in a plane. 2. Line: A line is an infinite set of points contained in a straight path. 3. Line Segment: A line segment is part of a line; a segment can be measured. 4. Ray: A ray is an infinite set of points that start at an endpoint and continue in a straight path in one direction only. 5. Plane: A plane is a two-dimensional flat surface. 6. Angle: An angle is the figure formed by two rays sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle. The magnitude of the angle is the "amount of rotation" that separates the two rays, and can be measured by considering the length of circular arc swept out when one ray is rotated about the vertex to coincide with the other.

Angles are measured in degree (°) and radians. Types of angles

1. An angle of 90° (π/2 radians, or one-quarter of the full circle) is called a right angle. Two lines that form a right angle are said to be perpendicular or orthogonal.

2. Angles that are not right angles or a multiple of a right angle are called oblique angles. 3. Angles smaller than a right angle (less than 90°) are called acute angles ("acute" meaning "sharp").e.g. angle a in figure below. 4. Angles larger than a right angle and smaller than two right angles (between 90° and 180°) are calledobtuse angles ("obtuse" meaning "blunt"). e.g. angle b in figure below.

5. Angles equal to two right angles (180°) are called straight angles. 6. Angles larger than two right angles but less than a full circle (between 180° and 360°) are calledreflex angles. see figure below.

7. Two angles opposite each other, formed by two intersecting straight lines that form an "X"-like shape, are called vertical angles or opposite angles. These angles are equal in size.

8. Angles that share a common vertex and edge but do not share any interior points are called adjacent angles. 9. Two angles that sum to one right angle (90°) are called complementary angles. The difference between an angle and a right angle is termed the complement of the angle. 10. Two angles that sum to a straight angle (180°) are called supplementary angles. The difference between an angle and a straight angle is termed the supplement of the angle. 11. Two angles that sum to one full circle (360°) are called explementary angles or conjugate angles.

Triangles
A triangle is one of the basic shapes of geometry: a polygon with three corners or vertices and three sides or edges which are line segments. A triangle with vertices A, B, and C is denoted ∠ABC.
Types of Triangles

Triangles can be classified according to relative length of the sides and by internal angles. By relative lengths of sides
 

In an equilateral triangle, all sides have the same length. An equilateral triangle is also a regular polygon with all angles measuring 60°. In an isosceles triangle, two sides are equal in length. An isosceles triangle also has two angles of the same measure; namely, the angles opposite to the two sides of the same length. In a scalene triangle, all sides and internal angles are different from one another

By internal angles

A right triangle (or right-angled triangle) has one of its interior angles measuring 90° (a right angle). The side opposite to the right

   

angle is the hypotenuse; it is the longest side in the right triangle. The other two sides are the legs of the triangle. Right triangles obey the Pythagorean theorem: the sum of the squares of the lengths of the two legs is equal to the square of the length of the hypotenuse: a2 + b2 = c2, where a and b are the lengths of the legs and c is the length of the hypotenuse. Special right triangles are right triangles with additional properties that make calculations involving them easier. Triangles that do not have an angle that measures 90° are called oblique triangles. A triangle that has all interior angles measuring less than 90° is an acute triangle or acute-angled triangle. A triangle that has one angle that measures more than 90° is an obtuse triangle or obtuse-angled triangle. A triangle that has two angles with the same measure also has two sides with the same length, and therefore it is an isosceles triangle.

Basic facts about Triangles  An exterior angle of a triangle is an angle that is a linear pair (and hence supplementary) to aninterior angle. The measure of an exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the measures of the two interior angles that are not adjacent to it (exterior angle theorem).  The sum of the measures of the three exterior angles (one for each vertex) of any triangle is 360 degrees.  Triangle inequality: The sum of the lengths of any two sides of a triangle always exceeds the length of the third side.  Two triangles that are under a correspondence are said to be similar if every angle of one triangle has the same measure as the corresponding angle in the other triangle and the corresponding sides have lengths that are in the same proportion.  In a right triangle, the acute angles of a right triangle are complementary.  If the legs of a right triangle have the same length, then the angles opposite those legs have the same measure. Since these angles are complementary, it follows that each measures 45 degrees. By the Pythagorean theorem, the length of the hypotenuse is the length of a leg times √2.

and h is the height or altitude of the triangle. The term 'base' denotes any side. this point is the center of the circumcircle. the triangle's circumcenter.e. and 'height' denotes the length of a perpendicular from the point opposite the side onto the side itself. forming a right angle with it. called . This opposite side is called the base of the altitude. forming a right angle with) the opposite side. i. lines and circles associated with a triangle Circumcenter: A perpendicular bisector of a triangle is a straight line passing through the midpoint of a side and being perpendicular to it. b is the length of the base of the triangle. then the triangle is obtuse. then the triangle is acute. In a right triangle with acute angles measuring 30 and 60 degrees. If the circumcenter is located on one side of the triangle. Area of Triangle Area of Triangle S = 1/2 x b x h where S is area. then the opposite angle is a right one. the circle passing through all three vertices. and the point where the altitude intersects the base (or its extension) is called the foot of the altitude. Orthocenter: An altitude of a triangle is a straight line through a vertex and perpendicular to (i. More is true: if the circumcenter is located inside the triangle. The three altitudes intersect in a single point. Points.e. if the circumcenter is located outside the triangle. The length of the altitude is the distance between the base and the vertex. The three perpendicular bisectors meet in a single point. and the longer side is equal to the length of the shorter side times √3. the hypotenuse is twice the length of the shorter side.

i. the center of thetriangle's incircle. The orthocenter lies inside the triangle if and only if the triangle is acute. the distance between a vertex and the centroid is twice the distance between the centroid and the midpoint of the opposite side. . and divides the triangle into two equal areas. The three medians intersect in a single point. Median: A median of a triangle is a straight line through a vertex and the midpoint of the opposite side. The incircle is the circle which lies inside the triangle and touches all three sides. The centroid of a stiff triangular object (cut out of a thin sheet of uniform density) is also its center of gravity: the object can be balanced on its centroid.e. There are three other important circles.the orthocenter of the triangle. Incircle: An angle bisector of a triangle is a straight line through a vertex which cuts the corresponding angle in half. the excircles. thetriangle's centroid. The three angle bisectors intersect in a single point. they lie outside the triangle and touch one side as well as the extensions of the other two. the incenter. The centroid cuts every median in the ratio 2:1.

A chord is any line segment whose endpoints are any two points on the circle. The diameter is a line segment that connects two points on the circle and goes through the center of the circle. and a segment is a region bounded by a chord and an arc lying between the chord's endpoints. A sector is a region bounded by two radii and an arc lying between the radii. . A tangent is always perpendicular to a radius or diameter which touches the circumference in the same place. The Tangent is a line which touches the circumference at only one point. The circumference of a circle is the distance around the circle. An arc of a circle is any connected part of the circle's circumference. The common distance of the points of a circle from its center is called itsradius. A secant is an extended chord: a straight line cutting the circle at two points. It is always twice as long as the radius.Circles Definitions A circle is a simple shape consisting of those points in a plane which are the same distance from a given point called the centre.

Thought of as a great circle of the unit sphere. All circles are similar. . The circle centered at the origin with radius 1 is called the unit circle.1416) for all circles. it becomes the Riemannian circle. not all on the same line. A circle's circumference and radius are proportional. Thus the length of the circumference (c) is related to the radius (r) by c = 2πr or c = πd Area of circle = πr2 =πd2/4 Length of an Arc = circumference x angle of arc/360 Sector Area = Area of circle x angle of sector / 360 Properties Circle properties          The circle is the shape with the largest area for a given length of perimeter. Through any three points. The area enclosed and the square of its radius are proportional. The circle is a highly symmetric shape: every line through the center forms a line of reflection symmetry and it has rotational symmetry around the center for every angle.Formulae The ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter is π (pi). The constants of proportionality are 2π and π. there lies a unique circle. a constant that takes the same value (approximately 3. respectively.

)  If two secants. then the measurement of angle A is equal to one half the difference of the measurements of the enclosed arcs (DE and BC).  If two secants are inscribed in the circle as shown at right. then the central angle is twice the inscribed angle. The line segment (circular segment) through the center bisecting a chord is perpendicular to the chord. For a cyclic quadrilateral. CD and EB. (Tangent chord property)  If the angle subtended by the chord at the center is 90 degrees then l = √2 × r. The diameter is the longest chord of the circle. intersect at A. If a central angle and an inscribed angle of a circle are subtended by the same chord and on the same side of the chord. then they are equal. An inscribed angle subtended by a diameter is a right angle. DG and DE.  A line drawn perpendicular to a tangent through the point of contact with a circle passes through the center of the circle. Theorems  The chord theorem states that if two chords.   . If two angles are inscribed on the same chord and on the same side of the chord. where l is the length of the chord and r is the radius of the circle. then they are supplemental.  If a tangent from an external point D meets the circle at C and a secant from the external point D meets the circle at G and E respectively. then DH×DG = DF×DE. (Corollary of the tangent-secant theorem. the exterior angle is equal to the interior opposite angle. and these tangents are equal in length. This is the secantsecant theorem. A perpendicular line from the center of a circle bisects the chord. The perpendicular bisector of a chord passes through the center of a circle.Chord properties           Chords are equidistant from the center of a circle if and only if they are equal in length.  Two tangents can always be drawn to a circle from any point outside the circle. also cut the circle at H and F respectively. then CA×DA = EA×BA.)  The angle between a tangent and chord is equal to the subtended angle on the opposite side of the chord. (Tangent-secant theorem. Tangent properties The line drawn perpendicular to a radius through the end point of the radius is a tangent to the circle. then DC2 = DG×DE. If two angles are inscribed on the same chord and on opposite sides of the chord.

and one of the two sides adjacent to angle A.Trigonometry Trigonometry is a branch of mathematics that deals with triangles. defined as the ratio of the adjacent leg to the hypotenuse. These ratios are given by the following trigonometric functions of the known angle A. defined as the ratio of the side opposite the angle to the hypotenuse. Trigonometry deals with relationships between the sides and the angles of triangles and with the trigonometric functions. The adjacent leg is the other side that is adjacent to . which describe those relationships. The shape of a right triangle is completely determined. sin A = a/c The cosine function (cos). the third is thereby fixed. because the three angles of any triangle add up to 180 degrees. where a. the ratios of the various sides are always the same regardless of the overall size of the triangle. tan A = a/b = sin A/cos A The hypotenuse is the side opposite to the 90 degree angle in a right triangle. up to similarity. Trigonometry Basics If one angle of a triangle is 90 degrees and one of the other angles is known. by the angles. cos A = b/c The tangent function (tan). This means that once one of the other angles is known. The two acute angles therefore add up to 90 degrees: they are complementary angles. defined as the ratio of the opposite leg to the adjacent leg. it is the longest side of the triangle. b and c refer to the lengths of the sides in the accompanying figure: The sine function (sin).

The reciprocals of these functions are named the cosecant (csc or cosec). and arctangent. Law of Sines The law of sines for an arbitrary triangle states: a/sin A = b/sin B = c/sin C = 2R. respectively.2ab cos C or Cos C = a2 + b2 . secant (sec) and cotangent (cot). the area of the triangle becomes: Area = 1/2abSin C Law of Cosines The law of cosines ( known as the cosine formula. b and c are the lengths of sides of the triangle opposite the respective angles. B and C are the angles of a triangle and a. respectively. or the "cos rule") is an extension of the Pythagorean theorem to arbitrary triangles: c2 = a2 + b2 . Trigonometric Formulae In the following formulae A. The inverse functions are called the arcsine. The opposite side is the side that is opposite to angle A. The termsperpendicular and base are sometimes used for the opposite and adjacent sides respectively.angle A.c2/(2ab) Law of tangents The law of tangents is (a-b)/(a+b) = tan[(A-B)/2]/tan[(A+B)/2] . arccosine. where R is the radius of the circumcircle of the triangle: R = abc/sqrt((a+b+c)(a-b+c)(a+b-c)(b+c-a)) If We know two sides and the angle between the sides.

Mensuration Mensuration Basics Space Figure A space figure or three-dimensional figure is a figure that has depth in addition to width and height. and a redwood tree are all examples of space figures. Everyday objects such as a tennis ball. a box. Solids Solids are three-dimenisonal objects. cylinder. also known as a rectangular parallelepiped. The cuboid is also a right prism. they are called its faces. a sphere. A space figure having all flat faces is called a polyhedron." . For any regular solid with plane surfaces: Number of faces + Number of vertices = Number of edges + 2 This formula is called Euler’s formula. cylinders. Volume Volume of solid figure is the amount of space enclosed by its bounding surfaces. bound by one or more surfaces. Weight of a solid = Volume x Density 1 cubic meter = 10 x 10 x 10 cubic cm = 1000 cubic cm Rectangular Parallelepiped or Cuboid A closed box composed of three pairs of rectangular faces placed opposite each other and joined at right angles to each other. prisms. and cone are not. Volume is measured in cubic units. spheres. When plane surfaces bound a solid. The lines of intersection of adjacent faces are called edges of the solid. Some common simple space figures include cubes. A cube and a pyramid are both polyhedrons. and pyramids. a bicycle. a special case of the parallelepiped. cones. and corresponds to what in everyday parlance is known as a (rectangular) "box.

Let the lengths of the sides be denoted a. and multiplying it by 6: 6 × l2 A = 6l2 Prism A prism is a solid figure with a uniform cross section. The volume of a cuboid is given by V = a b c and the total surface area is S = s(ab + bc + ca) The lengths of the face diagonals are dab =√(a2 + b2) dac =√(a2 + c2) dbc =√(b2 + c2) and the length of the space diagonal is dabc =√(a2 + b2 + c2) Cube A cube is a special case of a parallelepiped in which length. Here are some examples of prisms: .e. and a cuboid with integer edge lengths a > b > c and face diagonals is called an Euler brick. it is bound by six square faces. and c. If the length of one edge is l. breadth and height are equal i. A cuboid with all sides equal (a = b = c) is called a cube. It has 6 equal-area faces and 12 equal-length edges. the volume (V) of the cube is given by: V = l3 Its surface area (A) is calculated by finding the area of one square: l × l = l2 . the cuboid is called a perfect cuboid. If the space diagonal is also an integer. b.

Rectangular based prism: Prism A prism is a solid figure with a uniform cross section. Here are some examples of prisms: Rectangular based prism: Circular based prism: (Cylinder) Triangular based prism: .

Because the floor and the roof of a prism have the same shape. roof and walls. height 'h'. volume = ∏r2h curved surface area = 2∏rh Total surface area of a cylinder = 2∏r x (r + h) 2 Volume of cylindrical shell = ∏h(R r2) Where R is the outer radius and r is the inner radious. of area of = base: base: 2∏R² and × width prism 'W' W 2(L+W) shape: radius + prism 'R' ∏R² 2∏R 2∏RH Triangular based prism Base shape: Triangle: base 'b'. the surface area can always be found as follows: Surface area of prism = 2 x area of base + perimeter of base x H Rectangular based Base shape: Rectangle. length 'L' Area of base: L Perimeter of base: Surface area = 2LW + 2(L+W)H Circular Base Area Perimeter Surface based Circle. and sides S1.The surface area of any prism equals the sum of the areas of its faces. which include the floor. . The perpendicular distance between these parallel faces is the height of the cylinder. S2 and S3 Area of base: ½b×h Perimeter of base: S1+ S2 + S3 Surface area = bh + (S1+ S2 + S3)H Right Circular Cylinder The base and upper face of a right circular cylinder are equal circular regions lying in parallel planes.

) The length of any line segment connecting the vertex to the directrix is called the slant height of the cone. More commonly. The perpendicular distance from the vertex to the plane of the base is the height of the cone. it is called an oblique circular cone.Right Circular Cone A cone is a surface generated by a family of all lines through a given point (the vertex) and passing through a curve in a plane (the directrix). (If the axis of a circular cone is not perpendicular to the base. In a right circular cone. The region of the plane enclosed by the directrix is called a base of the cone. Area of Base: B Height: h Radius of base: r . a cone includes the solid enclosed by a cone and the plane of the directrix. the axis is perpendicular to the base.

Slant Lateral Total B s V= ∏r h/3 2 height: surface surface Volume: = = area: area: = = S T s S T V ∏r2 2 √(r +h2) ∏rs ∏r(r+s) Frustum of a cone The part of a right circular cone between the base and a plane parallel to the base whose distance from the base is less than the height of the cone. area: area: h R s S T V √([R-r]2+h2) ∏(r+R)s ∏(r[r+s]+R[R+s]) Sphere Volume V Surface S = 4∏r2 = = = 4/3∏r3 4/3∏r3 4∏r2 . Height: Radius Slant Lateral Total Volume: s S T V= of surface surface = ∏(R2+rR+r2)h/3 = = bases: height: r.

for example the ratio 2:3. The plane surface of a hemisphere is a circular region.Hemisphere A sphere cut by a plane passing through its center forms two hemispheres. This means that the weight of cement used is four times the weight of water used. Curved surface area of a hemisphere = 2∏r2 2 Total surface area of a hemisphere = 2∏r + ∏r2 = 3∏r2 Volume of a hemisphere = 2/3∏r2 Spherical shell If R and r are the outer and inner radius of a hollow sphere. The quantities separated by colons are sometimes called terms. A common example of the latter case is the weight ratio of water to cement used in concrete. Ratios are represented mathematically by separating each quantity with a colon.r3 Ratio and Proportion Tutorial Ratio A ratio is an expression that compares quantities relative to each other. or may simply refer to amounts of particular objects. The quantities being compared in a ratio might be physical quantities such as speed or temperature. but any number of quantities can be compared. It does not say anything about the total amounts of cement and water used. nor the amount of concrete being made. Volume of the material in the spherical shell = 4/3∏R3. which is read as the ratio "two to three". which is commonly stated as 1:4. then. The most common examples involve two quantities. .

this is often expressed as "for every two parts of the first quantity there are three parts of the second quantity".g. If the ratio deals with objects or amounts of objects. or 60% of the whole are oranges. or 40% of the whole are apples and 3/5. for example two apples and three oranges in a fruit basket containing no other types of fruit. made up of two parts apples and three parts oranges. Invertendo . Proportions are sometimes expressed as percentages.e. i) Compounded ratios are formed if two or more ratios are multiplied term wise. If a:b and c:d a:b>c:d < c:d are if if two ad ratio < then ad>bc bc a:b a:b=c:d if ad=bc 3. 8 : 15 ii) Duplicate ratio of a : b is a^2: b^2 iii) Triplicate ratio of a : b is a^3 : b^3 5. 2:3 x 4:5 becomes 2x4 : 3x5 i. ratio of 10 and 12 = 10/12 = 5/6 therefore they are commensurable 2. Ration & Proportion Properties 1. it could be said that "the whole" contains five parts. A ratio a:b is of i) greater inequality if a > b ii) lesser inequality if a < b iii) equality if a = b 4. e. e. 2/5. Proportion If the two or more ratio quantities encompass all of the quantities in a particular situation.g. This comparison of a specific quantity to "the whole" is sometimes called a proportion. Two quantities are said to be commensurable if their ratio can be expressed as the ratio of two integers.A ratio of 2:3 means that the amount of the first quantity is 2/3 (two thirds) of the amount of the second quantity. In this case.

For 300.09x + 0. the total amount of alcohol is is 5 is . 2. the first containing 9 percent alcohol and the second containing 12 percent alcohol. it 35*(62/100) (because the total amount of the mixture is 35 = 30 + liters). Componendo and dividendo If a:b = c:d then a+b:a-b::c+d:c-d Examples 1.12(100-x) = 10 gallons -0. Suppose 30 liters of a solution with an unknown percentage of alcohol is mixed with 5 liters of a 90% alcohol solution. In the first one.6667 gallons So we use 66+(2/3) gallons type (1) and 33+(1/3) gallons type (2) per 100 gallons of mixture. In the second one. it 30*(x/100) liters. b/a = d/c or b:a = d:c 6.000 and 100.03x and so x = 66. A petroleum distributor has two gasohol storage tanks. In the last one. When the first two solutions are mixed. Then 0.03x + 12 = 10 2 = 0. Alternendo If a/b = c/d.If a:b=c:d a:b=c:d i. If the resulting mixture is a 62% alcohol solution. we multiply up by 3000 to get 200. a/b = c/d then b:a = d:c Dividing 1 by each of these ratios. Dividendo If a:b = c:d then (a-b):b = (c-d):d 9. what is the percentage of alcohol in the first solution? Think of the amount of alcohol in each solution.000 gallons.000 of type (1) and type (2) respectively. it is 5*(90/100). How can they mix alcohol from the two tanks to fill this order? Let x = volume of type(1) 100-x = volume of type(2) in 100 gallons of mixture. 1/(a/b) = 1/(c/d) i.e.e.000 gallons of 10 percent alcohol. They receive an order for 300. multiplying both sides by b/c we get a/b x b/c = c/d x b/c a/c = b/d or a:c = b:d 7. Componendo If a:b = c:d then (a+b):b = (c+d):d 8.

Now the ratio of paint to thinner is 49 :15. four circles of radius 5cm each are cut out. if its thickness remains constant. The ratio of sum of squares of first n natural numbers with square of sum of first n natural numbers is 17: 325. if the diameter remains constant. What is the full capacity of the can? 6. Once. the value of n is 7. we may transpose the terms and leave the unknown on one side of the equation. In a locality. There are other methods to solve a quadratic equation. What is the ratio of the uncut to the cut portion? 2. and one-tenth have both. Find the original price of the diamond. they are in the ratio 1 : 3. Two liquids A and B are in the ratio 5 : 1 in container 1 and in container 2. two-thirds of the people have cable-TV. From a circular sheet of paper with a radius of 20 cm. by factorization. When the pieces were sold.the sum of the amounts in the two ingredients. A can is full of paint. Furthermore. this diamond broke into four pieces with weights in the ratio 1 : 2 : 3 : 4. the merchant got Rs. 4. When we solve a linear equation.g. Assignments Discuss and post solution 1. what is the fraction of people having either cable TV or VCR? 5. one-fifth have VCR. Out of this 5 litres are removed and thinning liquid substituted. this is often not the case for a quadratic equation. for a . and it varies as the thickness. The process is repeated. where a is not equal to 0. The cost of a diamond varies directly as the square of its weight.000 less. The value of each of a set of silver coins varies as the square of its diameter. In what ratio should the contents of the two containers be mixed so as to obtain a mixture of A and B in the ratio 1 : 1? 3. so you get an equation: 30*(x/100) + 5*(90/100) = 35*(62/100). However. e. by completing the square and by the quadratic formula. 70. If the diameters of two coins are in the ratio 4 : 3 what should the ratio of their thickness be if the value of the first is 4 times that of the second? Quadratic Equations Tutorial A quadratic equation in one unknown is an equation of the form ax2 + bx + c =0.

then x = -p. 3.linear equation in the form of mx + n =0. there is always a solution x = -n/m . where m is not 0. a quadratic equation may have two real roots. Solving quadratic equations There are several methods to solve a quadratic equation. equation has no real roots. Some quadratic expressions can be factorized and then the equation is easy to solve. If q < 0. the roots of the equation is given by Examples Example 1: . 1. The result x = -p +(-)q still holds but the roots will be complex. The method of completing the square is to change the equation from the form ax2 + bx + c =0 to (x+p)2 = q. If q = 0. This can be done by dividing the whole equation by a and then we have x2 + b/a x = -c/a x2 + 2. On the contrary.b/a x + (b/2a)2= -c/a + (b/2a)2 (x + b/2a)2 = -c/a + (b/2a)2 and thus p = b/2a and q = -c/a + (b/2a)2 .1/2. Method of completing square. which gives x =-q/p or x = -s/r respectively. which is a real number. If pq = 0. If q > 0 then x + p = +(-)q or x = -p +(-)q. 2. If ax2 + bx + c =0 and a is not equal to 0. then we have px + q = 0 or rx + s = 0. If quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c =0 can be factorized into (px+q)(rx+s) =0. one double root or no real roots. then p=0 or q=0.

A quadratic with integral coefficients has two distinct positive integers as roots.3) x . 2. the sum of its coefficients is prime and it takes the value -55 for some integer. for what value of A will the sum of the squares of the roots be zero? 2.Let A and B be the roots of a quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c =0 with a not equal to 0 then A + B = .(A . 3.(A .b/a and AB = c/a For a quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c =0 with a not equal to 0. The sum of the roots is 3. How many real r are there such that the roots of x2 + rx + 6r = 0 are both integers? . the discriminant D = b2 . Assignment Discuss and post solutions 1. If D > 0. the equation has no real root. Given the quadratic equation x2 . the equation has two distinct real roots. if D = 0. if D < 0. it has two distinct unreal roots.2) = 0. 1. the equation has one double real root.ac.

3x + y = 7 is a linear equation in two variables. since it can be rewritten as 2x . For lines L 1 and L2 with slopes m1 and m2. The slope of a line.3y = -1 ). If a = b then ac = bc.Linear Equations A linear equation is an equation whose graph is a straight line. the formula for calculating the slope of L is: m = (y2 . x1/2 etc. respectively. Two lines are perpendicular. where A. 1. The distance between two parallel lines is always the same for every point along the lines. The standard form of this type of equation is Ax + By = C. an equation that involves 2 variables. y = 2x + 1/3 is also an example. For example. is defined as the ratio of change in values of y to change in value of x. if their slopes are negative reciprocals of each other. For any two points (x1 .y = -1/3 ( or equivalently 6x . represented by the variable m. 2. meaning their angle of intersection is 90°.y2) on a line L. (x2 . All operations. These equations can be solved very easily by performing algebraic operations to the equation to isolate x. The slope is also known as rise over run. m1m2 = -1 . 3x + 4 = 5 is an example of a linear equation. If a = b then a+c = b+c.x1) Two lines are parallel if they have equal slopes. x3. such as addition or multiplication. 3. Linear equation in one variable properties. A linear equation in two variables is. Parallel lines never cross each other.y1)/(x2 . Each term has a degree of at most 1. There are no terms involving x2. as the name suggests. A linear equation is any equation that can be written in the form ax + b = 0. Linear equations in two variables can also be expressed in the slopeintercept form y = mx + b. involve only x and numerical constants. If a=b then a/b = b/c.y1). A linear equation in one variable is an equation that simlpy involves x. 2(x+1) = 6(x-4) is also a linear equation. 4. If a = b then a -c = b-c.B and C are real numbers.

1/2. equation has no real roots. The result x = -p +(-)q still holds but the roots will be complex. 3. 2. If q = 0. If q < 0. If ax2 + bx + c =0 and a is not equal to 0. The method of completing the square is to change the equation from the form ax2 + bx + c =0 to (x+p)2 = q. which gives x =-q/p or x = -s/r respectively.b/a x + (b/2a)2= -c/a + (b/2a)2 (x + b/2a)2 = -c/a + (b/2a)2 and thus p = b/2a and q = -c/a + (b/2a)2 . the roots of the equation is given by Examples Example 1: . If q > 0 then x + p = +(-)q or x = -p +(-)q.If quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c =0 can be factorized into (px+q)(rx+s) =0. This can be done by dividing the whole equation by a and then we have x2 + b/a x = -c/a x2 + 2. then we have px + q = 0 or rx + s = 0. then x = -p. Method of completing square.

11. if D < 0. the equation has two distinct real roots.. the discriminant D = b2 . the equation has no real root. 1.3) x . for what value of A will the sum of the squares of the roots be zero? 2. is an arithmetic progression with common difference 2. 7.. 2. Arithmetic a1 + an = Formulae an = for a2 + the 1/2 n-th progression an-1 = x term . the sum of its coefficients is prime and it takes the value -55 for some integer. then the n-th term of the sequence is . if D = 0. the sequence 3.b/a and AB = c/a For a quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c =0 with a not equal to 0.. it has two distinct unreal roots. For example. 5. The sum of the roots is 3.(A . the equation has one double real root. can be (an-1 + = property: ak+an-k+1 defined an+1) as: If the initial term of an arithmetic progression is a1 and the common difference of successive members is d. Given the quadratic equation x2 .2) = 0. A quadratic with integral coefficients has two distinct positive integers as roots..(A . 3.ac. How many real r are there such that the roots of x2 + rx + 6r = 0 are both integers? Progressions Arithmetic Progression An arithmetic progression is a sequence of numbers such that the difference of any two successive members of the sequence is a constant. If D > 0. Assignment Discuss and post solutions 1. 9..Let A and B be the roots of a quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c =0 with a not equal to 0 then A + B = .

7 and 9 when d = 2 and 9.q an = a1. 31. Geometric Progression d 21 21 7 45 45 4 +2 -2. 11. aq2. where a1 is the first term and an the last. A geometric progression is a sequence of numbers such that the quotient of any two successive members of the sequence is a constant called the common ratio of the sequence. Solution: Let the numbers are be a d. by . n = 1. . or S = 1/2(2a1 + d(n-1))n Example 1: Find the sum of the first 10 numbers from this arithmetic progression 1..92 = 460 Example 2: The sum of the three numbers in A.. Find the numbers. Formulae for the n-th term can be defined as: an = an-1. q3. 1 Solution: we can use this formula S = /2(2a1 + d(n-1))n S = 1/2(2. a. q is the common ratio and a is a scale factor.1 + 10(10-1))10 = 5(2 + 90) = 5. where q ≠ 0.P is 21 and the product of their extremes is 45.qn-1 The common ratio then is: .. 21. 7 and 5 when d = In both the cases numbers are the same.given an = a1 + (n - 1)d. a geometric sequence can be written as: aq0=a.. the numbers are 5. aq1=aq. a + Then a d + a + a + d = 3a = a = and (a d)(a + d) = a2 d2 = d2 = d = Hence.. 2.. The sum S of the first n values of a finite sequence is given by the formula: S = 1/2(a1 + an)n.

there will be exponential growth towards infinity (positive and negative). the results will remain at zero Geometric Progression Properties a2k = ak-1. the results will alternate between positive and negative.an-k+1 Formula for the sum of the first n numbers of geometric progression Sn = a1 .q Infinite geometric series where |q| < 1 If |q| < 1 then an -> 0.... Zero. when n -> ∞ So the sum S of such a infinite geometric progression is: 1 S= 1-x which is valid only for |x| < 1 . 2.an = a2. 4. If the common ratio is:      Negative.an-1 =.= ak. 1 . -5. 8.q = a1. 16.. Less than -1. -5.qn 1 . there will be exponential growth towards infinity (positive). -5. Between 1 and -1...anq 1 .ak q= ak-1 A sequence with a common ratio of 2 and a scale factor of 1 is 1. 5. A sequence with a common ratio of -1 and a scale factor of 3 is 5. 5. there will be exponential decay towards zero.ak+1 a1. Greater than 1. 32..

1/(a+2d).P. (a+b). the numbers 1/a. 1 (x+y)n = n n n-r r y r=0∑ Crx therefore Replacing ‗x‘ by ‗1‘ and ‗y‘ by ‗x‘.. . 1/(a+(n+1)d) are in H. sum of the indices of ‗x‘ and ‗y‘ is equal to ‗n‘.P.P. The binomial theorem assists us in doing this. we have : (1+x)n = nCoxo+nC1x+nC2x2+---------+nCrxr+------+nCn-1xn-1+nCnxn. 1/19 are in H. In each term. Binomial Theorem: When a binomial expression is raised to a power ‗n‘ we would like to be able to expand it.. 19 are in A. 1/4. .g. e. e.Harmonic Progressions A sequence of numbers is said to form a harmonic progression if their reciprocals form an arithmetic progression. 14. Note: i) The series formed by the reciprocals of the terms of a geometric series is also a geometric series. Properties (i) (ii) of There are Binomial (n+1) – terms Expansion in the (x+y)n : expansion. since 4. ( P / x2) – (Q / x4) etc. 1/(a+d).. 1/14. Binomial Theorem for positive integral index: (x+y)n = xn + nC1xn-1y+nC2xn-2y2+-----+nCrxn-ryr+ -------+---------+nCn-1xyn+ ncnyn. Binomial Theorem An algebraic expression consisting of two terms with a positive or negative sign between them is called abinomial expression. ii) There is no general method of finding the sum of a harmonic progression. 1/9.g. It converts such an expression into a series.9. In general.

Inequalities .(iii) the (iv) In any term. Because so we have n Cr = nCn-r. the lower suffix of ‗c‘ is equal to the index of ‗y‘. (2) The sum of the coefficients of the odd-terms in (1+x)n is equal to the sum of coefficients of the even terms and each is equal to 2n-1. in and by called general denoted So = n Cn/2 If ‗n‘ is odd. General Terms (x+y)n is it is Tr+1 = nCrxn-ryr Greatest Coefficient : In any binomial expansion middle-term has the greatest. : n n n Co = nCn C1=nCn-1 C2=nCn-2 etc. It follows that the coefficients of terms equidistant from the beginning and the ends are equal. and index of x = n-(lower suffix of c). Coefficient. (i) (ii) If ‗n‘ is even. then greatest – coefficients are nC(n+1)/ 2 and of Binomial coefficients C(n-1)/2 : Properties (1) The sum of binomial coefficient in (1 + x)n is 2n. then greatest – coefficient n : (r +1) th term from – beginning term.

2. 4. x a2 + ab > 1 of + p2 y inequalities + + 2z > q2 x are: 1 16 1/2 Properties of Inequalities 1. -1/2 If a b and 2 and 2 8/3 imply -1/2 Solution of Inequality By solution of the one variable inequality 2x + 3 7 we mean any number which substituted for x yields a true statement.g. 2(4) 3(4).g. e.y 5 we mean any ordered pair of numbers which when substituted for x and y.g. If a If If b -3 a a and -1 b 2 b 3 c is and 3 9 and c any real implies c number. . 1 is a solution of 2x + 3 7 since 2(1) + 3 = 5 and 5 is less than and equal to 7. >. then ac bc. iv. Solution: We have -1 < x < 4 so multiply everything by 2. yields a true statement. e. We will get . e. then -3+4 -1 is positive. implies a + then c + b + c. e.g. e. Examples Example 1: If -1 < x < 4 the determine a.g. b in a < 2x + 3 < b. then a c. (2. respectively. Example i. ac bc. c. By a solution of the two variable inequality x .g.Tutorial The term inequality is applied to any statement involving one of the symbols <. . 3(-2) 9(-2). implies b 8/3. e. 3. ii. iii.y 5 because 2-1 = 1 and 1 5. is negative. 4. 1) is a solution of x .

From four positive real nos a. ab + bc + ca = 9. given a. then which one of the following is necessarily true? a) a − xb <= 0 b) a − xb > 0 c) a − xb < 0 d) a − xb >= 0 2. b. c and d. ab. bc. viz. The number of permutations of r things our of n things is denoted by npr. Let x be a real number such that 1 − 1/n < x <= 3 + 1/n is true for all natural numbers n. ac and ca. abc. Formulae: 1. Which among the following best describes x? (a) 1 < x < 3 (b) 1 <= x <= 3 (c) 0 < x < 4 (d) 1 < x <= 3 (e) 0 < x <= 4 4. If a. 5. b. Therefore a = 1. FInd the min value of S1S2S3S4. b. cab and cba.. then which among the following is definitely true? (a) 0 < a < 1 (b) 1 < b < 3 (c) 3 < c < 4 (d) All of them (e) none of them 3. The number of ways in which 2 objects can be taken and arranged out of 3 objects a. S2. b. so 1 < 2x + 3< 11. If |b| > 1 and x = |a|b. Thus the number of permutations of three objects. and c. cb.... and b = 11. a. acb.-2 < 2x < 8 Now add 3 to everything. ba. viz. c are positive real nos. S3 and S4. IF abcd = 5.e. Permutation and Combinations Permutations: The ways in which a number of given objects can be arranged by taking all of them or a specified number of objects out of them are called PERMUTATIONS. n! = n(n-1)(n-2).(1) . Assignment Discuss and post solution 1. 4 distinct combination of sum of three numbers are formed S1. bac. bcd. c are real numbers such that a < b < c and a + b + c = 6. If a2b3c = 256/27 find min value of a + b + c. taking all of them at a time is 6 i. b and c is 6.

then total number of circular permutation = nPr/2r . then total number of circular-permutations = nPr /r (b) If clock-wise and anti-clockwise orders are taken as not different. then total number of circular-permutations is given by (n-1)! (b) If clock-wise and anti-clock-wise orders are taken as not different. nCr + nCr-1 = (n+1) Cr 4. bc. The number of ways in which n objects can be arranged in a circle is (n1)! Combinations: The ways in which a specified number of objects can be taken out of a given number of objects (without regard to their arrangements) are called Combinations. nCr = nCn-r 3. viz. Thus.... nCr = nPr/r! 2. (a) If clockwise and anti clock-wise orders are different.. npr = n!/(n-r)! Example: 10 P4 = 10 x 9 x 8 x 7 = 5040 3. ca. Formulae: 1. nC0 + nC1 + nC2 + nC3 + .. then total number of circular-permutations is given by (n-1)!/2! Number of circular-permutations of n different things taken r at a time:(a) If clock-wise and anti-clockwise orders are taken as different. The symbol nCr denotes the number of combinations or r things out of n things. for example the number of combinations of 2 objects out of three given objects a.nCn = 2n Circular Permutations There are two types of circular permutations. b and c is 3. ab.2.

Therefore. Case 2: When the two letters are same. The second and third positions can either have two different letters or have both the letters to be the same. 3 ways. there are 2 Ns. the total number of rearrangements in which the vowels appear together are (4! x 3!)/2! Example 2: How many different four letter words can be formed (the words need not be meaningful) using the letters of the word "MEDITERRANEAN" such that the first letter is E and the last letter is R? Solution: The first letter is E and the last one is R. Of the 11 letters. Total number of posssibilities = 56 + 3 = 59. 2Es and 2As and one each of the remaining 5 letters. These 4 elements can be rearranged in 4! Ways. Case 1: When the two letters are different. If the 3 vowels have to appear together. This can be done in 8 * 7 = 56 ways. The 3 vowels can rearrange amongst themselves in 3!/2! ways as "a" appears twice.the three can be either Ns or Es or As. One has to choose two different letters from the 8 available different choices. Hence. There are 3 options .Examples Example 1: In how many ways can the letters of the word ABACUS be rearranged such that the vowels always appear together? Solution: ABACUS is a 6 letter word with 3 of the letters being vowels. one has to find two more letters from the remaining 11 letters. Therefore. . then there will 3 other consonants and a set of 3 vowels together.

S knows everyone except A.e. and 20. ……. A10 can be ranked so that A1 is always above A2 is ? 4.There are n people in the party. A2. A teacher decides to reassign the seats such that each student will occupy a chair adjacent to his/her present one (i. four boys and five girls. if there have to be exactly three girls in the invitees? 2.Only S is not known to A.If only 2 friends can dance at a time. move one desk forward. What is the largest number of pencils that a wholesaler cannot purchase using some combination of these boxes? 3. 9. The number of ways in which 10 candidates A1. In how many ways can this reassignment be done? . right or left). third and forth coins also can be put in 3 ways. In how many ways can he put the coins in his pocket? Solution: First coin can be put in 3 ways. backward. A man has nine friends.how many dance numbers will be there at the party? 5. In a classroom there are 14 students seated in 3 rows of 5 chairs.Each pair that does not include A or S has exactly 2 common friends. The boxes are sealed and the pencils cannot be sold loose. similarly second. A company manufactures pencils in boxes of 6. The place at the centre of the room is unoccupied.Example 3: How many different signals can be made by 5 flags from 8-flags of different colours? Solution: = = 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 = 6720 Example 4: A child has 3 pocket and 4 coins.Also. A hosted a party and invited all her friends and asked them to invite their friends. In how many ways can he invite them. 4 So total number of ways = 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 = 3 = 81 Number of ways taking 5 flags out of 8-flags = 8P5 8!/(8-5)! Assignment Discuss and post solution 1.

Output values are also called functional values. the first 2 digits are equal and last 2 digits are also equal. Note that you can use any letter to represent a function name. you simply replace x with that given value and simplify. that means that the functional value never changes. named x. if we are looking for f(0). In how many ways can 107 x be given in this currency? Functions A relation is a set of ordered pairs where the first components of the ordered pairs are the input values and the second components are the output values. When you need to evaluate the function for a given value of x. A function is a relation that assigns to each input number EXACTLY ONE output number. These are called your dependent variables. If the function is constant. f x is your input variable. The domain is the set of all input values to which the rule applies. Suppose u have a currency. f is a very common one used. in 3 denominations. For example. 10 and 50. Function Notation f(x) read "f of x" is the function name. The range is the set of all output values. Consider a 4 digit number. 1. How many of such digits are perfect square? 7. These are the values that correspond to the first components of the ordered pairs it is associated with. it is always equal to that constant. . we would plug in 0 as the value of x in our function f. Think of functional notation as a fancy assignment statement. These are the values that correspond to the second components of the ordered pairs it is associated with.6. These are called your independent variables.

S. M(D(S(a. y) = x + y S(x.3!+--------+n. x)) for x = 2. where c is a constant. S(y. and they are defined as follows: A(x. b). y) = xy D(x. where y in not equal 0.n! ? 4. if k is a natural number such that f(f(f(f(k)))) = 1 and k > f(f(k)). b). b). What is the value of 1. y) = x y M(x. y = 3 ? 2. y) = x/y. for all natural numbers. Let g(x) be a function such that g(x + 1) + g(x − 1) = g(x) for every real x.2!+3. 2).2))) ? 3. 1. What is the value of M(M(A(M(x.x)). as the sum of the digits of n. A function y = f(n) is defined. b). Assignment Discuss and post solution DIRECTIONS for Questions 1 and 2: Answer the questions based on the following information:A.f (f(f(k))) > 1 what is the least number of digits that k can have? 6. What is the value of S(M(D(A(a.2)). 2). D(S(a. D(A(a.1!+2. for a natural number m. as the sum of the digits of n. y). what is the value of f(f(m − f(m)))? Probability .f(x) = c. M and D are functions of x and y. x). Then for what value of p is the relation g(x + p) = g(x) necessarily true for every real x? 5. A function y = f(n) is defined. for all natural numbers. A(y.

5.5. An event.4.6 form an exhaustive set of events. surveying a group of people on their favorite soft drink. If there is a finite number of sample points. Equally likely events: Events are said to be equally likely. So it is a random experiment.2.2.. the sample space would be S = {1. all the six faces {1.An experiment is an act for which the outcome is uncertain. e.4. if we have no reason to believe that one is more likely to occur than the other. If a coin is tossed.. so each of {1}. the appearance of an event number will be the event E={2. Example. cases 1.5.6}. e. If our experiment is tossing a single coin.3. In throwing a dice S={1. which has more than on element is called a mixed event. tossing a coin.g.6}. 4. if it's out-come can't be predicted with certainty.3. that number is denoted n(S). Exhaustive events: When every possible out come of an experiment is considered. Probability of an Event . It is denoted by 'E'.e. consisting of a single sample point is called a simple event. Compound event: A subset of the sample space.g.{3}.{2}.g. Tails}.6} are equally likely to come up.g. A dice is thrown. When a dice is thrown.{4}.4. e. In throwing a dice. Examples of experiments are rolling a die.5} which has '3' elements.4. whether head or tail will appear. 2. etc.{5} and {6} are simple events.3. 6}.4. 3.3. An experiment is said to be a random experiment. A sample space S for an experiment is the set of all possible outcomes of the experiment such that each outcome corresponds to exactly one element in S. S={1. if our experiment is rolling a single die. In throwing a dice.2. e. and S is said to be a finite sample space. For example. we can't say. Every subset of a sample space is an event. the event of appearing of odd numbers is a compound event. The elements of S are called sample points.5. because E={1.2. our sample space would be S = {Heads. 5.g.3.6}.

6}. 6} and F is the event of rolling an odd number. Or if a scientist did research on a topic and recorded the outcome and the data from this is used to find the probability of an event tied to the research. 3. It is equally likely for a head to show up as it is for a tail. F = {1. E = {2. Equiprobable space A sample space S is called an equiprobable space if and only if all the simple events are equally likely to occur. 5}. If the data collected is used to find the probability of an event tied to the survey. Bayes' Theorem The short form of Bayes' Theorem states that if E and F are events. it would be an empirical probability. where S = {1. A toss of a fair coin. 5. E and F are mutually exclusive. 2. 4. if the sample space is rolling a die. then P(E|F)P(F) P(F|E) = ---------------------P(E|F)P(F) + P(E|F')P(F') .If 'S' be the sample space. and E is the event of rolling an even number. it would also be an empirical probability. 3.g. e. 4.g. then the probability of occurrence of an event 'E' is defined as: P(E) = n(E)/N(S) = (number of elements in 'E'/ (number of elements in sample space 'S') Empirical Probability Finding the probability of an empirical event is specifically based on direct observations or experiences. because they have NO elements in common. For example. E. a survey may have been taken by a group of people. Mutually Exclusive Events E and F are said to be mutually exclusive if and only if they have no elements in common.

8 blue and 3 yellow marbles. If a single marble is chosen at random from the jar. 0 <= P(E) <= 1 2.T} and n(s) Event 'E' = {T} and n(E) therefore P(E) = n(E)/n(S) = 1/2 = = 2 1 Example 2: A glass jar contains 6 red. P(not E) = 1 . Probabilities: P(red) = number of ways to choose red/total number of marbles = 6/22 = 3/11 P(green) = P(blue) 8/22 = number of ways to choose green/total number of marbles 5/22 number of ways to choose blue/total number of marbles = = 4/11 number of ways to choose yellow/total number of = P(yellow) = marbles = 3/22 . Solution: Sample space S = {H. 3.P(A AND B) 5. "Or" probabilities with events that are NOT mutually exclusive P (A or B) = P(A) + P(B) . 5 green. blue and yellow. "Or" probabilities with mutually exclusive events P (A or B) = P(A) + P(B) 4.Properties of Probability 1. P(E) = 1/4 then P(not E) = 3/4. what is the probability of choosing a red marble? a green marble? a blue marble? a yellow marble? Solution: Outcomes: The possible outcomes of this experiment are red. green. A and B are Independent Events if an only if P(A AND B) = P(A)P(B) Examples Example 1: Find the probability of getting a tail in tossing of a coin.P(E) So if.

what is the probability that he will hit his target? Solution: The man will hit the target even if he hits it once or twice or thrice or all four times in the four shots that he takes. Example 4: What is the probability that the position in which the consonants appear remain unchanged when the letters of the word Math are re-arranged? Solution: The total number of ways in which the word Math can be rearranged = 4! = 4*3*2*1 = 24 ways. if the positions in which the consonants appear do not change. Now. Out of two-thirds of the total number of basket-ball matches. third and fourth positions in 3! = 6 ways without the positions in which the positions in which the consonants appear changing. the first. T and H can be re-arranged in the first. the probability that he will not hit the target in all the four shots =3/4 x 3/4 x 3/4 x 3/4 = 81/256 Hence.1/4 = 3/4 Therefore. a team has won 17 matches and lost 3 of them. Therefore. What is the maximum number of matches that the team can lose and still win three-fourths of the total number of matches. if it is true that no match can end in a tie? . The consonants M. So. The probability that he will not hit the target in one shot = 1 .Example 3: A man can hit a target once in 4 shots. the required probability = 3!/4! = 6/24 = 1/4 Assignment Discuss and post solutions 1. the only case where the man will not hit the target is when he fails to hit the target even in one of the four shots that he takes. third and the fourth positions are reserved for consonants and the vowel A remains at the second position. If he fires 4 shots in succession. the probability that he will hit the target at least in one of the four shots = 1 81/256 = 175/256 .

all face cards are removed and four cards are drawn. Five balls of different colours are to be placed in three boxes of different sizes. Each entry in a set is known as an element. or even an infinite number of entries. Below you'll see just a sampling of items that could be considered as sets:      Your favorite clothes A coin collection The items in a store The English alphabet Even numbers A set could have as many entries as you would like. The number of ways in which we can place the balls in the boxes so that no box remains empty is ? 5. where each one plays every other player.2. What is the maximum number of points that any player could gather if every win gets him 1 point ? 3. How many arrangements can be made of the letters of the word DRAUGHT the vowels never being separated? 6. 4 people played a game of chess. From a pack of 52 cards. Absolutely anything can be considered a set. It could have one entry. while the set of even numbers would have an infinite number of entries. then the probability that a no. If the integers m and n are chosen at random from integers from integers 1 to 100 with replacement. 15 entries. of the form 7m + 7n is divisible by 5 equals? Set Theory A set is a collection of things. 10 entries. We'll find out more about elements in the next section. in the above list the English alphabet would have 26 entries. Then the probability that they are of different suit and different denomination is 4. On the next page you'll find out that a set could even have no entries at all! For example. Each box can hold all five balls. .

2.h.m.d.v.t..f.e.x.Sets are written using curly brackets ("{" and "}").p..11.7.2.9.5.s.i.g.y.8. For example the English alphabet could be written as {a.6} 3 and 5 they have in common are . The intersection of two (or more) sets is those elements that they have in common.5.4. So if A and B are sets then the intersection (the elements they both have in common) is denoted by A B. which in turn is contained within B.6.7.9.7.3.l.4.3. B={2.9} The elements A  B = {3.3.z} and even numbers could be {0.3.j.o.4.u.q.4.2.n. Union is designated by the If A and B are sets then A  B represents the union of A and B Example: A={1.w.. Example: A={1.13} symbol .10. with their elements listed in between.k.11.5} A  B = {1.} (Note: the dots at the end indicating that the set goes on infinitely) A union of two or more sets is another set that contains everything contained in the previous sets. which in turn is contained within A.5. Intersection is designated by the symbol .c.13} B={5.5} Subset Let A be the set of objects that you own in your home Let B be the set of objects that you own which are kept on the second floor of your home Let C be the set of objects that you own which are kept in your bedroom [Note the bedroom is own the second floor] Let D be the set of objects that you own which are kept in your bedroom nightstand Now we could say D is contained within C.b.r.

The symbol So D  C and C  B and B  A.5} and B as {3. However if even one element of one set is not contained within the other then thy are not subsets. Sales Price (SP) : It is the price at which product is sold.This D is said to (another way set C is said to (another way set B is said to (another way set is the notion of a subset.2. for subset is . be a subset of A since it is completely contained within A to think of this is every element of set D is also an element of C).3. be a subset of B since it is completely contained within B to think of this is every element of set C is also an element of A). .5. If A were defined as {1. Profit Loss and Discount Tutorial Definitions Cost Price (CP) : It is the amount spent in making the product and includes the cost of raw material. The symbol for ―not a subset‖ is .4. We would write B  A.4. Profit : If the sales price is more than cost price than the difference is realized as profit.6} then B would not be a subset of A since ―6‖  B but 6  A. be a subset of C since it is completely contained within C to think of this is every element of set D is also an element of C). Loss : If the cost price is more than the sales price than the person makes a loss.

A shopkeeper buys scientific calculators in bulk for \$15 each. Calculate the profit on each calculator in dollars.Discount: Discount is the rebate offered on the selling price or marked price of the product. He sells them for \$40 each. What was the cost price of the book.7% \$15 2. loss = 6% of cost price but. Selling price = Marked price .35. making a 6% loss. Given: cost price = \$15.35. Loss = Cost price . Profit = Sales price .Cost price 2. Profit percentage = (profit/cost price)* 100 4. A school bookshop sells an outdated biology text book for \$49. and as a percentage of the cost price. Profit on selling price = (profit/sale price) * 100 5. and what is the cash value of the loss? Given: selling price = \$49.Sales price 3. (cost price) = (selling price) + loss Expressing as percentages of the cost price: (cost price) = (selling price) + loss 100% x% + 6% .Discount Examples 1. selling price = \$40 profit = selling price cost price = \$40 \$15 = \$25 Expressing the profit as a percentage of the cost price: \$profit profit% = -----------------------× 100% \$cost price = -------× 100% = \$25 166. Formulae 1.

70 discount \$2.35 = -------= price) \$52.This means that the selling price is (100-6) = 94% of the cost price.70 \$15. Given: marked price = \$18.50 × So: loss = (cost - = = \$3. Calculate the cash value of the discount. and the cost of the tickets on Tuesdays. the tickets cost \$15.35 94 \$52.50 price) \$49. discount = 15% of marked price 15 = -------× (marked price) 100 15 = -------× \$18 100 = So: (selling price) = = (marked price) \$18 = \$2. On Tuesdays they offer a 15% discount.30 Assignment Discuss and post solution . 94 selling price = -------× (cost price) 100 So: 100 cost price = -------× (selling price) 94 100 49.30 On Tuesdays. The usual price for an adult movie ticket at Big Screen Cinemas is \$18.15 (selling - 3.

what was the total number of stamps that I bought? 2.000. 300 each. given that he is able to sell all the watches produced? Averages Arithmetic Mean Arithmetic mean is commonly called as average. If he is able to sell a watch during the season. but uses an 80 cm scale while selling the same cloth. I sold two watches for Rs. he has to sell each watch for Rs. If he offers a discount of 20 percent on cash payment.. what is the number of watches that he must sell during the season in order to break even. 4. a cloth merchant uses a 120 cm scale while buying. 250. he sells it for Rs. then he has made a profit of? 5. 100...) or the percent profit (+) that resulted from the transaction? 3. I paid the clerk Rs 20. Formula: Mean = sum of elements / = number of elements a1+a2+a3+. He also incurs an additional expenditure of Rs.+an/n . 30. If he is able to sell only 1200 out of the 1500 watches he has made in the season. If the number of stamps of each type that I had ordered initially was more than one. he gave me three more stamps of one rupee. If he produces 1500 watches. two rupees and one rupee. and since he did not have change.. If he fails to do so. Once I had been to the post-office to buy stamps of five rupees. one at a loss of 10% and the other at a profit of 10%. what is his overall percent profit? DIRECTIONS for Questions 4 and 5: Use the following information: A watch dealer incurs an expense of Rs 150 for producing every watch. which is independent of the number of watches produced. What is the percent loss (.Mean or Average is defined as the sum of all the given elements divided by the total number of elements.1. Instead of a metre scale.

The middle position can be calculated using the formula. ascending order.8 [Even] Step 1: Count the total numbers given.5. mean.7. numbers.8 Step Step 3: The total elements in the distribution (6) is even.4.5.5. in the distribution.2.7. There are 6 elements or numbers in the distribution.2. As the total is even. 1. 1. 2: Arrange the numbers in ascending order.1.2. Step 2: Calculate there Step 3: Finding 15/3 = 5 Arithmetic Median Median is the middle value of the given numbers or distribution in their ascending order. numbers given. 15 number.7.5. (n+1)/2 So the middle position is (5+1)/2 = 6/2 = 3 The number at 3rd position is = Median = 4 Example 2: To find the median of 4. Example 1: To find the median of Step 1: Count the total There are 5 elements or numbers 2: Arrange the numbers in 4.Median is the average value of the two middle elements when the size of the distribution is even.4.7. we have to take average of number at n/2 and (n/2)+1 So the position are n/2= 6/2 = 3 and 4 . numbers.5.7 Step Step 3: The total elements in the distribution (5) is odd.1 [ODD].Example: Step To find 1: Find the the mean sum of 3+5+7 the are of the = total 3 3.2.

11.5 Arithmetic Mode median. is 11 and is the Mode of this Step Range is the difference between the highest and the lowest values in a frequency distribution.11 In the Number 11 Number 3 Number 5 Number 7 So the number with most occurrances distribution.11. occurs 2 times.11 ascending order.The number at 3rd and 4th position the are 4.5.5. Example: Step To find 1: Arrange the range the numbers in in 3. 3. Mode = 11 Range 2: above distribution occurs 3 times.5.3. Mode is the most frequently occurring value in a frequency distribution.7. Example: Step To find 1:Arrange the the mode numbers of in 11.5.7.3. occurs 1 times. occurs 1 times.11 ascending order.3.7.11.11 Step In the The largest The smallest = largest number Formula Range = 11-3 = 8 2: above distribution number is 11 value is 3 smallest number .5 Step 4: Find The average is (4+5)/2 = Median = 4.3.7.3. 3.

Find her average speed for the whole journey. The relative speed is defined as Vr = V1 + V2. Rita covers a certain distance by a car traveling at a speed of 70 km/h and returns at the starting point riding on a scooter at the speed of 55 km/h. Ram starts from his house for the college at a certain fixed time. if he walks at the rate of 6 km/h he reaches the college 5 minutes earlier than the scheduled time.7/60 = x/6 + 5/60. Average Speed = (55 + 70)/2 = 62. Clock Problems and = = = km/h Speed Distance Distance = * / / 5/18 Speed Time Time Speed m/sec . If he goes by 5km/h then x/5 . However. Suppose the distance is x km. If he walks at the rate of 5 km/h he is late by 7 minutes.V2.5 km/h 2. Time 4. therefore x/30 = 1/5 so x = 6km Relative Speed Two bodies are moving in opposite directions at speed V1 & V2 respectively.The relative speed is defined as Vr = V1 .Time. 1 m/sec = 18/5 km/h Example: 1. Two bodies are moving in same directions at speed V1 & V2 respectively. Speed and Distance Tutorial Time 1. Find the distance of the college from his house. Distance 2. 1 5. Speed 3.

When travelling in opposite directions.04 secs. A 75 m long train moving at 60 km/h can pass another train 100 m long. Relative speed between hr hand and mins hand = 55 Examples 1. To completely pass each other. the trains have to cover a distance equal to the sum of the Iengths of the two trains. 60 + 65 = 125 Kmph or 125 * 1000 mtrs per 60 * 60 Secs or 625/18 mtrs/sec. . the velocity with which this distance gets covered is the sum of the two velocities. hand as a point on the track) and hour hand moves at 5km/hr and second hand at the speed of 3600 km/hr. Therefore time to cross each other = 175 = 5. Then the distance covered by bicycle is 61 -x. A man travels a distance of 61 km in 9 hours partly on foot at the rate of 4 km/h and partly on bicycle at 9 km/h. Time for which the man travels by foot = Distance/ velocity = x/4 hrs Time for which the man travels by bicycle = (61 -x) / 9 hrs x/4 9x 36 5x x = 16 km + + (61 244 = -4x 324 x)/9 = = 9 9 -244 2. How much distance does he cover on foot? Solution Let the distance covered on foot be x.For clock problems consider the clock as a circular track of 60km. Min. The total distance is covered in 9 hours. 75 + 100 = 175 mtrs. moving at 65 km/h in the opposite direction in: Solution Such problems can be solved using the formula velocity = distance/time. hand moves at the speed of 60km/hr (think min. It's necessary to make sure that similar units are used in the formula.

While the other man travelled with varying speeds as follows: In first hour his speed was 2 kmph. Then the relative speed when the boy rows upstream = y -x km/hr The relative speed when the boy rows downstream = y + x km/hr The time taken for the 13 km long upstream journey is 5 hours. in the second hour it was 2.5 kmph. therefore y + x equations = = (28 II = from 28/5 equation 28/5 -13) I. then: [1] 1/a + 1/b = 1/c [2] a + b = c [3] 1/a + 1/b = 2/c [4] None of these .5 km/hr. in the third hour it was 3 kmph. Therefore we can write this as Speed = Distance/Time y -x = 13/5 -----I The time taken for the 28 km long downstream journey is also 5 hours. A man travels three-fifths of distance AB at a speed of 3a. Distance between A and B is 72 km. If he goes from B to A and back at a speed of 5c in the same time. The person who started from A travelled uniformly with average speed 4 kmph. When will they meet each other? 2. Two men started walking from A and B at the same time towards each other. the speed of the current Assignment Discuss and post solution 1. and the remaining at a speed of 2b. ----we II obtain. and so on.3. Find the speed of the current if a boy rows 13 km upstream and 28 km downstream taking 5 hours each time. Solution Let the speed of the current be x km/hr and that of the boy when he rows in still water be y km/hr. -13/5 5 15/5 Subtracting 2x 2x 2x x / = = 3/2 = 1.

If Bhairav can given Chinmay a start of 4 metres in a 100 metres dash. He thus reaches D in 16 hours. C. how many ratio shops will be required? Number System Tutorial A number system is a set of numbers. include: natural numbers. If a ration shop is to be set up within 2 km of each city. then who out of Akshay and Chinmay will win a race of one and half mile. (in the broadest sense of the word). DIRECTIONS for Questions 6 and 7: In a locality. In a mile race Akshay can be given a start of 128 metres by Bhairav. C-D are all equal to 12 km. complex . If distances A-B. real numbers. He moves further to D at a speed twice as that between B and C. irrational numbers. the minute hand crosses the hour hand for the third time exactly after every 3 hrs 18 min 15 seconds of watch time. He then rests at B or x hours. D and E. The distances of these towns from each other are as follows: AB = 2km AC = 2 km AD > 2 km AE > 3 km BC = 2km BD = 4 km BE = 3 km CD = 2 km CE = 3km DE > 3 km 6.3. A man travels form A to B at a speed of x kmph. the time for which he rested at B could be: 4. If a ration shop is to be set up within 3 km of each city. and what will be the final lead given by the winner to the loser? (One mile is 1600 metres). In a watch. B-C. integers. together with one or more operations. Examples of number systems rational numbers. He then travels from B to C at a speed of 2x kmph and rests at C for 2x hours. there are five small towns. such as addition or multiplication. B. What is the time gained or lost by this watch in one day? 5. how many ration shops will be required? 7. A. numbers.

. The set of integers can be represented by z or I = {.4. If a number is in N. Every natural number is an integer but not every integer is natural number. . because we can always add one to get a larger one... Negative Integers The set I . The real numbers can be either rational or irrational numbers..... Non Negative Integers The set {0.= {-1..3....-4.2. there is no greatest number.2. 2.4. Whole Numbers If we include 0 among the natural numbers then the numbers 0.. We give this set the name N.1.-2. 3..} is the set of all non negative integers...3..1.. every natural number is a whole number but 0 is a whole number which is not a natural number Integers All counting numbers and their negatives including zero are known as integers.. Positive integers and natural numbers are synonyms... and 5 .....1....4.3... N can never be exhausted by removing its members one at a time.0. Natural Numbers The natural numbers start off as follows: 1.All numbers are either real or complex numbers.2....5..2..}.3..... Thus. N is an infinite set .... The ".2. Since it is infinite.-1...-3.} is the set of all negative integers 0 is neither positive nor negative.3. .5 . are called whole numbers. Positive Integers The set I + = {1...} is the set of all positive integers. The set of whole numbers can be represented by W = {0...-3.2... then its successor is also in N.} Clearly.. .." means that the list goes on forever. 4.4..1...

. . and there's only one way to do it for every number . Note that all Of the integers are rational numbers. i. 43. Negative numbers are even and odd: -9 is odd since it's one more than -10. 2/3 is also a rational number..e. 1007. Even numbers are: 2. see whether it's one more than some even number: 7 is odd since it's one more than 6. 42.. The decimal form of a rational number is either a terminating or repeating decimal. because you can think of them as the ratio of themselves to 1. .. Another way to say this is that zero is even since it can be written in the form 2*n. . on the other hand. 1/2 is a rational number. .. . 7. 5. 8. 280 = 2x2x2x5x7. . For instance. .686861.686860.5 is neither even nor odd. 10.. 313. .Even and Odd The terms even and odd only apply to integers. where n is an integer... one that cannot be written as a ratio of two integers. 4.1009. 45. . . 9. which is even. Zero.e. 6. it is not of the form a/b where a and b are integers and b is not zero. To check whether a number is odd.. 314..1010. Every positive integer can be factored into the product of prime numbers. .e Rational numbers are simply defined as ratios of integers. .. . .. . 1008.. which is even. and so 2 is a rational number.40.. . Irrational Numbers An irrational number is any real number that is not a rational number i. . 44. 311. Odd numbers are: . 312. is even since it is 2 times some integer: it's 2 times 0. . and there's only one way to factor 280 into prime numbers Rational Number A rational number is a number that can be expressed as a fraction p/q where p and q are integers and q ≠ 0 i. .. A number is said to be an even number if it is divisible by 2 or else it is an odd number. . .Odd numbers can be written in the form 2*n + 1.41. . . 2... as in 2 = 2/1 which is certainly the ratio of two integers.

c are all prime factors of number N has (m + 1)(n + 1)(p + 1)no. Every natural number greater than 1 has at least the two distinct divisors 1 and itself. . Every natural number n has one. p2. ≤ pm The numbers p1. etc) never ends and never enters a periodic pattern. pm. a prime has no others. b. Prime Factors Suppose n is a natural number. hence called a prime number or simply a prime. .It can readily be shown that the irrational numbers are precisely those numbers whose expansion in any given base (decimal. Number of Prime Factors A number N of the form am x bn x cp where a. . Then there exists a unique sequence of prime numbers p1. p3. are known as composite numbers The number 1 is neither prime number nor composite number Two . set of prime factors. . but only one. such that both of the following statements are true: p1 ≤ p2 ≤ p1 x p2 x p3 . . . binary. . x pm p3 ≤ . . This is an important principle known as the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic. Prime Numbers A natural number greater than 1 that has no divisor between 1 and itself is said to be prime. pm are called the prime factors of the natural number. . . . . p2. The square root of 2 is a classic example of an irrational number: you cannot write it as the ratio of ANY two integers. of prime factors Composite Numbers Natural numbers greater than 1 which are not prime. p3.

How many consecutive zeros would be there at the end of 626! . If a number 774958A96B is to be divisible by 8 and 9. is 4. Find the remainder when the same number is divided by 29. 3 and 5 are co primes Assignment Discuss and post solution 1. the values of A and B. What is the difference between the maximum and minimum number that can be formed? 10..+ 1000! is ? 6. The solution set (x.g. Five digit numbers are formed using only 0. 9. Find the remainder when 51138 is divided by 7. will be? 2. The highest power of 2 in 10! + 11! + 12! + 13! + . 2. 5. then p – q is always divisible by? Mensuration Mensuration Basics Space Figure . A certain number when divided by 899 leaves the remainder 63. 4 exactly once.. respectively. 1. The number of positive integers not greater than 100. what will be the remainder if x3– x + 1 is divided by 24? 7. If ‗x‘ is an odd number. If p is any three digit number and q is any number obtained with any type of permutations of the digits of p. which are not divisible by 2. 3 or 5 is ? 3.numbers which have only '1' the common factor are called co-primes (or) relatively prime to each other e.625!? 8. 3. y) for the system of equations log2 xy = 5 and log1/2 (x/y) = 1.

and a cuboid with integer edge lengths a ." Let the lengths of the sides be denoted a.A space figure or three-dimensional figure is a figure that has depth in addition to width and height. a special case of the parallelepiped. b. and corresponds to what in everyday parlance is known as a (rectangular) "box. Volume Volume of solid figure is the amount of space enclosed by its bounding surfaces. prisms. A cube and a pyramid are both polyhedrons. Weight of a solid = Volume x Density 1 cubic meter = 10 x 10 x 10 cubic cm = 1000 cubic cm Rectangular Parallelepiped or Cuboid A closed box composed of three pairs of rectangular faces placed opposite each other and joined at right angles to each other. and a redwood tree are all examples of space figures. The lines of intersection of adjacent faces are called edges of the solid. For any regular solid with plane surfaces: Number of faces + Number of vertices = Number of edges + 2 This formula is called Euler’s formula. Volume is measured in cubic units. A cuboid with all sides equal (a = b = c) is called a cube. A space figure having all flat faces is called a polyhedron. and c. and pyramids. Everyday objects such as a tennis ball. a bicycle. also known as a rectangular parallelepiped. cylinder. Solids Solids are three-dimenisonal objects. spheres. they are called its faces. a sphere. bound by one or more surfaces. a box. and cone are not. cones. Some common simple space figures include cubes. The cuboid is also a right prism. cylinders. When plane surfaces bound a solid.

it is bound by six square faces. breadth and height are equal i.e. The volume of a cuboid is given by V = a b c and the total surface area is S = s(ab + bc + ca) The lengths of the face diagonals are dab =√(a2 + b2) dac =√(a2 + c2) dbc =√(b2 + c2) and the length of the space diagonal is dabc =√(a2 + b2 + c2) Cube A cube is a special case of a parallelepiped in which length. Here are some examples of prisms: . If the length of one edge is l. the volume (V) of the cube is given by: V = l3 Its surface area (A) is calculated by finding the area of one square: l × l = l2 .> b > c and face diagonals is called an Euler brick. It has 6 equal-area faces and 12 equal-length edges. the cuboid is called a perfect cuboid. and multiplying it by 6: 6 × l2 A = 6l2 Prism A prism is a solid figure with a uniform cross section. If the space diagonal is also an integer.

length 'L' Area of base: L Perimeter of base: Surface area = 2LW + 2(L+W)H prism width 'W' × W 2(L+W) and . roof and walls. Because the floor and the roof of a prism have the same shape. which include the floor.Rectangular based prism: Circular based prism: (Cylinder) Triangular based prism: The surface area of any prism equals the sum of the areas of its faces. the surface area can always be found as follows: Surface area of prism = 2 x area of base + perimeter of base x H Rectangular based Base shape: Rectangle.

Circular Base Area Perimeter Surface shape: of of area = based Circle. height 'h'. S2 and S3 Area of base: ½b×h Perimeter of base: S1+ S2 + S3 Surface area = bh + (S1+ S2 + S3)H Right Circular Cylinder The base and upper face of a right circular cylinder are equal circular regions lying in parallel planes. . and sides S1. The perpendicular distance between these parallel faces is the height of the cylinder. volume = ∏r2h curved surface area = 2∏rh Total surface area of a cylinder = 2∏r x (r + h) 2 Volume of cylindrical shell = ∏h(R r2) Where R is the outer radius and r is the inner radious. base: base: 2∏R² radius + prism 'R' ∏R² 2∏R 2∏RH Triangular based prism Base shape: Triangle: base 'b'.

the axis is perpendicular to the base. it is called an oblique circular cone. The perpendicular distance from the vertex to the plane of the base is the height of the cone. (If the axis of a circular cone is not perpendicular to the base. a cone includes the solid enclosed by a cone and the plane of the directrix. More commonly. The region of the plane enclosed by the directrix is called a base of the cone. Area of Base: B Height: h Radius of base: r Slant height: s Lateral surface area: S Total surface area: T Volume: V B = ∏r2 s = √(r2+h2) S = ∏rs T = ∏r(r+s) 2 V = ∏r h/3 Frustum of a cone The part of a right circular cone between the base and a plane parallel to the base whose distance from the base is less than the height of the cone.) The length of any line segment connecting the vertex to the directrix is called the slant height of the cone. . In a right circular cone.Right Circular Cone A cone is a surface generated by a family of all lines through a given point (the vertex) and passing through a curve in a plane (the directrix).

Height: Radius Slant Lateral Total Volume: s S T V= of surface surface bases: height: area: area: r. The plane surface of a hemisphere is a circular region. h R s S T V = = = ∏(R +rR+r )h/3 2 2 √([R-r]2+h2) ∏(r+R)s ∏(r[r+s]+R[R+s]) Sphere Volume V Surface S = 4∏r2 = = = 4/3∏r3 4/3∏r3 4∏r2 Hemisphere A sphere cut by a plane passing through its center forms two hemispheres. Curved surface area of a hemisphere = 2∏r2 Total surface area of a hemisphere = 2∏r2 + ∏r2 .

n.q.s.t. For example the English alphabet could be written as {a.b.4. with their elements listed in between. Each entry in a set is known as an element. 15 entries.Volume of a hemisphere = = 3∏r2 2/3∏r2 Spherical shell If R and r are the outer and inner radius of a hollow sphere..m. . Below you'll see just a sampling of items that could be considered as sets:      Your favorite clothes A coin collection The items in a store The English alphabet Even numbers A set could have as many entries as you would like..c.8. Volume of the material in the spherical shell = 4/3∏R3. Absolutely anything can be considered a set.g.w.10.l.r3 Set Theory A set is a collection of things.p. We'll find out more about elements in the next section.k.v.} (Note: the dots at the end indicating that the set goes on infinitely) A union of two or more sets is another set that contains everything contained in the previous sets. Union is designated by the If A and B are sets then A  B represents the union of A and B Example: symbol .e.z} and even numbers could be {0.. It could have one entry. while the set of even numbers would have an infinite number of entries.f. or even an infinite number of entries.i.r.h. On the next page you'll find out that a set could even have no entries at all! For example. Sets are written using curly brackets ("{" and "}"). then.x.y.6. in the above list the English alphabet would have 26 entries.d.u.2. 10 entries.o.j.

be a subset of B since it is completely contained within B to think of this is every element of set C is also an element of A).9.5} A  B = {1.9} The elements A  B = {3.4.2.3.7. be a subset of C since it is completely contained within C to think of this is every element of set D is also an element of C).4. for subset is .3.9.2.5. B={2.4.3. which in turn is contained within A. be a subset of A since it is completely contained within A to think of this is every element of set D is also an element of C). . This D is said to (another way set C is said to (another way set B is said to (another way set is the notion of a subset.A={1.5.6} 3 and 5 they have in common are The symbol So D  C and C  B and B  A.13} The intersection of two (or more) sets is those elements that they have in common. which in turn is contained within B.3.11. So if A and B are sets then the intersection (the elements they both have in common) is denoted by A B.5} Subset Let A be the set of objects that you own in your home Let B be the set of objects that you own which are kept on the second floor of your home Let C be the set of objects that you own which are kept in your bedroom [Note the bedroom is own the second floor] Let D be the set of objects that you own which are kept in your bedroom nightstand Now we could say D is contained within C.5.11.7.7.13} B={5. Intersection is designated by the symbol . Example: A={1.

so each of {1}. If A were defined as {1. etc.. surveying a group of people on their favorite soft drink.3. If our experiment is tossing a single coin. the sample space would be S = {1. Probability Tutorial An experiment is an act for which the outcome is uncertain.{4}.3. 4.6}. In throwing a dice.5.6}. that number is denoted n(S).e.5} which . consisting of a single sample point is called a simple event. e. For example.6} then B would not be a subset of A since ―6‖  B but 6  A. 2.4. Every subset of a sample space is an event.2. The symbol for ―not a subset‖ is . our sample space would be S = {Heads. In throwing a dice.6}.g. A sample space S for an experiment is the set of all possible outcomes of the experiment such that each outcome corresponds to exactly one element in S.4. we can't say. and S is said to be a finite sample space.4.2. Examples of experiments are rolling a die. Example. if it's out-come can't be predicted with certainty. e.5. the event of appearing of odd numbers is a compound event. In throwing a dice S={1. because E={1. whether head or tail will appear.5. We would write B  A.5} and B as {3. If there is a finite number of sample points. It is denoted by 'E'. if our experiment is rolling a single die. 5. S={1.{5} and {6} are simple events.{2}. 6}. An experiment is said to be a random experiment. 3. Compound event: A subset of the sample space. tossing a coin.{3}.2.4.g. So it is a random experiment. If a coin is tossed.. which has more than on element is called a mixed event.However if even one element of one set is not contained within the other then thy are not subsets.3.3.4. the appearance of an event number will be the event E={2. Tails}. The elements of S are called sample points. An event.g.

A toss of a fair coin.2. Exhaustive events: When every possible out come of an experiment is considered. Or if a scientist did research on a topic and recorded the outcome and the data from this is used to find the probability of an event tied to the research.4. Equally likely events: Events are said to be equally likely.g. then the probability of occurrence of an event 'E' is defined as: P(E) = n(E)/N(S) = (number of elements in 'E'/ (number of elements in sample space 'S') Empirical Probability Finding the probability of an empirical event is specifically based on direct observations or experiences.g. cases 1. It is equally likely for a head to show up as it is for a tail. Equiprobable space A sample space S is called an equiprobable space if and only if all the simple events are equally likely to occur. a survey may have been taken by a group of people. When a dice is thrown. For example. all the six faces {1.6} are equally likely to come up. Probability of an Event If 'S' be the sample space. e.2.4. if we have no reason to believe that one is more likely to occur than the other. If the data collected is used to find the probability of an event tied to the survey.6 form an exhaustive set of events.g. e. e. it would be an empirical probability.3. it would also be an empirical probability. . Mutually Exclusive Events E and F are said to be mutually exclusive if and only if they have no elements in common.3.5.has '3' elements.5. A dice is thrown.

F = {1.E. 3.P(A AND B) 5. 4.g. P(E) = 1/4 then P(not E) = 3/4. then P(E|F)P(F) P(F|E) = ---------------------P(E|F)P(F) + P(E|F')P(F') Properties of Probability 1. 2. 6}. green. Probabilities: P(red) = number of ways to choose red/total number of marbles = . where S = {1. and E is the event of rolling an even number. 0 <= P(E) <= 1 2.P(E) So if. Solution: Sample space S = {H. 3. "Or" probabilities with mutually exclusive events P (A or B) = P(A) + P(B) 4. if the sample space is rolling a die. 4. because they have NO elements in common. A and B are Independent Events if an only if P(A AND B) = P(A)P(B) Examples Example 1: Find the probability of getting a tail in tossing of a coin. 5}. "Or" probabilities with events that are NOT mutually exclusive P (A or B) = P(A) + P(B) . what is the probability of choosing a red marble? a green marble? a blue marble? a yellow marble? Solution: Outcomes: The possible outcomes of this experiment are red. E = {2. 5. blue and yellow. E and F are mutually exclusive. If a single marble is chosen at random from the jar. 6} and F is the event of rolling an odd number. 3.T} and n(s) Event 'E' = {T} and n(E) therefore P(E) = n(E)/n(S) = 1/2 = = 2 1 Example 2: A glass jar contains 6 red. 8 blue and 3 yellow marbles. Bayes' Theorem The short form of Bayes' Theorem states that if E and F are events. P(not E) = 1 . 5 green.

T and H can be re-arranged in the first. Example 4: What is the probability that the position in which the consonants appear remain unchanged when the letters of the word Math are re-arranged? Solution: The total number of ways in which the word Math can be rearranged = 4! = 4*3*2*1 = 24 ways. So.1/4 = 3/4 Therefore. the probability that he will not hit the target in all the four shots =3/4 x 3/4 x 3/4 x 3/4 = 81/256 Hence. if the positions in which the consonants appear do not change. If he fires 4 shots in succession. the first. Now. third and fourth positions in 3! = 6 ways without the positions in which the positions in which the consonants appear changing. . what is the probability that he will hit his target? Solution: The man will hit the target even if he hits it once or twice or thrice or all four times in the four shots that he takes. the probability that he will hit the target at least in one of the four shots = 1 81/256 = 175/256 . The consonants M.6/22 P(green) = P(blue) 8/22 = = 3/11 number of ways to choose green/total number of marbles 5/22 number of ways to choose blue/total number of marbles = = 4/11 number of ways to choose yellow/total number of = P(yellow) = marbles = 3/22 Example 3: A man can hit a target once in 4 shots. third and the fourth positions are reserved for consonants and the vowel A remains at the second position. the only case where the man will not hit the target is when he fails to hit the target even in one of the four shots that he takes. The probability that he will not hit the target in one shot = 1 .

Therefore. 4 people played a game of chess. all face cards are removed and four cards are drawn. if it is true that no match can end in a tie? 2. Then the probability that they are of different suit and different denomination is 4. charts. of the form 7m + 7n is divisible by 5 equals? Data Interpretation Data Interpretation Basics Data Interpretation as the name suggests tests your skills to understand data presented in different forms like bar graphs. Each box can hold all five balls. the required probability = 3!/4! = 6/24 = 1/4 Assignment Discuss and post solutions 1. line graphs etc. In DI section the most important thing that an individual must be able to do is to calculate fast and accurately. Out of two-thirds of the total number of basket-ball matches. What is the maximum number of matches that the team can lose and still win three-fourths of the total number of matches. How many arrangements can be made of the letters of the word DRAUGHT the vowels never being separated? 6. where each one plays every other player. a team has won 17 matches and lost 3 of them. . What is the maximum number of points that any player could gather if every win gets him 1 point ? 3. From a pack of 52 cards. tables. If the integers m and n are chosen at random from integers from integers 1 to 100 with replacement. Adequate practice should generally set an individual well on course for cracking this section. The number of ways in which we can place the balls in the boxes so that no box remains empty is ? 5. then the probability that a no. The questions are given with a set of data and candidate is required to deduce the required results from the data set. Five balls of different colours are to be placed in three boxes of different sizes.

One should choose problems with graphs or tables that are easy to comprehend and with numerical that are easy to work with. Sometimes a stretched graphic is used instead of a solid bar. Basic graph types A bar chart or bar graph is a chart with rectangular bars with lengths proportional to the values that they represent. You must be able to understand all the basic forms of representing data as well as the basic methods of calculation needed to crack the problems. The bars can be horizontally oriented (also called bar chart) or vertically oriented (also called column chart). Read the questions. Get your basic concepts right. Analyse if you are doing this step correctly. You need to first effectively interpret the data before being able to solve the problem. It is a visual display used to compare the amount or frequency of occurrence of different characteristics of data and it is used to compare groups of data. These should be avoided. Depending on the options you need to select the accuracy level. So keep a track of how many such questions you have attempted. Ensure that you read the graphs and tables correctly and don‘t miss out on the footnotes. Most of the times there are some problems that are really tough to understand or require a really difficult set of calculations to solve. . usually on small data sets. Bar charts are used for comparing two or more values that were taken over time or on different conditions. understand them and calculate.Candidate should focus on the question selection first. These types of problems are deliberately included to limit the speed.

A line graph is most useful in displaying data or information that changes continuously over time. the arc length of each sector (and consequently its central angle and area).A pie chart (or a circle graph) is a circular chart divided into sectors. is proportional to the quantity it represents. It is named for its resemblance to a pie which has been sliced. In a pie chart. . the sectors create a full disk. Together. illustrating relative magnitudes or frequencies.

V sold in a particular city. The total number of TV sold was 25.Examples One of the graph below represent the market share of five different brands of T. 1000 c. 1. 800 b. 1200 d. The other one shows the unit sales price and the Tax the brand is subjected to. What is the difference in number of units sold by the most popular brand and the second most popular brand ? a. Tax is calculated on the sales price.000. 1400 .

So the difference is 4% of Total Market = 25.000.000= 84. B c.000 So maximum revenue is earned by D 3.000 Revenue earned by Brand B = (14*25000/100 ) * 16.000.000= 56. B c.500. Which Brand earned the maximum revenue before Tax ? a.000. E .e.000 Similarly the revenue earned by C = 66. D e. D e. Brand D sold = 26 % and Brand C sold = 22 % . C d. A b. Revenue earned by D= (26*25000/100)*13.500= 65. Which Brand earned the maximum revenue after Tax ? a. E Solution: Revenue earned Before tax = Number of Units sold * Unit Price Revenue earned by Brand A = (18*25000/100 ) * 14. C d.250.000*4/100 = 1. 1600 Solution: Most popular Brand is Brand D and after that it is Brand C as is clear from the Pie chart. A b.500.000. 2.000 Revenue earned by E= 67.

Example: "The grass has been wet every time it has rained. In logic." Induction means determining the rule. they can be explained in the following way:    Deduction means determining the conclusion.000 302.000 117.000.160. Thus.000.000 So Brand D earned the maximum revenue after Tax Logical Reasoning Logical Reasoning is one of the toughest topis in CAT exam. It rains. it must have rained.000 49. It is using the conclusion and the rule to support that the precondition could explain the conclusion.000 60.000 76. the grass gets wet. the grass is wet.250.250. Example: "When it rains. a conclusion.000 BRAND C 66. The grass is wet. Thus.325.000 149.135. when it rains. You must develop the habit of reasoning based on the following guidelines. induction and abduction.895. three kinds of logical reasoning can be distinguished: deduction. They have to use their logic to interpret the question and answer it correctly.425. the grass gets wet. You must read the question and directions thoroughly before answering.000 106.400. Given a precondition. the grass gets wet.925.000 TOTAL 339. and a rule that the precondition implies the conclusion.000 59. It is using the rule and its precondition to make aconclusion.000 BRAND B 56.500.000 97. A paragraph is given and student is required to answer the questions that follow based on the information given in the paragraph. It is learning the rule after numerous examples of theconclusion following the precondition.Solution: Revenue earned after Tax = Revenue earned before Tax -Tax SALES Tax % Tax paid Revenue BRAND A 65. Example: "When it rains.500.840.115." Examples: .075." Abduction means determining the precondition.000 116.000 BRAND E 67.605.000 36.000 BRAND D 84.600.000 56.

Then we're told that C is not complaining. For this question. which of the following must be true? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) A If If If If will not eat the apple A did not eat the apple. the contrapositive is "If A did not eat the apple. Whenever A sings. B if B did eat did B did not the not cooks. A is not singing. A will not A did not eat the apple. Solution: The sentence can be rearranged to read: "If B does not cook. B has a headache but A is not necessarily singing. So if C is not complaining. then A must not be singing. A has been singing and B is beginning to get a headache. cook." Choice (B) matches this perfectly. cook. and flip the two halves.1. but B does not necessarily have a headache. Whenever a Logical Reasoning question gives you an "If. If C is not complaining. A Solution: Since if A sings. which of the following statements must be true? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) is singing and B has a headache. then there is no way that A is singing. A eats the apple. then B B does not cook. then B did cook. Based only on the information above. then A will eat the apple. the only thing that must be true is called the "contrapositive"—take the opposite of each half of the statement. apple.. A is singing. we get the following logic: If B doesn't have a headache and/or if C isn't complaining. Data Sufficiency Data Sufficiency or DS questions in CAT exam requires the candidate to reason quantitatively unlike the quant or di section where the ability to manipulate numbers is tested. B gets a headache and C complains.. and choice (E) is the answer. then B gets a headache and C complains.then"sentence. DS questions consist of a question followed by two statements. Using the contrapositive. cook. A will eat the apple if B does not cook. Student is required to choose whether the information in statements (single or . 2.

0 million. A B C D Solution: (c) Recall that the sum of the 3 accounts is \$3 million. 2. b.7 million.3 million and the smallest is worth \$0. d. Hence.7 million. 2. With the value of all 3 variables. Is 1. E The One largest of the account accounts is is \$1. c.3 million.7 million. which is less than \$0.41 million.29 million. If the largest account is worth \$1. we can quickly determine the value of the smallest variable. If the largest is \$1. if we know the value of 2 of the variables (as we do if we read statements 1 and 2 together). c. a.3 \$0. Statements 1 and 2 together give us the information needed to answer the question. then we can determine the value of the third variable. then the smallest account could be \$0. and the average value of all three variables (as we do from reading the question).1. million. e. b. 2. then the sum of the other two accounts must be \$1. However. Since the second-largest account could be \$1.000? 1. E the product of of x the x and y is is greater greater greater than than than 60? 60. d. If the average size of 3 accounts is \$1 million.5 million. Statement 1 by itself is insufficient. 2. a. A B C D The sum Each of and y variables . then the third variable must be \$1. e. is the smallest account less than \$500.

It is the sheer enormity of this generation that has had economists worried as retirement beckons.S. In its survey. the plan to continue working is a financial decision. 1.For many years. thereby continuing to pay into the Social Security fund.000. the remaining 87% planned to continue working for pay.According to the U. many fear that the Social Security fund itself could go bankrupt. a fact that may please the worriers in Washington. this generation is not expected to adhere to the conventional retirement scheme. But with such large numbers planning to continue working. most baby boomers will need to stop working as they progress into their 70s. and optimism toward the future. an estimated 80. DC. there has been much hand-wringing over the fate of Social Security once the baby boomers reach retirement age. Between 25% and 44% of respondents reported they are not financially prepared to retire and will therefore continue working past retirement age. by 2020. Eventually. the decision is based on long-held goals to start a business and/or the desire to stay active in their industry or community. a study released by the American Association for Retired Persons (AARP) that examined baby boomers‘ plans for retirement found that for the most part. The AARP found that of all groups surveyed. represent the largest single sustained growth of population in the history of the United States. However. degree of preparedness for retirement. The reasons to continue working varied among the different groups. 80s. For the remainder of those planning to work past their mid to late 60s. the AARP broke baby boomers into different categories based on their financial standing.000 Americans will have reached or surpassed the conventional age of retirement. Baby boomers. people born between 1946 and 1964. perhaps Social Security will be able to withstand the end of the baby boom and continue to be a safety net for future generations.With so many boomers retiring and drawing benefits but no longer paying into Social Security. and beyond. Census Bureau. only 13% planned to stop working altogether once they reached retirement age. For some. Which of the following titles would be most appropriate for this passage? .

a. The AARP and Social b. Baby Boomers Bankrupt Social c. Baby Boomers Will Work for Pay Beyond d. Worries about Social Security May Be e. Economists Fear Baby Boomers‘ Impact on Social Security

Security Security Retirement Unfounded

Solution: This choice offers the best title for the passage, which explains why the ―worriers in Washington‖ may have nothing to fear after all. Choice a is incorrect because the passage is not about the relationship between the AARP and Social Security or the AARP‘s position on Social Security issues. Choice b is incorrect because the passage actually argues the opposite: that most baby boomers will continue to pay into Social Security long after the traditional age of retirement. Choice c is true, but it is just one specific fact cited within the passage to support the main idea. Choice e is also true, but the passage explains why the economists‘ fears are unfounded. 2. According to the author, baby boomers are not likely to bankrupt the Social Security fund primarily because a. the government has raised the official age for retirement. b. most baby boomers are financially prepared for retirement. c. most baby boomers plan to work past retirement age. d. most baby boomers are active in their communities. e. most baby boomers will not need supplemental income. Solution: The AARP study cited in the third paragraph reveals that 87% of the baby boomers surveyed ―planned to continue working for pay‖ once they reach retirement age. The passage does not state that the government raised the retirement age (choice a). Choices b and e are incorrect because the AARP survey also notes that ―between 25% and 44% of respondents reported they are not financially prepared to retire,‖ which means they will need supplemental income. A desire to remain active in their community (choice d) is one of the reasons many baby boomers will continue to work, but it is the fact that they will continue to work (not why they will continue to work) that allays the fear of a bankrupt system. 3. The author cites statistics from the AARP survey primarily to a. support the assertion that baby boomers are the largest group of retirees in U.S. history. b. show that baby boomers will not retire en masse as feared.

c. suggest that better financial planning is needed for the elderly. d. show how optimistic baby boomers are about their future. e. show the correlation between retirement age and optimism. Solution: The survey statistics demonstrate that most baby boomers will keep working, so the Social Security system will not encounter a sudden massive strain as baby boomers reach the retirement age. Choice a is incorrect because although the number of baby boomers is cited (80,000,000), no other figure is cited in comparison. One statistic from the survey suggests that many baby boomers have not planned well for retirement (choice c), but several other statistics are also cited, so this cannot be the main purpose. The passage states that the survey was designed in part to measure baby boomers‘ optimism (choice d), but the passage does not cite results of questions in that category. Choice e is incorrect for the same reason.

Verbal Reasoning
Tutorial
Introduction

Verbal Reasoning is one of the toughest section in cat english paper. These type of questions require a lot of practice and planning before the actual exam. Mostly Facts, inference and judgment questions are asked in this section apart from reasoning questions similar to critical reasoning. Tips to solve facts, inference and judgment questions are:

Always work with answer options: Locate a statement that is definitely a Fact or a Judgement, then eliminate the options that do not classify it as such. Words that are used in the comparative or the superlative degree often qualify statements as Inferences. For example highest, taller, largest, heaviest etc can only be arrived at after verifying data, hence the statements involved are inferences. Identify where the emphasis is in the sentence structure. It is possible that the latter part of a statement may be a Fact but the emphasis is on the former part which is a Conclusion derived from that Fact. Clearly, such a statement qualifies as an Inference.

Statements that use a lot of adjectives and adverbs; words like 'should', 'must,' 'only' , 'never', 'always', 'all' etc. have a tendency to be Judgements.
Examples

Instructions:

Classify

each

of

the

statements

into:

F. Facts, which deal with the pieces of information that one has heard, seen or read, and which are open to discovery or verification or I. Inferences, which are conclusions drawn about unknown, on the basis of the known or J. Judgements, which are opinions that imply approval or disapproval of persons, objects, situations and occurrences in the past, the present or the future. 1. Given the poor quality of service in the public sector, the HIV/AIDS affected should be switching to private initiatives that supply anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) at a low cost. 2. The government has been supplying free drugs since 2004, and 35000 have benefited upto now - though the size of the affected population is 150 times this number. 3. The recent initiatives of networks and companies like AIDSCare Network, Emcure, Reliance-Cipla-CII, would lead to availability of much-needed drugs to a larger number of affected people. 4. But how ironic it is that we should face a perennial shortage of drugs when India is one of the world's largest suppliers of generic drugs to the developing world. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) JFIJ JIIJ IFIJ IFFJ JFII

Solution: The given options require you to evaluate statement 1 as either a Judgement or an Inference. 'Given the poor quality of services in the public

sector...' is more of a Judgement than an Inference. What constitutes poor quality can differ from person to person. Based on this, the conclusion "should be switching..." is clearly an opinion and establishes statement 1 as a Judgement. This eliminates option 3 and 4. The numbers in statement 2 are a result of direct verification. Hence, statement 2 is a Fact. This eliminates option 2. Evaluating options 1 and 5, both of which have statement 3 as an inference, one has to now establish whether statement 4 is an Inference or a Judgement (as per options 1 and 5). "...how ironic it is..." can neither be verified nor is it verifiable through facts. Statement 4 is thus a Judgement. Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

SYLLABUS
Cat Exam tests students on various parameters and topics. Cat 2009 will be online but the overall structure and syllabus will remain the same. It mostly consists of quantitative ability, data interpretation and english multiple type questions. Here is the syllabus for cat examination.

CAT Syllabus 2010
QUANTITATIVE:
       

Geometry, (Lines, angles, Triangles, Spheres, Rectangles, Cube, Cone etc) visit tutorial» Ratios and Proportion, Ratios, Percentages, In-equations visit tutorial» Quadratic and linear equations visit tutorial» Algebra visit tutorial» Profit & Loss visit tutorial» Averages, Percentages, Partnership visit tutorial» Time-Speed-Distance, Work and time visit tutorial» Number system: HCF, LCM, Geometric Progression, Arithmetic progression, Arithmetic mean, Geometric mean , Harmonic mean, Median, Mode, Number Base System, BODMAS visit tutorial»

  

Mensuration, Alligation & Mixtures, Work, Pipes and Cisterns visit tutorial» Simple Interest & Compound Interest Set Theory, Venn Diagram visit tutorial»

Assumption-Premise-Conclusion. Contextual usage. International organisations Important quotations Social issues. Antonyms. MAT etc but are likely to be there in JMET. Different usage of same word etc. History. Syllogisms . Calendar. Major corporate events Famous award and prizes World Records Books and authors Science. Line charts. Assertion and reasons. Geography. odd man out. Co-ordinate geometry. Identifying Probably true. Binomial Expansion. Family tree .  Instalment Payments. Pie Chart.  Puzzles. Finance. Vectors. Top officials of big companies. visit tutorial»  Sentence Correction. definitely true. Jumbled paragraphs (6 sentences with first and last fixed). idioms. Logarithm. Automobiles. visit tutorial» Verbal Reasoning. Cause and Effect. . Fill In the Blanks. Partnership. Data Interpretation based on graphs and tables. etc. visit tutorial» Graphs can be Column graphs. Analogies. Probably false. Coding and decoding . Entertainment. Clocks Probability. Punch line of companies. Linear arrangements. Symbol Based problems.identifying relationship among group of people. Bar Graphs. Maxima & Minima Progression. Sequencing . Statements and assumptions. Foreign language words used in English. Venn Diagram. identifying valid inferences . Politics etc. Critical reasoning. identifying next number in series. Business. Permutations & Combinations visit tutorial» Topics like Trigonometry. Sentence completion. Surds & Indices and Complex numbers are less likely to be there in CAT . ENGLISH :   Comprehension of passage ( Poems can also come). Sentence correction. Visual reasoning. Graphs representing Area. GK/GA/BA :        Current Affairs. Statements and conclusions. one word substitution. definitely false kind of statement. Matrix arrangements. DI AND REASONING :    Data Interpretation based on text. Jumbled paragraphs with 4 or 5 sentences. etc. Sports. identifying Strong arguments and Weak arguments. Syllogisms. Functions.