PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY

Overview
What is Electron Diffraction  LEED & RHEED

LEED
History

RHEED
What is RHEED

Basic Principle

Basic principle

Instrumentation

Insrumentation

How to Use

Data collection

Examples

Examples

Comparison of LEED & RHEED  Conclusion Refferences

Complication in LEED

Electron Diffraction • The phenomenon associated with the interference processes which occur when electrons are scattered by atoms in crystals to form diffraction patterns. • Types of Electron Diffraction:Electron diffraction Low Energy Electron Diffraction LEED Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction RHEED Transmission High Energy Electron Diffraction THEED Electron Diffraction .

Introduction to Low energy electron diffraction-LEED • LEED = Low Energy Electron Diffraction – Incoming electron beam (< 500 eV) is perpendicular to sample Low energy electron diffraction mainly used for surface characterization .

Introduction to Reflection High energy electron diffraction-RHEED • RHEED = Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction – Incoming electron beam (10~50keV) has glazing angle to sample RHEED is an important method to achieve surface sensitivity .

LOW ENERGY ELECTRON DIFFRACTION LEED .

is a technique for the determination of the surface structure of crystalline materials by bombardment with low energy electrons (20500eV) and observation of diffracted electrons as spots on a fluorescent screen.What is LEED • Low-energy electron diffraction. Fig: Schematic of a LEED . • The pattern of spots contains information of surface structure and the spot intensity indicates reconstruction.

e– out (elastic) History • 1924: Discovered accidentally by Davisson and Kunsman during study of electron emission from a Ni crystal. l = electron wavelength • 1934: Fluorescent screen developed by Ehrenburg for data imaging. • 1927: Davisson and Germer found diffraction maxima for: – nl = D sinf where D = surface spacing.• Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) = e– in. . • 1960: UHV technology enabled LEED of clean surfaces.

Instrumentation of LEED • A sample holder with the prepared sample • An electron gun • A display system. Grid 1: retarding voltage (selects only elastic electrons) Grid 2: accelerating voltage (creates fluorescence on screen) . usually a hemispherical fluorescent screen on which the diffraction pattern can be observed directly • A sputtering gun for cleaning the surface • A number of highly transparent grids are placed in front of the screen.

Information obtained from LEED • LEED is the principal technique for the determination of surface structures.  Quantitatively : where the intensities of the various diffracted beams are recorded as a function of the incident electron beam energy to generate so-called I-V curves which. . • It may be used in one of two ways:  Qualitatively : where the diffraction pattern is recorded and analysis of the spot positions yields information on the size. may provide accurate information on atomic positions. symmetry and rotational alignment of the adsorbate unit cell with respect to the substrate unit cell. by comparison with theoretical curves.

Structural Information by LEED .

Baski Diffraction Techniques smaller reciprocal-space .What is Real Space and Reciprocal Space? Real Space (i. spacing of surface atoms in nm) a Reciprocal-Space (i.e.e. spacing of diffraction spots in nm–1) 2 G a larger real-space Phys 661 .

Substrate & over layer LEED pattern Only Substrate Substrate +Adsorbate .

Intensity Measurement by LEED .

STEPS .e the structure -------This is why surface structure determination by LEED requires the measurement and analysis of intensities.Structure determination procedure LEED pattern reflects the size and shape of the real space unit cell. But it says nothing about the positions of the atoms in the real space unit cell i.

.

Images obtained in LEED .

Complications and other aspects of LEED • Electron beam damage – sensitive molecular adsorbates. 3 domains of p(2x1) on fcc (111) = (2x2) . • Domain structure  If two domains with different structure coexist ⇒ easy to distinguish.  But sometimes difficulties exist (e.g..

REFLECTION HIGH ENERGY ELECTRON DIFFRACTION RHEED .

What is RHEED?  In order to extract surface structural information from the diffraction of high energy electrons.it is then known as Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED)  RHEED theory is very similar to LEED. . therefore. the technique has to be adapted and the easiest way of doing this is to use a reflection geometry in which the electron beam is incident at a very grazing angle .

Basic Principle of RHEED  A high energy electron beam(1030Kev) is directed at the sample surface at a low incident angle(120).  The electrons are diffracted by the crystal structure of the sample being investigated  Then projected on a fluroscent screen mounted opposite the electron gun. Fig:-Electrons hit the surface at different grazing angle . NB: The combination of grazing incidence and strong electron-substrate interactions reduces the penetration depth of incident electrons to a few monolayer's.

• Photo-luminescent detector screen.The most basic setup of a RHEED system. • An electron gun-The electron gun generates a beam of electrons which strike the sample at a very small angle.Instrumentation of RHEED • A sample holder with the prepared sample. • although modern RHEED systems have some additional parts to optimize the technique. Figure:.which collect the diffracted electrons & form the regular pattern on the screen. .

Images obtained in RHEED Graphene growth by molecular beam epitaxy : RHEED diagram (160 eV) RHEED diagram : SiC surface structure evolution with Si dose .

What. . and hence also to control. advantages does RHEED offer over LEED? • In terms of the quality of the diffraction pattern absolutely none in RHEED. • By using RHEED it is therefore possible to measure. atomic layer growth rates(i. if any.e to monitor the atomic layer-byatomic layer growth) in Molecular Beam Epitaxy(MBE) growth of electronic device structures -this is by far and away the most important application of the RHEED technique.

2-100Å . atomic positions to Same as LEED.1ML. need special instruments – LEEM.1mm. best systems ~10mm. except in special cases Same as LEED. best systems 5mm Typically 0.1Å . of electron-beam damage.EXPERIMENTAL DATA Range of elements Destructive LEED RHEED All All No. Typically 200Å. 4-20Å. 200mm x 4mm. Monitoring surface structure.3nm x 6 nm. Analysis of surface crystallography . No. best systems 0. in-situ growth . <75K€ Same as LEED. 50k-200k€. Depth probed Detection limits Resolving power Lateral resolution 0. 0. Imaging capability Main uses Cost . No.

LEED is (still) the most frequently used surface structural method .

net/surflec3/surflec014.html http://hpcrd.org .gov/~meza Optimization Methods for Simulation-Based Problems in Nano Science By Juan Meza. Zhengji Zhao (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) www.lbl.wikipedia. Michel van Hove.References  Surface Characterization By D.Brune & R. http://philiphofmann. Hellborg.

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