Sun - Astronomy, Solar Maximum, Sunspots and the Rise and Fa...

http://www.crystalinks.com/sun.html

The Sun

Current Solar Activity - NOAA The Sun is the closest star to Earth. The Sun is a huge mass of hot, glowing gas. The Sun is a huge mass of hot, glowing gas. The strong gravitational pull of the Sun holds Earth and the other planets in the solar system in orbit. The Sun's light and heat influence all of the objects in the solar system and allow life to exist on Earth. The Sun is an average star its size, age, and temperature fall in about the middle of the ranges of these properties for all stars. Astronomers believe that the Sun is about 4.6 billion years old and will keep shining for about another 7 billion years. For humans, the Sun is beautiful and useful, but also powerful and dangerous. As Earth turns, the Sun rises over the eastern horizon in the morning, passes across the sky during the day, and sets in the west in the evening. This movement of the Sun across the sky marks the passage of time during the day. The Sun's movement can produce spectacular sunrises and sunsets under the right atmospheric conditions.

1 of 33

3/30/12 4:14 PM

Sun - Astronomy, Solar Maximum, Sunspots and the Rise and Fa...

http://www.crystalinks.com/sun.html

At night, reflected sunlight makes the Moon and planets bright in the night sky. The Sun provides Earth with vast amounts of energy every day. The oceans and seas store this energy and help keep the temperature of Earth at a level that allows a wide variety of life to exist. Plants use the Sun's energy to make food, and plants provide food for other organisms. The Sun's energy also creates wind in Earth's atmosphere. This wind can be harnessed and used to produce power. While it lights our day and provides energy for life, sunlight can also be harmful to people. Human skin is sensitive to ultraviolet light emitted from the Sun. Earth's atmosphere blocks much of the harmful light, but sunlight is still strong enough to burn skin under some conditions. Sunburn is one of the most important risk factors in the development of skin cancers, which can be fatal. Sunlight is also very harmful to human eyes. A person should never look directly at the Sun, even with sunglasses or during an eclipse. The Sun influences Earth with more than just light. Particles flowing from the Sun can disrupt Earth's magnetic field, and these disruptions can interfere with electronic communications. Sun Wikipedia

Sun Cycles

The solar cycle, or the solar magnetic activity cycle, is a periodic change in the amount of irradiation from the Sun that is experienced on Earth. It has a period of about 11 years, and is one component of solar variation, the other being aperiodic fluctuations. Solar variation causes changes in space weather and to some degree weather and climate on Earth. The cycle is observed by counting the frequency and placement of sunspots visible on the Sun. Powered by a hydromagnetic dynamo process, driven by the inductive action of internal solar flows, the solar cycle: Solar maximum or solar max is the period of greatest solar activity in the solar cycle of the sun. During solar maxima, large numbers of sunspots appear. A solar maximum is the period when the sun's magnetic field lines are the most distorted due to the magnetic field on the solar equator rotating at a slightly faster pace than at the solar poles. The solar cycle takes an average of about 11 years to go from one solar maximum to the next, with an observed variation in duration of 9 to 14 years for any given solar cycle.

2 of 33

3/30/12 4:14 PM

Sun - Astronomy, Solar Maximum, Sunspots and the Rise and Fa...

http://www.crystalinks.com/sun.html

The last solar maximum was in 2000. The next solar maximum is currently predicted to occur in February 2013 and to be one of the weakest cycles since 1928. The unreliability of solar maxima predictions is demonstrated in that NASA had previously predicted the solar maximum for 2010/2011 and possibly to occur as late as 2012. Previously, on March 10, 2006, NASA researchers had announced that the next solar maximum would be the strongest since the historic maximum in 1859 in which the northern lights could be seen as far south as Rome, approximately 42¡ north of the equator, by 2011, this appeared to be incorrect. In fact, the solar maximum will be a fairly weak one.

2012
In modern times, the largest solar flare measured with instruments occurred on November 4, 2003. This event saturated the GOES detectors, and because of this its classification is only approximate. Initially, extrapolating the GOES curve, it was pegged at X28. Later analysis of the ionospheric effects suggested increasing this estimate to X45. This event produced the first clear evidence of a new spectral component above 100 GHz. Other large solar flares also occurred on April 2, 2001 (X20), October 28, 2003 (X17.2 & X10), September 7, 2005 (X17), February 17, 2011 (X2), August 9, 2011 (X6.9), and March 6, 2012 (X5.4).

Solar Flares - March 7-10, 2012

3 of 33

3/30/12 4:14 PM

One region of the sun is benefitting from such a combination of observational and theoretical techniques: The solar convection zone. Identifying the Beginnings and Ends of Solar Cycles Live Science .crystalinks. Sunspots and the Rise and Fa. 2012 A limited number of instruments can tell us about our planet's star: Our knowledge of solar cycles comes from Earth-based satellites and telescopes and theoretical models of solar phenomena based on the laws of physics..January 6.the physical process that generates the sun's magnetic field.Sun . as well as gain insights into the solar 'dynamo' .. The convection zone occupies the outer 30 percent of the solar interior. where sunspots are born. Solar Maximum.Astronomy.March 11.com . and the activity and characteristics of its various sunspots help scientists identify the beginnings and ends of solar cycles.com/sun.html Radio Bursts Spaceweather. They are then expressed at the solar surface throughout solar cycles. http://www. 2012 The roaring sounds heard are caused by shock waves plowing through the sun's atmosphere in the aftermath of the explosion. 2011 4 of 33 3/30/12 4:14 PM .

crystalinks. In the amazing blast. all of the sudden there was a flare and huge ejection of particles.Sun .Astronomy. but as it came from behind the sun. Sunspots and the Rise and Fa. The event's simultaneous launch of particles into space is called a coronal mass ejection (CME)..html Solar Flare Sparks Biggest Eruption Ever Seen on Sun National Geographic ." said astrophysicist Phillip Chamberlin of NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). 2011 A solar blast that NASA classified as an M-2 explosion erupted from the sun in an impressive display captured by the space agency's cameras. There wasn't much going on with this spot." 5 of 33 3/30/12 4:14 PM . one of several spacecraft that recorded the event. "We've never seen a CME this enormous.com/sun. appearing to cover almost half of the solar surface. http://www.. What shocked scientists was the unusual amount of material that lofted up. expanded.June 8. "This totally caught us by surprise. Solar Maximum. a large cloud of charged magnetic particles mushroomed up out of the sun and fell back down. and fell back down over roughly half the surface area of the sun.

We are currently in Solar Cycle 24 the 24th solar cycle since 1755. and began on 8 January 2008.html The sun is heading into Solar Maximum the period of greatest solar activity in the solar cycle of the sun. During solar maximum.Sun .crystalinks. This would make it the least active cycle since solar 6 of 33 3/30/12 4:14 PM .. Solar Maximum.Astronomy.com/sun. The cycle continues to fall below predictions and is currently exhibiting 50% lower sunspot activity than predicted in May 2009. when recording of solar sunspot activity began. It is predicted that Solar Cycle 24 will peak in May 2013 with about 58 sunspots. Sunspots and the Rise and Fa. http://www. The solar cycle takes an average of about 12 year cycle to go from one solar maximum to the next with an observed variation in duration of 9 to 14 years for any given solar cycle. sunspots appear. A solar maximum is the period when the sun's magnetic field lines are the most distorted due to the magnetic field on the solar equator rotating at a slightly faster pace than at the solar poles.. It is the current solar cycle.

became known as the Carrington Super Flare. GPS.but you never know as the sun will surprise us.com/sun. Spark discharges shocked telegraph operators and set the telegraph paper on fire. green. Just before dawn the next day.. sparking geomagnetic storms shifting ocean and jet stream currents in the Pacific Ring of Fire.at least that's what forecasters are saying. and affecting the behavior patterns of all sentient life forms. the Bahamas. and Hawaii. and purple auroras so brilliant that newspapers could be read as easily as in daylight. which ended in the year 1823 .crystalinks. observed by Richard Carrington. Don't bet on it. The solar flare was so unusual.html cycle 6. Sunspots and the Rise and Fa. Jamaica. the sun is once again on the eve of a solar minimum cycle . researchers still aren't sure how to categorize it. http://www. Solar Maximum. The Carrington Event The Carrington Event of September 1859 occurred during a solar minimum cycle and was the most powerful solar storm in recorded history. As 2011 unfolds. creating unstoppable Earth changes. The largest flare. creating unusual and extreme global weather patterns. and satellite communications and anything vulnerable to solar storms. skies all over planet Earth erupted in red.Astronomy. Stunning auroras pulsated even at near tropical latitudes over Cuba.. El Salvador. The Carrington Event of 1859 reminds us that strong solar storms 7 of 33 3/30/12 4:14 PM .Sun . A similar storm today might knock us for a loop affecting power grids. CMEs affect planetary magnetics.

Astronomy. Sunspots and the Rise and Fa..html can occur even when the underlying cycle is nominally weak. Solar Maximum.Sun ..com/sun. 8 of 33 3/30/12 4:14 PM . http://www.crystalinks.

for the period shown.com/sun. The graph shows a long-term envelope of sunspot activity derived from the center graph of Carbon 14.Sun . More carbon 14 is absorbed in the growth rings of tress during the sunspot minima.. Solar Maximum. The Maya disappeared during a sunspot minimum. Sunspots and the Rise and Fa.html Sunspots and the Rise and Fall of Civilizations Maurice Cottrell There appears to be a correlation between the rise and fall of civilizations with the rise and fall of radiation from the sun.. Sunspot minima also correlates with mini-ice ages and a winter severity index based on a mean for Paris and London . http://www.crystalinks. 9 of 33 3/30/12 4:14 PM .Astronomy.

Sun ..html 10 of 33 3/30/12 4:14 PM . Solar Maximum. http://www.com/sun..crystalinks.Astronomy. Sunspots and the Rise and Fa.

html Solar Flares . The European Space Agency's four Cluster spacecraft and NASA's five THEMIS probes have flown through and surrounded these FTEs.Astronomy.com/sun. sparking geomagnetic storms. Earth's magnetosphere and the Sun's magnetic field are constantly pressed against one another on the dayside of Earth. creating unstoppable Earth changes. Sun Cycles . while previously thought to be permanent.Sunspots and the Rise and Fall of Civilizations Flux Transfer Event A flux transfer event (FTE) occurs when a magnetic portal opens in the Earth's magnetosphere through which high-energy particles flow from the Sun. shifting ocean and jet stream currents in the Pacific Ring of Fire. http://www. Solar Maximum..Sun Cycle 24 .Coronal Mass Ejections Ongoing coronal mass ejections (CMEs) reach Earth effecting planetary magnetics. these fields briefly merge. and affecting the behavior patterns of all sentient life forms. creating unusual and extreme global weather patterns.crystalinks. forming a temporary "portal" between the Earth and the Sun through which high-energy particles such as solar wind can flow. Sunspots and the Rise and Fa. measuring their dimensions and identifying the particles that are transferred between the magnetic fields.Solar Max .Sun . has been found to be brief and very dynamic. This connection. Approximately every eight minutes.. The portal takes the shape of 11 of 33 3/30/12 4:14 PM .

http://www. loads of high-energy particles can travel the 93 million miles (150 million km) through the conduit during its brief opening. During its second flyby of the planet on October 6. space scientists say. In December..com . Mercury's proximity to the sun only accounts for about a third of the reconnection rate observed by MESSENGER and the cause of this discrepancy is not currently known. FTEs roll over the north pole.crystalinks. such cosmic connections not only exist but are possibly twice as common as anyone ever imagined. Analemma 12 of 33 3/30/12 4:14 PM .com/sun. the NASA probe MESSENGER discovered that MercuryÕs magnetic field shows a magnetic reconnection rate ten times higher than Earth's. Once the portals open.. magnetic portals open up every eight minutes or so to connect our planet with its host star.html a magnetic cylinder about the width of Earth. scientists can simulate FTEs on computers to predict how they might behave. Jimmy Raeder of the University of New Hampshire told his colleagues simulations show that the cylindrical portals tend to form above Earth's equator and then roll over Earth's winter pole. Current observations place the portal at up to 4 times the size of the earth. Magnetic fields similar to Earth's are common throughout known space and many undergo similar flux transfer events. Sunspots and the Rise and Fa.Astronomy.Sun . Called a flux transfer event. cosmic chutes between the Earth and sun. 2008 Like giant. 2008. Strange Portal Connects Earth to Sun Space.November 3. in July they roll over the south pole. Solar Maximum. Since Cluster and THEMIS have directly sampled FTEs.

. 13 of 33 3/30/12 4:14 PM . Knowing that Earth's average solar day is almost exactly 24 hours. The resulting curve resembles a figure of eight. Solar Maximum.. The term is commonly applied nowadays to the figure traced in the sky when the position of the Sun is plotted at the same time each day over a calendar year from a particular location on Earth. Sunspots and the Rise and Fa. http://www.[clarification needed] an analemma can be traced by plotting the position of the Sun as viewed from a fixed position on Earth at the same time every day for an entire year.crystalinks.html In astronomy. but on other solar system bodies it may be very different because of the interplay between the tilt of each body's axis and the elliptical shape of its orbit.Sun .com/sun.Astronomy. an analemma (from Greek "pedestal of a sundial") is a curve representing the angular offset of a celestial body (usually the Sun) from its mean position on the celestial sphere as viewed from another celestial body relative to the viewing body's celestial equator.

Sunspots and the Rise and Fa.html Analemma Over the Porch of Maidens NASA . 2008 The Sun in Mythology 14 of 33 3/30/12 4:14 PM .December 21.Sun ..com/sun. http://www.Astronomy.crystalinks.. Solar Maximum.

Nearly all the gods of the period were possessed of solar qualities. or an aspect of it. During the Roman Empire.represents the sun. Solar deities and sun worship can be found throughout most of recorded history in various forms. Similarly. many beliefs have formed around this worship. but for the most part its raw image remains identical. Proto-Indo-European religion has a solar chariot. and eventually this date was taken over by the Christians as Christmas. at night and can be seen reflected in her eyes or that it is within the cow. Earlier Egyptian myths imply that the sun is within the lioness. See also Sol Invictus.html Creation is often linked to a combination of the Sun (Male) and Moon (Goddess) . the sun as traversing the sky in a boat.the "rebirth" of the sun.Astronomy.representing duality in physical reality. The Neolithic concept of a solar barge. in Vedic Surya. Svarog is the Slavic god sun and spirit of fire. being reborn each morning as her son (bull). and "my Sun" is eventually used as an address to royalty.com/sun. sun worship gained in importance and ultimately led to what has been called a solar monotheism. such as the "missing sun" found in many cultures. South American cultures have emphatic Sun worship. In Germanic mythology this is Sol.sun god or goddess .. Sekhmet. a festival of the birth of the Unconquered Sun (or Dies Natalis Solis Invicti) was celebrated on the winter solstice . The feast of Sol Invictus (Unconquered Sun) on December 25 was celebrated with great joy. and in Greek Helios (occasionally referred to as Titan) and (sometimes) as Apollo. In different religions solar supreme deities carry different names and are associated with different aspects of the cultural universe of the society. usually by its perceived power and strength..Sun . is found in the later myths of ancient Egypt. Solar Maximum. Mesopotamian Shamash plays an important role during the Bronze Age. the celebrated birthday of Christ.crystalinks. Hathor during the night. the sun as traversing the sky in a chariot. Sun Gods Wikipedia 15 of 33 3/30/12 4:14 PM . see Inti. Sunspots and the Rise and Fa. with Ra and Horus. Hence. http://www. A solar deity . During the later periods of Roman history.

The worship of the Sun in the Eastern world has its historical origin in Ancient Egypt. http://www. one of the major deities in their religion. with Aten as its central figure. Many scripts from Hindu mythology referred the sun as a King. the Sun is notably mentioned as the visible form of God that one can see every day. "he".html The Sun in Culture Humans have long recognized the Sun's role in supporting life on Earth. The ancient Greeks grouped the Sun together with the other celestial bodies which moved across the sky (in relation to the starfield). The ritual of sandhyavandanam. and as a result many societies throughout history have paid homage to the Sun by giving it prominent roles in their religions and mythologies.Astronomy. calling them all planets. Solar Maximum.crystalinks. The Sun is sometimes referred to by its Latin name Sol or by its Greek name Helios. son of Dyaus Pitar. Its astrological and astronomical symbol is a circle with a point at its center. but now also "it")... but took the male gender of the Latin sol (the sun. who 16 of 33 3/30/12 4:14 PM . and the visible disk of the Sun (known as Aten) was either seen as the body or the eye of Ra. The English word sun stems from Old High German sunna. Sunspots and the Rise and Fa.com/sun. Surya is the chief solar deity.Sun . This was before the acceptance of heliocentrism. In Hindu religious literature. The Egyptians identified the Sun with Ra. is meant to worship the Sun. The pharaoh Akhenaten established a monotheistic religion during his reign. performed by some Hindus. In Hinduism.

com/sun.html rides on a chariot seven horses (this is indication of seven colors from Sunlight). Both the ancient Greeks and ancient Romans worshipped one or more solar deities. However. The Roman Empire adopted Helios into their own mythology as Sol. Many Greek myths personify the Sun as a Titan named Helios.E. Pre-Islamic Arab pagans considered solar eclipses and other celestial occurrences as omens signaling the passing of an important figure or other earthly events. causing day..June 7. the Shariah forbade all prayers during the rising and setting of the Sun. and depicted on several types of Roman coins during the 3rd and 4th centuries. to symbolically refute its divinity. Icarus attempted to fly but the sun melted his wings. Scientists prove existence of 'magnetic ropes' that cause solar storms PhysOrg . the Sun like other celestial objects is not endowed with any particular religious significance or symbolic meaning. Due to the widespread presence of Sun-worshiping cults in Pre-Islamic Arabia. From the 1500s to the 1800s. when the death of his son coincided with a solar eclipse: "The Sun and the Moon are from among the evidences of God.. Muslim doctrine. They do not eclipse because of someone's death or life.Astronomy. a time now referred to as the Maunder Minimum." The religious significance of the Sun has its roots in the very earliest of recorded Western history. who wore a shining crown and rode a chariot across the sky. Dim Sun Helped Send Earth into Little Ice Age. Sunspots and the Rise and Fa. researchers suggest. Over time. 2011 A dearth of bright spots on the sun might have contributed to a frigid period known as the "little ice age" in the middle of the past millennium. 2011 Confirming the existence of this formation is a key first step in helping to mitigate the adverse effects that solar storm eruptions can have on satellite communications on Earth. The birth of "the undefeated Sun" was celebrated on the 25th of December from at least as early as 354. The title Sol Invictus ("the undefeated Sun") was applied to several solar deities.. much of Europe and North America were plunged into what came to be called the little ice age. the Islamic religious scripture. In the Qur'an.crystalinks. The coolest part of this cold spell coincided with a 75-year period beginning in 1645 when astronomers detected almost no sunspots on the sun. 2011 17 of 33 3/30/12 4:14 PM .June 16. Study Suggests Live Science .Sun . this belief was refuted explicitly by the Prophet Muhammad in the year 632 C. http://www. the Sun became increasingly associated with Apollo.. First ever STEREO images of the entire Sun PhysOrg . In the News .February 7. Solar Maximum.

Astronomy.crystalinks. studying new images of clouds of material exploding from the Sun have spotted instabilities forming in that exploding cloud that are similar to those seen in clouds in EarthÕs atmosphere. Solar Maximum.August 28. http://www..Sun . New images show cloud exploding from Sun ripples like clouds on Earth PhysOrg . 2011 Physicists. a member of the STEREO science team at the Naval Research Lab in Washington.February 4.front and back. and they are now beaming back uninterrupted images of the entire star -. "For the first time ever. NASA's twin STEREO probes moved into position on opposite sides of the sun. 2010 18 of 33 3/30/12 4:14 PM .html On Feb.. 6th." says Angelos Vourlidas. Hole in the Sun NASA . led by a researcher at the University of Warwick. Sunspots and the Rise and Fa. DC.com/sun. we can watch solar activity in its full 3-dimensional glory.

Studied extensively from space since the 1960s in ultraviolet and x-ray light.Sun .uk .. 2010 The sun has been the inspiration for hundreds of songs. Music of the sun recorded by scientists Telegraph. coronal holes are known to be the source of the high-speed solar wind.2 million years old. 2010 Discovery suggests exploding star kick-started our sun. coronal holes typically cover regions just above the Sun's poles. researchers say. Oldest Material in Solar System Found National Geographic .June 21. known as coronal loops.html This ominous. Solar Maximum. the minerals push back the birth of the solar system by as much as two million years . dark shape sprawling across the face of the Sun is a coronal hole -. 93 million miles away. vibrate like strings on a musical instrument. a new study says.Astronomy. The strange case of solar flares and radioactive elements PhysOrg . But this extensive coronal hole dominated the Sun's northern hemisphere earlier this week. They found that huge magnetic loops that have been observed coiling away from the outer layer of the sun's atmosphere. atoms and electrons which flow outward along the open magnetic field lines. captured here in extreme ultraviolet light by cameras onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory.and suggests that an exploding star injected key materials into our system as it was being born.568. At 4. Sunspots and the Rise and Fa.. but now scientists have discovered that the star at the centre of our solar system produces its own music. The solar wind streaming from this coronal hole triggered auroral displays on planet Earth.a low density region extending above the surface where the solar magnetic field opens freely into interplanetary space.crystalinks.August 24. During periods of low activity. 19 of 33 3/30/12 4:14 PM .co. Pea-size minerals inside a meteorite are the oldest known material in the solar system.August 23. Astronomers at the University of Sheffield have managed to record for the first time the eerie musical harmonies produced by the magnetic field in the outer atmosphere of the sun.com/sun. 2010 The radioactive decay of some elements sitting quietly in laboratories on Earth seemed to be influenced by activities inside the sun. http://www.

2010 NASA Solar Observatory's First Shots .Sun . Eclipses Yield First Images of Elusive Iron Line in Solar Corona PhysOrg .html New Space Telescope Delivers First Mind-Blowing Video of the Sun Wired .Astronomy..April 21.December 17. Solar Maximum.January 4.Sun Gets in the Loop National Geographic . 2010 Close-Up Photos of Dying Star Show Our Sun's Fate Science Daily . Sunspots and the Rise and Fa. http://www. Such clouds can erupt dramatically when they break free of the sun's unstable hold. 2010 Nasa's Solar Dynamics Observatory returns first images BBC . Known as a prominence eruption. 2009 20 of 33 3/30/12 4:14 PM ..April 22. tenuously tethered to the sun's surface by magnetic forces. the loop was born from a relatively cold cloud of plasma.com/sun. or charged gas.crystalinks. 2010 A huge loop of material shooting up from the sun's surface in March was one of the first events witnessed by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory.April 22.

it begins to run out of hydrogen fuel at its core. which in a few hundred thousand years will create a beautifully gleaming planetary nebula. Sunspots and the Rise and Fa. JapanÕs space agency is planning to construct a solar power station in space and use it to beam energy down to Earth using lasers Telegraph. Chi Cygni has swollen in size to become a red giant star so large that it would swallow every planet out to Mars in our solar system. Solar Maximum. the star is puffing off its outer layers. and place it in a geostationary orbit.Sun . its "engine" begins to splutter. http://www. New close-up photos of the surface of this distant star show its throbbing motions in unprecedented detail. beating like a giant heart. Solar rays are at least five times as powerful in space as they are at ground level." discovered by David Fabricius in 1596. The plan is to create a miles-wide array of photovoltaic panels.uk ..com/sun. As it pulses. caused by the star's contraction and expansion. we see those splutterings as a brightening and dimming.. 2009 The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Jaxa) hopes that the ambitious plans will help ease the countryÕs energy problems as well as providing a solution for global warming. A report by researchers at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries said: 21 of 33 3/30/12 4:14 PM . a star like our Sun is writhing in its death throes. On Chi Cygni.crystalinks.html About 550 light-years from Earth. A select group of companies and researchers have been given the task of designing and building the Space Solar Power System (SSPS). Mira "the Wonderful. like the solar panels used on Earth. it has begun to pulse dramatically in and out.co. Like a car running out of gas. Stars at this life stage are known as Mira variables after the first such example.November 11.Astronomy. Moreover. As a sunlike star ages. allowing the huge panels to gather vast quantities of energy.

May 27. and triggered space weather disturbances. 2008 Here's a strange scenario: You move farther away from a fire. Sunspots Revealed In Striking Detail By Supercomputers Science Daily .April 15. New Kink in Sun's Strange Corona Space. the Sun sprayed Earth with relatively few. That's essentially what happens in the sun: Its outer layer. an international team of scientists led by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) has created the first-ever comprehensive computer model of sunspots.September 17.. That's essentially what happens in the sun: Its outer layer. is inexplicably hot. 2008 Here's a strange scenario: You move farther away from a fire.com . The resulting visuals capture both scientific detail and remarkable beauty.Astronomy.March 24. posing a threat to earth-orbiting satellites.crystalinks. until suddenly you are burning up. Sunspots and the Rise and Fa.June 22.Sun . 2009 In a breakthrough that will help scientists unlock mysteries of the Sun and its impacts on Earth. 2009 When the solar cycle was at a minimum level in 1996.html "Since solar power is a clean and inexhaustible energy source. the corona. A new study may complicate things further by poking holes in a leading theory that aims to account for the puzzling phenomenon. lighting up auroras in the sky at higher latitudes. Cartwheel Coronal Mass Ejection NASA . weak high-speed streams containing turbulent magnetic fields. http://www. we believe that this system will be able to help solve the problems of energy shortage and global warming. getting cooler and cooler. the Sun bombarded Earth with stronger and longer-lasting streams last year even though the solar cycle was again at a minimum level. the corona. In contrast. Solar Maximum.. A new 22 of 33 3/30/12 4:14 PM . until suddenly you are burning up. Solar Cycle Driven by More than Sunspots PhysOrg . is inexplicably hot. 2008 Visions of Sun's great 'belches' BBC . The streams affected Earth's outer radiation belt. getting cooler and cooler.com/sun.

Sunspots and the Rise and Fa. Unless other influences like volcanic eruptions or El Ninos intervene. But technological limitations had made the theory difficult to test until now.can carry enough energy from the sun's active surface to heat its atmosphere.. Climate-change sceptics may seize on the findings as evidence that the sun's variability can explain global warming . Steps along two of these routes require the presence of the element beryllium. Sun's Magnetic Secret Revealed Space.crystalinks. 2007 ide heating and cooling of the atmosphere during the 11-year sunspot cycle has been measured for the first time. will shed light on other solar phenomena such as the sun's magnetic fields and its super-hot corona. the chain takes one of several routes that all end with the creation of a helium nucleus and the production of sunlight. In stars the size of the sun. or corona. 2007 23 of 33 3/30/12 4:14 PM ..html study may complicate things further by poking holes in a leading theory that aims to account for the puzzling phenomenon. 2007 Mysterious waves that help transport the sun's energy out into space have been detected by scientists for the first time. most solar energy is produced by a complex chain of nuclear reactions that converts hydrogen into helium.com/sun. Solar Maximum. known as Alfvan waves. Global warming and cooling linked to the sunspot cycle New Scientist . Scientists Confirm Long-held Theory About Source Of Sunshine Science Daily .Sun . Beginning with protons from hydrogen's nucleus. we can expect strong warming of the atmosphere in the next five years.June 15.August 21. and they're very energetic.com .August 14. Researchers hope their discovery of the energetic ripples. The surface and corona are chock full of these things.Astronomy. 2007 A monumental experiment buried deep beneath the mountains of Italy has provided Princeton physicists with a clearer understanding of the sun's heart -. The magnetic waves called Alfven waves . Solar Tornadoes Thunderbolts . http://www.and of a mysterious class of subatomic particles born there. and physicists have theorized that these steps are responsible for creating about 10 percent of the sun's neutrinos. or outermost atmosphere. The 11-year cycle is the shortest of a number of known oscillations in the solar radiation reaching the Earth. Tung says the sun is currently at a low point in the 11-year cycle.January 22. as an upturn in the cycle reinforces human-generated warming.December 30. 2008 Powerful magnetic waves have been confirmed for the first time as major players in the process that makes the sun's atmosphere strangely hundreds of times hotter than its already superhot surface. A new video shows the ripples in action. Mysterious Solar Ripples Detected For The First Time Space.but mathematician Ka-Kit Tung says quite the contrary is true.com .

Sunspots and the Rise and Fa. But they aren't. even by reputable practitioners.Sun . these deeper layers of the Sun should be hotter to drive the so-called vigorous convection. starts. scientists recently proposed. could be stellar sound.April 24. in 1877 astronomers on both sides of the Atlantic observed things about Mars that had the potential for making SETI a done deal. creating fountains of hot gas that shape and power the chromosphere.html Sunspots are strange blemishes on the face of the Sun that offer some of the strongest evidence against the Sun being powered internally. through which we can get a glimpse of the underlying layers. Harnessing the Power of the Sun SETI . is 20% cooler than the rest of the surface of the Sun. A Massive Explosion on the Sun (Cool movie) NASA . The electric star interpretation is that sunspots are breaks in the hot surface of the sun. or penumbra. The dark center of the sunspot. 2007 It has been a burning mystery for decades: Why is a thin. or umbra.com/sun.May 31. Sun's "Ring of Fire" Stoked by Sound Waves National Geographic . irregular region of the sun's atmosphere known as the chromosphere much hotter than the star's visible surface? The answer. proceeds in fits. The outer shadow of the sunspot. To satisfy the standard theory. 2007 24 of 33 3/30/12 4:14 PM . As example.. Magnetic fields send sound waves from the sun's interior shooting upward.April 20.Astronomy. and frequent excursions down blind alleys. 2007 First 3-D Images of Sun Unveiled National Geographic ..crystalinks.April 24. http://www. a fait accompli. 2007 Science. and the structure and behavior of the filaments that form the penumbra are also too complex to be explained by standard stellar theory. Solar Maximum. They are conventionally described as being a result of strong magnetic fields pinching off the convection of heat from inside the Sun before it can reach the surface.

. http://www.html The Sun in Three Dimensions NASA . 2007 25 of 33 3/30/12 4:14 PM .Astronomy.March 22.March 21.com/sun.April 24. Sunspots and the Rise and Fa. 2007 A magnetic vortex almost as big as Earth Telescope imaged million-degree gas spiraling up from sunspots MSNBC . Solar Maximum.crystalinks.Sun . 2007 New Phenomena on the Sun + Video NASA ..

Astronomy.April 18.538 degrees Celsius). 5th with one of the strongest flares in years--an X9. followed by an X6 on Dec.com A Large Tsunami Shock Wave on the Sun (Animation) NASA . an X3 on Dec. 2006 Sunspot Penumbra Shock Astrophysicists Thunderbolts .. Solar Maximum. http://www.Space Weather. 2006 26 of 33 3/30/12 4:14 PM . 14th. Sunspot 930 announced itself on Dec. The discharge could be the hidden source that heats up the atmosphere of the sun.crystalinks.. gas floating above in the so-called corona soars to more than 100 times hotter.html Like cosmic rubber bands.December 13. twisted magnetic structures along the sunÕs surface can release massive amounts of energy when relaxed. 13th and an X1 on Dec. Sunspots and the Rise and Fa. Astronomers have long puzzled over the source of the coronaÕs heat.000 degrees Fahrenheit (5. 6th. . While the sunÕs surface is a steamy 10.Sun .com/sun.

27 of 33 3/30/12 4:14 PM . the scientists say. 2005 NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory survey of nearby sun-like stars suggests there is nearly three times more neon in the sun and local universe than previously believed. according to a new report.July 29.crystalinks. 2006 Sun's Changes to Blame for Part of Global Warming Live Science ..com/sun. Sunspots and the Rise and Fa. Increased emissions of carbon dioxide and other heat-trapping gases still play a role.March 6. http://www.October 1. NASA's Chandra Neon Discovery Solves Solar Paradox Science Daily .. 2005 Increased output from the Sun might be to blame for 10 to 30 percent of global warming that has been measured in the past 20 years. If true. Solar Maximum.html Textbook theory of sunspot activity faces new difficulties posed by the magnetically confined structures of the penumbra.Astronomy. Solar Minimum has Arrived NASA . The old idea that the penumbra filaments are convection currents must now give way to new evidence that electric currents dominate these solar structures. this would solve a critical problem with understanding how the sun works.Sun .

which reached temperatures of 100 million kelvins.html Deep Roots Of Solar Wind Help Predict Space Weather Across Solar System Science Daily .crystalinks. enhancing our ability to protect communications.. may have rocked the surrounding disk from which planets formed and prevented Earth from rapidly spiraling into the sun and being destroyed.May 25. Solar Maximum.Astronomy. authorities of the Roman Republic recorded such events with the enthusiasm of a modern tabloid. astronomers say 28 of 33 3/30/12 4:14 PM . navigation. While these omens cataloged by ancient historians won't tell us much about heaven's wrath. Solar Outbursts Protected Early Earth Scientific American May 11.. scientists say.C. We will also be able to warn human explorers on their way to the planets of the severity of those storms.Sun . 2005 The early sun produced powerful x-ray emissions that may have helped to ensure the survival of our planet. Sunspots and the Rise and Fa. Estimating the speed of the solar wind will improve space weather forecasts. 2005 In 200 B.com/sun. http://www. Heavenly signs that scared Roman rulers help astronomers study the Sun Astronomy Magazine . 2005 A layer deep in the solar atmosphere can be used to estimate the speed of the solar wind. a stream of electrified gas that constantly blows from the Sun. Data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory suggest that violent x-ray flares. and other satellites from the effects of solar storms.May 13..

. Many times.Astronomy. has now for the first time been reconstructed quantitatively by an international group of researchers led by Sami K. Solar Flares and Astronauts NASA . Solar Maximum. 17. The work of Roman historian Titus Livius (Livy. Solanki from the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research (Katlenburg-Lindau. back to the end of the last ice age on Earth. one needs to go back over 8.D. 2005 On January 20th. in English). 2004 The activity of the Sun over the last 11. i. and hurled a billion-ton cloud of electrified gas (a "coronal mass ejection") into space. Based on a statistical study of earlier periods of increased solar activity. Livy's Ab Urbe Condita. as active as in the last 60 years. the most powerful kind.000 years ago. he reports how Romans interpreted natural events as warnings that something was amiss in the relationship between the state and its gods.com/sun.November 1. Germany). As the scientists from Germany. Finland. and Switzerland report in the current issue of the science journal "Nature" from October 28.html they form an indirect record of what the Sun was doing 2.crystalinks.January 27.Sun . Sunspots and the Rise and Fa.e. the researchers predict that the 29 of 33 3/30/12 4:14 PM ..400 years. a giant sunspot named "NOAA 720" exploded. The blast sparked an X-class solar flare. written in the time of the first emperors. Ð A.000 years in order to find a time when the Sun was. The scientists have analyzed the radioactive isotopes in trees that lived thousands of years ago. chronicles Rome's history with the help of written records dating back hundreds of years. Solar protons accelerated to nearly light speed by the explosion reached the Earth-Moon system minutes after the flare the beginning of a days-long "proton storm. on average. 2005.C. who lived from 59 B." The Sun Is More Active Now Than Over The Last 8000 Years Science Daily .. http://www. formed the basis of both studies.

.March 21. Adventurers pride themselves on 30 of 33 3/30/12 4:14 PM .000-year high BBC . They say that over the last century the number of sunspots rose at the same time that the Earth's climate became steadily warmer. As the scientists have reported in the renowned scientific journal. gas eruptions. they have combined historical sunspot records with measurements of the frequency of radioactive isotopes in ice cores from Greenland and the Antarctic. In particular. To this end. Solar Maximum. shortly after the invention of the telescope.html current level of high solar activity will probably continue only for a few more decades. This period is called the Maunder Minimum after the English astronomer who studied it.000 years. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research (MPS) in Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany) and at the University of Oulu (Finland) have come to this conclusion after they have succeeded in reconstructing the solar activity based on the sunspot frequency since 850 AD. as indicated by frequent occurrences of sunspots. Scientists based at the Institute for Astronomy in Zurich used ice cores from Greenland to construct a picture of our star's activity in the past.crystalinks. longer-term changes. Sunspots have been monitored on the Sun since 1610.Sun . 2004 Many think it is just a myth. How Strongly Does The Sun Influence The Global Climate? Science Daily . Others think it is true but its cause isn't known. The temporal variation in the solar activity displays a similarity to that of the mean temperature of the Earth.com/sun. Sunspots and the Rise and Fa. The warming is being amplified by gases from fossil fuel burning. it has been noted that between about 1645 and 1715. They provide the longest-running direct measurement of our star's activity. since 1940 the mean sunspot number is higher than it has ever been in the last thousand years and two and a half times higher than the long term average. http://www.July 2004 A new analysis shows that the Sun is more active now than it has been at anytime in the previous 1. Physical Review Letters. A Green Flash from the Sun NASA . the Sun is in a phase of unusually high activity.August 2004 Since the middle of the last century.. The variation in sunspot numbers has revealed the Sun's 11-year cycle of activity as well as other. and radiation storms. Sunspots reaching 1. they argue.Astronomy. few sunspots were seen on the Sun's surface.

http://www. is designated 2003 VS2. the effect is caused by layers of the Earth's atmosphere acting like a prism. Re-examining past records. The Sun itself does not turn partly green. astronomers have found it in images taken as far back as 1998. a last glimmer appears startlingly green. Solar Maximum. Huge rock-ice body circles Sun BBC . The truth is the green flash does exist and its cause is well understood.. A dramatic green flash was caught in the above photograph in 1992 from Finland.November 17. 2003 Astronomers have discovered a key fact required to understand the Sun's 11-year cycle of activity.crystalinks. Sunspots and flares on the Sun's surface follow the cycle. but takes better timing to spot. 2003 Astronomers have found a large object orbiting the Sun near Neptune's orbit. and lasts just a few seconds. Just as the setting Sun disappears completely from view.html having seen it..Sun . but expelled gas clouds do not. A green flash is also visible for a rising Sun.Astronomy. It's a green flash from the Sun. The expelled gas takes away the Sun's old magnetic skin allowing a new one to emerge to start a new cycle.they peaked in 2002. It seems that these ejections trail the sunspot peak . two years after sunspots. The effect is typically visible only from locations with a low. Sunspots and the Rise and Fa. distant horizon. The object is about 570 km across.com/sun. It was discovered on Friday by an automated sky survey project designed to search for threatening asteroids that may be on an Earth impact course.November 24. The new body. Sun 'sheds its skin like a snake' BBC . 31 of 33 3/30/12 4:14 PM . made of rock and ice. making it one of the largest bodies of its kind found in modern times.

Sun . It was part of an initiative to develop fusion power . ShareThis ASTRONOMY INDEX ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF ALL FILES CRYSTALINKS HOME PAGE PSYCHIC READING WITH ELLIE 2012 THE ALCHEMY OF TIME Donation to Crystalinks Search 32 of 33 3/30/12 4:14 PM .crystalinks.com/sun. http://www..November 11. The plasma in the lab behaved like a miniature version of a solar flare. Solar Maximum. Scientists hope they can create a flare at low energies in the lab. recreating the super-heated cloud of electrically-charged gas seen on the Sun known as a plasma.the nuclear energy that keeps the Sun shining. Sunspots and the Rise and Fa.Astronomy. 2003 Scientists have simulated a solar flare in the lab.html Solar flare 'reproduced' in lab BBC .. to enable them to study the explosive events that take place on the Sun's surface.

html 33 of 33 3/30/12 4:14 PM . Sunspots and the Rise and Fa.. Solar Maximum.crystalinks. http://www..Sun .Astronomy.com/sun.