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The Industrial Revolution 1700-1900 UNIT 4

View the following sets of pictures. Directions: Pick a picture, and write the following: Overview (what do you see in the whole picture) Parts of the picture (specific details w/in) Title (create a title) Inside the Image (hypothesize a background story) Conclusion (Your overall conclusion to the picture)

OPTIC Directions

Growth in Science and Technology


throughout Great Britain, Continental Europe, & The United States led to the Industrial Revolution These same countries will also become World Leaders!

But why did it start in England? England 1700s

Small farms had covered Europe- Large landowners
begin buying plots of land and need better ways to work thembang for their buck! their plots with fences or hedges

As a way to keep their land marked off they enclosed ENCLOSURES

1) New Agricultural Methods Crop Rotation, Better Livestock

Results of Enclosure

2) Small farmers become tenant

farmers or move to city


Industrialization: So needy its sad

GOODS Needs: Water power & Coal Iron Ore Rivers Harbors


Factors of Production?
Cant fit in a house!
New Inventions!

Put them in a factory!

Build itand they will demand Effects of the Industrial Revolution

Life Working conditions Rise of Cities Living Conditions Positives?

Tensions Between Classes

Same awful job, different country

How did the US industrialize? What caused it to boom in the late

Advancement in ways to employ people in terrible jobs

Why did the rest of Europe not

1800s? How did corporations come to be?

industrialize? Which countries industrialized and how?

Belgium Germany France

What impacts did industrialization

Were so advanced. Us. Not you.

have on the world? Society?

Brainstorm at least 3 ways in which the government has touched your life already today (Hint: You (hopefully!) brushed your teeth this morning with FDA approved toothpaste.)
French for Let do. Or let

Laissez Faire Economics

business do as it pleases Pure Market economic theory with no govt interference in economy letting business & industry set

working conditions with NO GOVERNMENT interference Idea came from French Enlightenment economic philosophers

Laissez Faire Economics

Govt. regulations interfere with wealth Promote free trade no heavy taxes on imports (Mercantilism) Best known Laissez Faire Economist Adam Smith (1723-1790)

Scottish economist published book

Adam Smith The Wealth of Nations

on free market in 1776 called The

Wealth of Nations Economic freedom = progress & wealth (enlightenment thinker)

Which is more important: Liberty or Equality?

Liberty: freedom from external or foreign rule; independence. Equality: the state or quality of being equal; correspondence in quantity, degree, value, rank, or ability.

Adam Smith The Wealth of Nations Adam Smith The Wealth of Nations

Maximizes liberty (And competition)

Everyone is free to pursue economic activity independently and individually: Free Enterprise Economic system in which factors of production are privately owned with profit as the goal Goods and services are produced for profitable exchange.

Profit=Motivator, Competition=Regulator Pure capitalism= EVERYTHING run by private sector No redistribution of income Focus on individual Laissez Faire Capitalism ie : Smith, Malthus Against ANY GOVERNMENT help for poor workers such as minimum wage laws, or better working conditions

Basic Capitalist Principles

The Invisible Hand of the market

Problem How do we survive in

world where we must depend on others, but where humans are by nature self-interested individuals? Solution free market, appears chaotic & unrestrained - actually guided to produce right amount & variety of goods by an invisible hand.
There, there it is againthe invisible hand of the marketplace giving us the finger.
Founded by English Philosopher


Jeremy Bentham modified Adam Smith Judge ideas, institutions and actions based on how useful they are

Govt should promote greatest good

for most people

Early advocate animal rights Separation of church and state Freedom of expression Equal rights for women End of slavery Ending physical punishment

Jeremy Bentham

Jeremy Bentham

(including on children) Right to divorce Decriminalization of homosexuality Critiques of death penalty

Government, in the form of a few


democratically elected officials,

decides how wealth is distributed and resources are distributed

Focuses on making everyone equal Get what you need, when you need it Workers share profits of their labor Tax the rich to support everyone EXTREME form of socialism Key proponents Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels ideas presented in pamphlet called Communist Manifesto Communism was response to conditions of the day just created by IR, but Marx viewed socialism as not strong enough - wanted more extreme measures Still socially controlled

1. History is a series of struggles

Communist Logic

between classes
Bourgeoisie and Proletariat Haves and Have Nots

2. All value comes from labor

3. Government always sides with

the rich

4. In order to reach a classless

state, poor must violently overthrow the government 5. Absolute control would be needed to transition to classless society
Communism became EXTREMELY

In practice

Communism VS Socialism
issues with production and economy, owning resources as an equal group Ultimate goal: No government necessary

political using Socialist ideals to gain support The ideal goal is to eliminate the state in a classless society, removing government from the picture Socialism is considered to be liberal Government maintains control over resources and economy

Central planning committee decides

Significant government control

over resources and economics Influence control of producers and consumers in society to maintain equality
Predicts proletariat will overthrow owners The proletarians have nothing to lose but their

chains. They have a world to win. Workingmen of all countries, unite!

Experiences with both

Communism/Socialism: USSR, China, Cuba, Vietnam, North Korea Tend to create an aristocracy of government
officials Government control of economy can produce economic stagnation, extreme poverty

methods Capitalism:

China ignited its economy by using capitalist

Majority of all Western nations have some

form of capitalism, sprinkled with socialism Can produce extreme wealth, extreme poverty 20th century showed pursuit of wealth brings robust and resilient economy driven by incentive Government has been needed to intervene when large private firms start to flounder INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION CONTEXT

Marx thought history was cyclical &

that time for communism had arrived advocated achieving communism in violent rev. where workers (PROLETARIAT) overthrow capitalist/owners (BOURGEOISIE)

Marx felt history would follow this scientific pattern: FEUDALISM CAPITALISM COMMUNISM Communism is inevitable

Marx & Engels Communist Manifesto

From each according to their ability, to Each according to their need Karl Marx

Published in 1848 Revolts happened in Europe in 1848-1849 but were suppressed In 1900s Marxism will inspire Lenin in Russia, Mao Zedong in China, Fidel Castro in Cuba, etc. These leaders will adapt Marxism to their own needs

Marx said after the revolution there would be a temporary dictatorship of the
proletariat for transmission but that state would wither away proletariat

Lenin and others would use this to justify communist dictatorships

Marxism now viewed as a failure, but profound intl impact over last 150 years


Communism: Central planning committee makes decisions regarding production & economy & group owns resources collectively
Growth of unions Strikes Reform Laws Reform movement spreads to: Abolition Womens rights Prisons Schools British Artisans in 1800s who

Labor Movement

protestedoften by destroying mechanized loomsagainst changes produced by I.R., which

they felt were leaving them without work (they were skilled workers) & against horrible factory conditions Movement was strong for short time and fought with British Army. There was a mass trial at York in 1812 that resulted in many executions and imprisonments