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ESSENTIAL IDEA ----------------,

Scientists classify animals into two main groups. Animals that have backbones are called vertebrates, Cats, fish, and birds are aU examples of vertebrates. They have backbones made of small bones called vertebrae'.

A. Dogs are vertebrates.

The other animal group is inveaeb~rate~SI.nvertebrates are I animals that do not have a backbone. Most animals in the world are invertebrates. Some invertebrates, like snails and worms, live on land. Other invertebrates, like jellyfish, live in the ocean.

.~ An octopus is an inverte rap that can grow very arge,

Insects, such as butterflies, do not have backbones.

WHY IT MATTERS --------------------,

You have a backbone, so you are a vertebrate. Insects and spiders that you see are invertebrates ..

43

Inve

rates

~ore than 95 percent of the animals living on Earth are invertebrates. Many invertebrates live in water. Worms, insects, and spiders live in and on the soil.

The simplest animals are spon:ge_s. Sponges have no muscle or nerve ceUs. They absorb food through pores, or openings, in their bodies.

Snails and squid are invertebrates called mollusKS. They have soft bodies. Many mollusks, such as snails, have a hard shell that grows with their body.
mollusks

Shrimp, lobster, and crayfish are invertebrates called

on the outside of their bodies.

crustaceans

more about Invertebra.tes

45

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!Anne . are invertebrates with long bo = ~ made of many parts. The parts 10' . e rings and move separately. , and leeches are annelids.
annelids

There are more than a million different kinds of lins~e::cts n o Earth. Insects have a:n'tenna~ and. six legs. Their bodies have three parts. Like crustaceans, insects have exoskeletons.
ladybug insects

Spiders have eight legs and no antennae. They have two body parts. Many spiders spin webs to catch insects for food.

live in water absorb food throug mollusks jive on sailor in a have soft bodies crustaceans s

s
annelids insects ive i1'1 on soil or have exoskeletons. antennae, spiders ive on soil have eight-legs

six legs,

and three body parts and two body parts

WHY IT MATTERS --------------------,

There are thousands of Invertebrates around you every day. Invertebrates often help you. For example, insects help fruit reproduce, and you eat fruit,

47

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ates
IAL IDEA ---------------.

any of the animals you see every day are vertebrates, or animals with backbones. Vertebrates are divided into five main classes. Each class has a group of traits that separate the animals from other classes. iMammals are wantl~lno1led animals. Mammals' bodies are adapted to help them keep a constant temperature. Outside temperatures do not change the temperature of the animals.

!Birds are warm-blooded animals
that have feathers. Most birds use their wings to fly.

Most ~isbare cOld-blontletl. They have the same temperature as their environment.

Reptiles are cold-blooded animals that
have scales. They live on land or in water. Reptiles reproduce by laying eggs. Snakes and lizards are reptiles.

Amphibians are cold-blooded.
They spend part of their lives in water and part on land. Frogs reproduce in water and live on land as adults.

more about Vertebrates

49

UNIT 5-LIFE

SCIENCE:

HUMAN BODY

STUDENT ACTIVITY PAGE

Fingerprints
Materials
• inkpad • paper towel • magnifying glass

Directions
No two human beings have the same fingerprints or tongue prints. Fingerprint patterns can vary greatly among individuals. Follow the directions below. 1. Make sure the inkpad is damp with ink. 2. Ink one fingertip at a time. 3. Carefully place the finger in the proper box and roll it so that the print is clear and complete in the square. 4. Clean your fingers with a paper towel.

Left Hand
Little Finger

Ri::J
Ring Finger

Middle Finger

Index Finger

Thumb

'*'iI"""""'" ... ~.._

Right Hand
Little Finger

.&
Index Finger Thumb

Middle Finger

Patterns
All fingerprints have these three shapes in common (see below).

1. Use a magnifying glass to study each fingerprint. 2. Lapel each of your 10 prints above as whorl, loop, or arch on the chart below. Make your best judgment about those in which you are uncertain. 3. Compare your fingerprints with those of a classmate. Write your classmate's pattern below. 4. Then compare patterns with other classmates. 5. Can you find a classmate with the same pattern on one or both hands?


RF

Whorl

Arch

Left-HandPattern
r=\F MF IF

You
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.. r
1
f'

r-"-_",....--~'-,r----", .......

Right-Hand Pattern
RF MF

LF

----r--..., IF T

_

You 1st
2nd

I

1st 2nd

f},Teacher Created Resources, Inc.

55

#8965 Standards-Based

Science Investigations