Institute of Hotel Management, Aurangabad University of Huddersfield, UK

Pathway: B.A (Hons.) – Culinary Arts


Year – II 2008-2009


Submitted to:Chef. Anand Singh Marwad

Submitted by:Aabhas Mehrotra (C-1101)

similar to a tortilla. The hard. It has been around for several millennia. however. which is made and eaten in most of the countries around the world. bread with yeast added so that it would rise during production. Bread is a staple foodstuff. minerals. The grain is processed.000 years in the past. only yeast is added so that the bread rises. Egypt is attributed with popularizing the art of making bread. recover. It is estimated that the first bread was made around 10000 years BC or over 12. Whole grain bread is similar. Over the centuries craft bakers have developed our traditional bread varieties using their accumulated knowledge as to how to make the best from the available raw materials to achieve the desired quality and texture. outer portion of the grain is stripped. The closed oven was invented circa 3000 BC and allowed for more varieties of bread to be produced. The rubbery mass of gluten with its ability to deform. removing fibre and many vitamins. It is around this time that leavened bread is first described.INTRODUCTION Bread is one of the oldest known recipes to man. made simply of ground grains (flour) and water that was mashed and baked. The proliferation of bread varieties derives from the unique properties of wheat proteins to form gluten. and healthy fats that are naturally available. Bread products have evolved to take many forms. the enriched with a generic spray of vitamins and minerals. and heating it produce whole grain flatbread. shape and trap gasses which is very important in the production of breads. that is bread. This is by no means an exhaustive list. This bread was more than likely flatbread. In the most basic form. grinding grains. Some of the methods used in the industry are as follows - . stretch. The first tools and implements used in the making of bread are dated to about 8000 years BC. This is then used to bake the bread. There are many types of bread. each based on quite different and distinctive characteristic. White bread starts out similar to whole grain bread. The remaining portion is ground to a fine powder. adding water.

A loaf of average size should bake from fifty to sixty minutes at a beginning temperature of about 400° F. cover the receptacle. Cover and allow rising until double its bulk.Press the dough away with the palms of your hands.Remove dough from receptacle. and repeat folding. First Rising of Dough . All ingredients are mixed in one operation and then given bulk fermentation time either once or twice depending upon the flavour that is desired. Grease the dough.STRAIGH DOUGH METHOD The straight dough method is the simplest mixing method. Add to the liquid and yeast mixture all the flour to be used or enough to make dough of the desired stiffness and knead thoroughly until it no longer sticks to the board. If a soft crust is desired. After fifteen or twenty minutes. To braid. exerting sufficient force to cause the part folded over to adhere to the mass under it. This second rising is not essential but is worthwhile because it improves both the texture and the flavour of bread. Put back in receptacle. folding and kneading until dough is smooth and elastic and will not stick to an unfloured board. Press the dough away with the palms of your hands. grease the dough. round and smooth on the upper surface. and proceed. Turn dough one-quarter around and repeat kneading. folding the back edge over to the centre. Kneading Bread . the temperature of the oven . Shaping into Loaves . Stretch the dough from the edge. This leaves a ball-shaped mass. bring the top around the underside and fold edges together. cut into three. Continue turning. Bread carefully shaped in this way seems to give a much better product than seamy rough dough.Shape by folding the sides of a piece of dough under while pressing the dough so as to lengthen it. Let the dough rise until it trebles its bulk. This method may always be used with compressed yeast. roll lengthwise.Put the dough into a greased receptacle large enough to hold at least three times the bulk of the dough. cover the receptacle and set in a warm place. pinch together at one end. Grease the top of the dough. Baking Bread . and return to warm place to rise again. The top should be kept perfectly smooth and the only crease in the dough should be on the underside as the loaf is placed in the tin. consisting of only one step. Second Rising of Dough .

CHOLRLEYWOOD BREAD PROCESS The Chorleywood Bread Process. and computer regulated cooling systems modulate the next stages. which produces a loaf of bread from flour to slicedand-packaged form in about three and half hours. drive off the carbon dioxide and alcohol. . The air pressure in the mixer headspace is maintained at a partial vacuum to prevent the gas bubbles in the dough from getting too large and creating an unwanted "open" structure in the finished crumb. the fermentation period is substantially reduced. which increases the production speed of each loaf. chemical oxidants and "improvers" like water. The large amount of energy used generates high temperatures to raise the dough with its large dose of yeast. and uses intense mechanical working of the dough by high-speed mixers. Flour. The major effect on breads. together with solid vegetable fat.may be reduced. By introducing several minutes of high energy mixing into the baking process. Australia. was developed in 1961 by the Flour Milling and Baking Research Association at Chorleywood and is now used to make 80% of the UK‟s bread. A moderate heat for sixty minutes produces better bread than a hot oven for thirty minutes. kill the yeast plants. The CBP method of making bread cannot be reproduced in a normal kitchen because of this requirement. or CBP. New Zealand and India. combined with chemical improvers. Higher protein wheat’s may be used but are more expensive. yeast. harden the cell walls of the crumb and develop the desired flavour. Solid fat is necessary to provide structure during baking or the loaf collapses. during the production via short dough method is that the bread tends to over ferment as the fermentation is very hard to control due to temperature and various other factors. CBP is able to utilise lower-protein wheat‟s. Bread is baked to complete the rising. dextrinize the crust. It is used in over 80 percent of factory-produced bread in the United Kingdom. high quantities of yeast and water. Even many "specialty" and organic breads are produced this way. fat and salt are mechanically mixed and the dough is violently shaken for about three minutes. Thus straight dough method is only limited to small scale industries.

In cutting over the dough. It is now said to be ripe and ready to be made into dough. As soon as the sponge is ripe pour in the remaining water. The flavour that you get from straight dough method can obviously be never achieved. The sponge will double in size and bubbles will be seen on the surface. thoroughly knead it until the desired stiffness is obtained. Take one half of the flour to be used. where. all the yeast.. until it becomes a stiff. it will raise and fall two or three times. after dissolving it in sugar and salt. Chorleywood bread process is used generally to make huge quantities and is only done in large scale to give massive production. (The proper time to take sponge is just after it has fallen 1 inch for the first time. about two hours later they are sliced. Grease the tray well with cottonseed oil or lard. and place it in the tray. CBP needs more amount of yeast (double that of straight dough method) to give the same dough volume increase in the final proof as the short dough method. Baking takes 20 minutes at 400 degrees F and then the loaves go to the cooler. but if this takes place the dough is liable to sour. It is now ready to be baked. After the sponge is broken up add the remaining flour. elastic mass. packaged and ready for dispatch. and four sevenths of the water. Continue the process until the whole dough has been „cut over. Mix the whole. where it sits for about an hour. FERMENT OR SPONGE DOUGH METHOD In this method a sponge is first set. The dough should be cut over at least twice. More water is also needed when making dough. This mixture is called the sponge and is set to rise at a temperature of 80 degree F.) If undisturbed. which now becomes the dough. Sponge dough is usually prepared in 2 stages. placed four to a tin and moved to the humidity and temperature controlled proofing chamber. when the dough is made. Cut some of dough from the mass. One half the cottonseed oil or lard (pork fat) to be used should be added at this time.The dough is cut into individual pieces and allowed to "recover" for 8 minutes. in this method because of better hydration of flour during intense mixing. With the . Each piece of dough is then shaped further. water and all the yeast. Strong flour will stand more age in the sponge than a weak one. use the remaining of the cottonseed oil or lard. Make the sponge into thin batter. and incorporating all other ingredients in a second operation some time later. Make a mixture that will just drop from the hands when taken up.

because it multiplies greatly during the sponge fermentation. which gives good flavour and texture to the bread. Now the dough is ready to be rounded up on the bench or moulded into loaves. The fermented mixtures are cooled by the use of refrigerated coils between the walls of the tanks until ready to be used. .  Less yeast is needed. all the ingredients except flour are first combined under pressure to form dough. The dough should about fill half of the tray occupied by it. Set the dough to proof at a temperature of 80 degree F. When the loaves are double in size they are ready for the oven. The continuous bread making system uses the following basic elements. Allow rising the second time until nearly top of the tray. developed by the long fermentation of the sponge. which saves time. Stronger fermentation of rich dough’s. A liquid ferment. This process produces breads of uniform shape. and sent to an oven for baking. When the sponge method is used. When the dough had risen to the top of the tray and has fallen 1 inch it should be punched first time. Advantages of the sponge method –     Shorter fermentation time for the finished dough. The loaves should be rounded up and allowed to proof for about 15mins to 20mins. most of the fermentation is completed before the fat and sugar are incorporated. Scheduling of patrician board dam the dough. shaped. texture and quality and generally has a crumbly texture. The dough is then divided. In most common methods. Increased flavour. Higher sugar and fat content inhibits yeast growth. Punch the second time and give it about 10mins to proof. Sponges can usually be held longer than finished dough. The bread produced by this method has very fine tight grain similar to the grain of cake. CONTINOUS MIXING METHOD The continuous mixing method is very popular among the large commercial bakeries. brew or liquid sponge is prepared which is allowed to ferment in stainless steel tanks under controlled temperature condition for several hours.

an increase the calorific value of the bread. the action of the yeast will increase. because of better gluten ripening. Better and softer crumb. Natural result of better dough fermentation. sugar on caramelizing fives a much better colour to the bread. As salt helps in controlling the pace of fermentation by the yeast. Salt delayed method has various effects on the bread –      Increased volume.SALT DELAYED BREAD MAKING METHOD It is an excellent process used initially for harsh the gluten flours but now widely used for all bread making process as it reduces the fermentation time without giving any change in quality of the bread. The chemical changes that take place in the dough will also fasten and the effect of the acids produced will be visible in a shorter time. This helps in mellowing the gluten reasonable. . again the result of better gluten ripening. In this process we omit the addition of salt in the first stages of dough making. Better bloom. instead an extra pinch of sugar is added which acts as food for the yeast and causes better gluten ripening. The gluten will ripen or soften well due to the rapid action of the gasses released. The dough is usually given a 2/3rd mixing allowed to rest. Improved crust colour. This is the best method of conditioning the dough without high use of yeast or an increase in fermentation temperature or time. Increased food value. hence when the salt is omitted in the first stages. The salt is added at the knock back stage when the rest of the normal mixing time is given to mix the salt evenly in the dough. By using some fat to incorporate the salt. Methods in which salt is added later –    By sprinkling the salt over the dough. By using some water reserved from the original quantity.

Those starters are “sour” because of the acidity created in the dough during the long fermentation. In addition. the bread has little sourdough flavour. they are handled somewhat differently. Third. they create acids. WILD YEAST: Wild yeast can tolerate more acidity than commercial yeasts. and sour dough starters or natural starters. This acidity affects not only the flavours of the bread but also the texture. The balance of two acids gives the bread its characteristic sourdough flavour. If dough made with commercial yeast becomes too sour or acidic. Sour dough starters are similar to yeast pre ferments except that they are made with wild yeasts. short fermentation straight dough‟s may be difficult to handle. naturally improve the dough texture. Lactic acid is necessary the flavour. Like the yeast. A sour dough starter is dough or batter that contains wild yeasts or bacteria. In addition. and the resulting bread will have an off taste. There are 2 types of starter cultures that can be used to make sour dough.SOUR DOUGH METHOD Pre ferments give the fermentation a strong head start. Too much acetic acid in the dough makes the bread taste harsh and vinegary. but if the dough contains only lactic acid and little or no acetic acid. resulting in a moisture crumb and better keeping qualities. which have a noticeable acidity as a result of fermentation by these organisms and that is used to leaven other dough‟s. The starches and proteins are modified by the acids. and they contribute to flavour by extending the fermentation period. . There are two basic types of ferments: yeast pre ferments sometimes called yeast starters. BACTERIAL FERMENTATION: The second important point is that sour dough starters contain bacteria‟s as well as yeast. Getting a balance between two acids lactic acid and acetic acid is of utmost importance. making it easier to work without resorting to additives. Pre ferments. Wild yeast used in starters can tolerate and grow in higher levels of acidity. the yeast is likely to die. on the other hand. As a result. requiring the use of dough conditioners and other additives. These acids give sour dough its sourness. these bacteria ferment some of the sugars in the dough and create carbon dioxide gas. to the use of pre ferments allows the bakers to reduce or eliminate the amount of commercial yeast used.

giving the bread a long shelf life. Straight dough‟s were made with double the amount of yeast to reduce the fermentation time to a minimum. flour. water and yeast for ingredients. Today. The addition of sourdough to the bread recipe has a positive influence on the nutritive value of the bread. mould which is the frequent cause of bread spoilage. as the minerals become bio available. The resulting breads were saleable. pre blended.Sourdough plays a very vital role in bread making process and also effects the bread in many ways –  The flavour of bread crumbs depending on the flour type and enzymatic reactions taking place due to yeast and sourdough fermentation. Bread quality was thought to be less desirable.    Addition of sour dough in the bread recipe increases the mould free period from 1 to 3 day. as mentioned above. NO TIME DOUGHS In the beginning of their practical application no time dough started as a method for producing breads when baked products were in short supply and the time required for baked breads from the sponge dough process or straight dough method could not meet the demands. no time dough systems are much more than just an emergency system for dough production. an emergency system for dough production. lesser money is used Bakers now have at their disposal simple. . and short time ferment systems were. sourdough wheat bread has higher bread volume. However. but flavour was lacking and shelf life was limited. Actually the reason why no time dough system is preferred is very simple –   It save’s a ample amount of time Space and equipments are less required hence. Sourdough usually has a lower bread firming ability. short time ferment concentrates to which the baker must add only topping.\Addition of sour dough in the recipe retards the staling process of the bread.

crusts. importance of the various ingredients and different types of methods used in the processing of breads and there various effects on bread. while the same crust formation would be unacceptable on a north American pan bread and the fine cell structure of sandwich bread in UK has no relevance to the flat breads of the middle east. aerated and palatable food which is good in flavour and texture. In the process of compiling this .com/2006/11/08/dining/08mini.800 http://breadmaking. softness. textures.wikipedia. BIBLIOGRAPHY INTERNET http://extension. which after baking confers texture and eating qualities quite differently from other baked products.htm Compiling this assignment has been a great learning experience for me. The character of the bread and other fermented products depend heavily on the making style and the formation of gluten net work which traps gas and makes a direct contribution to the formation of a cellular crumb structure.usu. A baguette is not a baguette without a crisp crust. eating qualities and flavour.htm http://en.pdf sizes. I conclude by saying that despite of being various types of bread making i have gained a better understanding of the historical significance.CONCLUSION The term bread is used to describe a wide range of products with different shapes.googlepages. they have the common aim of converting flour and other ingredients into light. colours.cornfieldbakery.seabeecook.

The Bread Bakers Apperentice. Linda Collister and Anthony Blake. published in 1993 by Conran Octopus Limited. Toronto) The Bread and Bread Machine Cookbook.BOOKS Hamlyn. by Christine Ingram and Jennie Shapter (2003). Published by Lorenz Books Anness Publishing Limited The Bread Bibble. by Rose Levy Beranbaum (2003). published by Ten Speed Press (Berkely.W.Norton and Compony . published perennial The Bread Book. Larousse Gastronomique (2001) Bread Alone. by Peter Reinhart (2001). By Judith Ryan Hendricks. published by W.

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