p
c
+
V
a
= q
bit
+ q
back
+ q
res
q
choke
V
d
p
p
= q
pump
q
bit
M
q
bit
= p
p
p
c
(F
d
+ F
a
)q
bit
q
bit
+ (
d
a
)gh
bit
p
bit
=
_
p
c
+ M
a
q
bit
+ F
a
q
bit
q
bit
+
a
gh
bit
p
p
M
d
q
bit
F
d
q
bit
q
bit
+
d
gh
bit
p=[bar], V=[m
3
], q=
_
m
3
s
_
=[bar], h=[m], g=9.81
_
m
s
2
F=friction factor, =
_
kg
m
3
_
M = M
d
+ M
a
M
d
=
d
_
l
bit
0
1
A
d
(x)
dx,
M
a
=
a
_
l
w
0
1
A
a
(x)
dx
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 6/15
6
Model
V
a
p
c
+
V
a
= q
bit
+ q
back
+ q
res
q
choke
V
d
p
p
= q
pump
q
bit
M
q
bit
= p
p
p
c
(F
d
+ F
a
)q
bit
q
bit
+ (
d
a
)gh
bit
p
bit
=
_
p
c
+ M
a
q
bit
+ F
a
q
bit
q
bit
+
a
gh
bit
p
p
M
d
q
bit
F
d
q
bit
q
bit
+
d
gh
bit
p=[bar], V=[m
3
], q=
_
m
3
s
_
=[bar], h=[m], g=9.81
_
m
s
2
F=friction factor, =
_
kg
m
3
_
M = M
d
+ M
a
M
d
=
d
_
l
bit
0
1
A
d
(x)
dx,
M
a
=
a
_
l
w
0
1
A
a
(x)
dx
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 6/15
6
Model
V
a
p
c
+
V
a
= q
bit
+ q
back
+ q
res
q
choke
V
d
p
p
= q
pump
q
bit
M
q
bit
= p
p
p
c
(F
d
+ F
a
)q
bit
q
bit
+ (
d
a
)gh
bit
p
bit
=
_
p
c
+ M
a
q
bit
+ F
a
q
bit
q
bit
+
a
gh
bit
p
p
M
d
q
bit
F
d
q
bit
q
bit
+
d
gh
bit
p=[bar], V=[m
3
], q=
_
m
3
s
_
=[bar], h=[m], g=9.81
_
m
s
2
F=friction factor, =
_
kg
m
3
_
M = M
d
+ M
a
M
d
=
d
_
l
bit
0
1
A
d
(x)
dx,
M
a
=
a
_
l
w
0
1
A
a
(x)
dx
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 6/15
6
Model
V
a
p
c
+
V
a
= q
bit
+ q
back
+ q
res
q
choke
V
d
p
p
= q
pump
q
bit
M
q
bit
= p
p
p
c
(F
d
+ F
a
)q
bit
q
bit
+ (
d
a
)gh
bit
p
bit
=
_
p
c
+ M
a
q
bit
+ F
a
q
bit
q
bit
+
a
gh
bit
p
p
M
d
q
bit
F
d
q
bit
q
bit
+
d
gh
bit
p=[bar], V=[m
3
], q=
_
m
3
s
_
=[bar], h=[m], g=9.81
_
m
s
2
F=friction factor, =
_
kg
m
3
_
M = M
d
+ M
a
M
d
=
d
_
l
bit
0
1
A
d
(x)
dx,
M
a
=
a
_
l
w
0
1
A
a
(x)
dx
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 6/15
6
Model
V
a
p
c
+
V
a
= q
bit
+ q
back
+ q
res
q
choke
V
d
p
p
= q
pump
q
bit
M
q
bit
= p
p
p
c
(F
d
+ F
a
)q
bit
q
bit
+ (
d
a
)gh
bit
p
bit
=
_
p
c
+ M
a
q
bit
+ F
a
q
bit
q
bit
+
a
gh
bit
p
p
M
d
q
bit
F
d
q
bit
q
bit
+
d
gh
bit
p=[bar], V=[m
3
], q=
_
m
3
s
_
=[bar], h=[m], g=9.81
_
m
s
2
F=friction factor, =
_
kg
m
3
_
M = M
d
+ M
a
M
d
=
d
_
l
bit
0
1
A
d
(x)
dx,
M
a
=
a
_
l
w
0
1
A
a
(x)
dx
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 6/15
7
Model Verication
0 500 1000 1500
240
260
280
300
320
340
s
b
a
r
g
p
bit
p
bitsim
0 500 1000 1500
50
0
50
100
150
s
b
a
r
g
p
p
p
c
p
psim
p
csim
Figure: Model tted to WeMod
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
50
100
150
200
250
b
a
r
g
p
bit
p
p
p
bitfit
p
pfit
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
0
10
20
30
hr
p
c
(barg)
u
p
(
liter
s
)
Figure: Model tted to data
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 7/15
7
Model Verication
0 500 1000 1500
240
260
280
300
320
340
s
b
a
r
g
p
bit
p
bitsim
0 500 1000 1500
50
0
50
100
150
s
b
a
r
g
p
p
p
c
p
psim
p
csim
Figure: Model tted to WeMod
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
50
100
150
200
250
b
a
r
g
p
bit
p
p
p
bitfit
p
pfit
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
0
10
20
30
hr
p
c
(barg)
u
p
(
liter
s
)
Figure: Model tted to data
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 7/15
7
Model Verication
0 500 1000 1500
240
260
280
300
320
340
s
b
a
r
g
p
bit
p
bitsim
0 500 1000 1500
50
0
50
100
150
s
b
a
r
g
p
p
p
c
p
psim
p
csim
Figure: Model tted to WeMod
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
50
100
150
200
250
b
a
r
g
p
bit
p
p
p
bitfit
p
pfit
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
0
10
20
30
hr
p
c
(barg)
u
p
(
liter
s
)
Figure: Model tted to data
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 7/15
8
Observer Design  Assumption
Measure topside pressures and
ow through main pump
measure/know the geometry of the
well
all parameters except friction and
density in annulus known
q
res
= 0
q
bit
> 0, in reality q
bit
0
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 8/15
8
Observer Design  Assumption
Measure topside pressures and
ow through main pump
measure/know the geometry of the
well
all parameters except friction and
density in annulus known
q
res
= 0
q
bit
> 0, in reality q
bit
0
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 8/15
8
Observer Design  Assumption
Measure topside pressures and
ow through main pump
measure/know the geometry of the
well
all parameters except friction and
density in annulus known
q
res
= 0
q
bit
> 0, in reality q
bit
0
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 8/15
8
Observer Design  Assumption
Measure topside pressures and
ow through main pump
measure/know the geometry of the
well
all parameters except friction and
density in annulus known
q
res
= 0
q
bit
> 0, in reality q
bit
0
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 8/15
8
Observer Design  Assumption
Measure topside pressures and
ow through main pump
measure/know the geometry of the
well
all parameters except friction and
density in annulus known
q
res
= 0
q
bit
> 0, in reality q
bit
0
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 8/15
9
Observer Design  Model
Same model, unkown friction and density
p
p
= a
1
q
bit
+ b
1
u
p
q
bit
= a
2
(p
p
p
c
)
1
q
bit
q
bit
+
2
v
3
p
bit
= p
c
+ M
a
q
bit
+ (M
1
F
d
)q
bit
q
bit
+ (
d
M
g
2
)h
bit
a
1
=
d
V
d
, b
1
= a
1
a
2
=
1
M
,
1
=
F
a
+ F
d
M
2
=
(
d
a
)g
M
, v
3
= h
bit
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 9/15
9
Observer Design  Model
Same model, unkown friction and density
p
p
= a
1
q
bit
+ b
1
u
p
q
bit
= a
2
(p
p
p
c
)
1
q
bit
q
bit
+
2
v
3
p
bit
= p
c
+ M
a
q
bit
+ (M
1
F
d
)q
bit
q
bit
+ (
d
M
g
2
)h
bit
a
1
=
d
V
d
, b
1
= a
1
a
2
=
1
M
,
1
=
F
a
+ F
d
M
2
=
(
d
a
)g
M
, v
3
= h
bit
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 9/15
9
Observer Design  Model
Same model, unkown friction and density
p
p
= a
1
q
bit
+ b
1
u
p
q
bit
= a
2
(p
p
p
c
)
1
q
bit
q
bit
+
2
v
3
p
bit
= p
c
+ M
a
q
bit
+ (M
1
F
d
)q
bit
q
bit
+ (
d
M
g
2
)h
bit
a
1
=
d
V
d
, b
1
= a
1
a
2
=
1
M
,
1
=
F
a
+ F
d
M
2
=
(
d
a
)g
M
, v
3
= h
bit
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 9/15
9
Observer Design  Model
Same model, unkown friction and density
p
p
= a
1
q
bit
+ b
1
u
p
q
bit
= a
2
(p
p
p
c
)
1
q
bit
q
bit
+
2
v
3
p
bit
= p
c
+ M
a
q
bit
+ (M
1
F
d
)q
bit
q
bit
+ (
d
M
g
2
)h
bit
a
1
=
d
V
d
, b
1
= a
1
a
2
=
1
M
,
1
=
F
a
+ F
d
M
2
=
(
d
a
)g
M
, v
3
= h
bit
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 9/15
9
Observer Design  Model
Same model, unkown friction and density
p
p
= a
1
q
bit
+ b
1
u
p
q
bit
= a
2
(p
p
p
c
)
1
q
bit
q
bit
+
2
v
3
p
bit
= p
c
+ M
a
q
bit
+ (M
1
F
d
)q
bit
q
bit
+ (
d
M
g
2
)h
bit
a
1
=
d
V
d
, b
1
= a
1
a
2
=
1
M
,
1
=
F
a
+ F
d
M
2
=
(
d
a
)g
M
, v
3
= h
bit
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 9/15
10
Observer Design  Transformation
Dene = q
bit
+ l
1
p
p
. l
1
is a tuning gain.
Dynamics for
= l
1
a
1
q
bit
1
q
bit
q
bit
+
2
v
3
+ a
2
(p
p
p
c
) + l
1
b
1
u
p
A state estimator for q
bit
= l
1
a
1
q
bit
1

q
bit

q
bit
+
2
v
3
+ a
2
(p
p
p
c
) + l
1
b
1
u
p
q
bit
=
l
1
p
p
Error dynamics for
= q
bit
q
bit
= l
1
a
1
1
(q
bit
q
bit

q
bit

q
bit
) +
T
(
q
bit
, v
3
)
(
q
bit
, v
3
) =
_

q
bit

q
bit
, v
3
T
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 10/15
10
Observer Design  Transformation
Dene = q
bit
+ l
1
p
p
. l
1
is a tuning gain. Dynamics for
= l
1
a
1
q
bit
1
q
bit
q
bit
+
2
v
3
+ a
2
(p
p
p
c
) + l
1
b
1
u
p
A state estimator for q
bit
= l
1
a
1
q
bit
1

q
bit

q
bit
+
2
v
3
+ a
2
(p
p
p
c
) + l
1
b
1
u
p
q
bit
=
l
1
p
p
Error dynamics for
= q
bit
q
bit
= l
1
a
1
1
(q
bit
q
bit

q
bit

q
bit
) +
T
(
q
bit
, v
3
)
(
q
bit
, v
3
) =
_

q
bit

q
bit
, v
3
T
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 10/15
10
Observer Design  Transformation
Dene = q
bit
+ l
1
p
p
. l
1
is a tuning gain. Dynamics for
= l
1
a
1
q
bit
1
q
bit
q
bit
+
2
v
3
+ a
2
(p
p
p
c
) + l
1
b
1
u
p
A state estimator for q
bit
= l
1
a
1
q
bit
1

q
bit

q
bit
+
2
v
3
+ a
2
(p
p
p
c
) + l
1
b
1
u
p
q
bit
=
l
1
p
p
Error dynamics for
= q
bit
q
bit
= l
1
a
1
1
(q
bit
q
bit

q
bit

q
bit
) +
T
(
q
bit
, v
3
)
(
q
bit
, v
3
) =
_

q
bit

q
bit
, v
3
T
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 10/15
10
Observer Design  Transformation
Dene = q
bit
+ l
1
p
p
. l
1
is a tuning gain. Dynamics for
= l
1
a
1
q
bit
1
q
bit
q
bit
+
2
v
3
+ a
2
(p
p
p
c
) + l
1
b
1
u
p
A state estimator for q
bit
= l
1
a
1
q
bit
1

q
bit

q
bit
+
2
v
3
+ a
2
(p
p
p
c
) + l
1
b
1
u
p
q
bit
=
l
1
p
p
Error dynamics for
= q
bit
q
bit
= l
1
a
1
1
(q
bit
q
bit

q
bit

q
bit
) +
T
(
q
bit
, v
3
)
(
q
bit
, v
3
) =
_

q
bit

q
bit
, v
3
T
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 10/15
10
Observer Design  Transformation
Dene = q
bit
+ l
1
p
p
. l
1
is a tuning gain. Dynamics for
= l
1
a
1
q
bit
1
q
bit
q
bit
+
2
v
3
+ a
2
(p
p
p
c
) + l
1
b
1
u
p
A state estimator for q
bit
= l
1
a
1
q
bit
1

q
bit

q
bit
+
2
v
3
+ a
2
(p
p
p
c
) + l
1
b
1
u
p
q
bit
=
l
1
p
p
Error dynamics for
= q
bit
q
bit
= l
1
a
1
1
(q
bit
q
bit

q
bit

q
bit
) +
T
(
q
bit
, v
3
)
(
q
bit
, v
3
) =
_

q
bit

q
bit
, v
3
T
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 10/15
10
Observer Design  Transformation
Dene = q
bit
+ l
1
p
p
. l
1
is a tuning gain. Dynamics for
= l
1
a
1
q
bit
1
q
bit
q
bit
+
2
v
3
+ a
2
(p
p
p
c
) + l
1
b
1
u
p
A state estimator for q
bit
= l
1
a
1
q
bit
1

q
bit

q
bit
+
2
v
3
+ a
2
(p
p
p
c
) + l
1
b
1
u
p
q
bit
=
l
1
p
p
Error dynamics for
= q
bit
q
bit
= l
1
a
1
1
(q
bit
q
bit

q
bit

q
bit
) +
T
(
q
bit
, v
3
)
(
q
bit
, v
3
) =
_

q
bit

q
bit
, v
3
T
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 10/15
11
Observer Design  Lyapunov Analysis
Lyapunov type analysis
V =
1
2
2
+
1
2
V l
1
a
1
2
for the choice
 < c
1
og 
 < c
2
Using Barb alats lemma we get lim
t
= lim
t
q
bit
= 0
We also get lim
t
T
= lim
t
_
q
bit
+
2
v
3
_
= 0
q
bit
0 and
T
0 enables us to get an estimate
p
bit
p
bit
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 11/15
11
Observer Design  Lyapunov Analysis
Lyapunov type analysis
V =
1
2
2
+
1
2
V l
1
a
1
2
for the choice
 < c
1
og 
 < c
2
Using Barb alats lemma we get lim
t
= lim
t
q
bit
= 0
We also get lim
t
T
= lim
t
_
q
bit
+
2
v
3
_
= 0
q
bit
0 and
T
0 enables us to get an estimate
p
bit
p
bit
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 11/15
11
Observer Design  Lyapunov Analysis
Lyapunov type analysis
V =
1
2
2
+
1
2
V l
1
a
1
2
for the choice
 < c
1
og 
 < c
2
Using Barb alats lemma we get lim
t
= lim
t
q
bit
= 0
We also get lim
t
T
= lim
t
_
q
bit
+
2
v
3
_
= 0
q
bit
0 and
T
0 enables us to get an estimate
p
bit
p
bit
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 11/15
11
Observer Design  Lyapunov Analysis
Lyapunov type analysis
V =
1
2
2
+
1
2
V l
1
a
1
2
for the choice
 < c
1
og 
 < c
2
Using Barb alats lemma we get lim
t
= lim
t
q
bit
= 0
We also get lim
t
T
= lim
t
_
q
bit
+
2
v
3
_
= 0
q
bit
0 and
T
0 enables us to get an estimate
p
bit
p
bit
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 11/15
11
Observer Design  Lyapunov Analysis
Lyapunov type analysis
V =
1
2
2
+
1
2
V l
1
a
1
2
for the choice
 < c
1
og 
 < c
2
Using Barb alats lemma we get lim
t
= lim
t
q
bit
= 0
We also get lim
t
T
= lim
t
_
q
bit
+
2
v
3
_
= 0
q
bit
0 and
T
0 enables us to get an estimate
p
bit
p
bit
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 11/15
11
Observer Design  Lyapunov Analysis
Lyapunov type analysis
V =
1
2
2
+
1
2
V l
1
a
1
2
for the choice
 < c
1
og 
 < c
2
Using Barb alats lemma we get lim
t
= lim
t
q
bit
= 0
We also get lim
t
T
= lim
t
_
q
bit
+
2
v
3
_
= 0
q
bit
0 and
T
0 enables us to get an estimate
p
bit
p
bit
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 11/15
11
Observer Design  Lyapunov Analysis
Lyapunov type analysis
V =
1
2
2
+
1
2
V l
1
a
1
2
for the choice
 < c
1
og 
 < c
2
Using Barb alats lemma we get lim
t
= lim
t
q
bit
= 0
We also get lim
t
T
= lim
t
_
q
bit
+
2
v
3
_
= 0
q
bit
0 and
T
0 enables us to get an estimate
p
bit
p
bit
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 11/15
11
Observer Design  Lyapunov Analysis
Lyapunov type analysis
V =
1
2
2
+
1
2
V l
1
a
1
2
for the choice
 < c
1
og 
 < c
2
Using Barb alats lemma we get lim
t
= lim
t
q
bit
= 0
We also get lim
t
T
= lim
t
_
q
bit
+
2
v
3
_
= 0
q
bit
0 and
T
0 enables us to get an estimate
p
bit
p
bit
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 11/15
11
Observer Design  Lyapunov Analysis
Lyapunov type analysis
V =
1
2
2
+
1
2
V l
1
a
1
2
for the choice
 < c
1
og 
 < c
2
Using Barb alats lemma we get lim
t
= lim
t
q
bit
= 0
We also get lim
t
T
= lim
t
_
q
bit
+
2
v
3
_
= 0
q
bit
0 and
T
0 enables us to get an estimate
p
bit
p
bit
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 11/15
12
Simulation  WeMod
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
240
260
280
300
320
[
b
a
r
]
p
bit
p
bit
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
0
50
100
150
[min]
[
b
a
r
]
p
c
p
p
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
0
500
1000
1500
q
bit
q
bit
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
2
4
6
x 10
4
F
a
F
a
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
0.01
0.015
[min]
a
a
Initial conditions:
q
bit
(t
0
) = u
p
(t
0
),
a
(t
0
) = 2
a
,
F
a
(t
0
) = 3F
a
, t
0
= 50s
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 12/15
13
Simulation  Data
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
50
100
150
200
250
b
a
r
g
p
bit
p
p
p
bitfit
p
pfit
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
0
10
20
30
hr
p
c
(barg)
u
p
(
liter
s
)
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
215
220
225
230
235
240
245
b
a
r
g
p
bit
p
bit
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
0
0.005
0.01
hr
a
F
a
Initial conditions:
q
bit
(t
0
) = u
p
(t
0
),
a
(t
0
) = 1.2
a
,
F
a
(t
0
) = 1.5F
a
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 13/15
14
Conclusion
A simple model for estimation during drilling has been
presented
An observer has been developed
Adapts to unknown friction and density
Low complexity
Good simulation results
Tested on data from North Sea well
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 14/15
14
Conclusion
A simple model for estimation during drilling has been
presented
An observer has been developed
Adapts to unknown friction and density
Low complexity
Good simulation results
Tested on data from North Sea well
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 14/15
14
Conclusion
A simple model for estimation during drilling has been
presented
An observer has been developed
Adapts to unknown friction and density
Low complexity
Good simulation results
Tested on data from North Sea well
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 14/15
14
Conclusion
A simple model for estimation during drilling has been
presented
An observer has been developed
Adapts to unknown friction and density
Low complexity
Good simulation results
Tested on data from North Sea well
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 14/15
14
Conclusion
A simple model for estimation during drilling has been
presented
An observer has been developed
Adapts to unknown friction and density
Low complexity
Good simulation results
Tested on data from North Sea well
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 14/15
14
Conclusion
A simple model for estimation during drilling has been
presented
An observer has been developed
Adapts to unknown friction and density
Low complexity
Good simulation results
Tested on data from North Sea well
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 14/15
Thank you!
www.ntnu.no . Stamnes, Adaptive Observer Design for Bottomhole Pressure 15/15