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All Pages 1. home 2. C Sharp 3. CCNA Cheat Sheet Unit 2 Routing 4. CCNA Cheat Sheet Unit 3 Switching 5. CCNA Cheat Sheet Unit 4 Accessing the WAN 6. CCNA1 Chap 9 Ethernet 7. CCNA1 Notes 8. CCNA2 Chap1 9. CCNA2 Chap10 Link-state Routing Protocols state 10. CCNA2 Chap11 OSPF 11. CCNA2 Chap2 12. CCNA2 Chap3 13. CCNA2 Chap4 14. CCNA2 Chap5 Ripv1 15. CCNA2 Chap6 VLSM and CIDR 16. CCNA2 Chap7 RIPv2 17. CCNA2 Chap8 The Routing Table 18. CCNA2 Chap9 EIGRP 19. CCNA3 Chap5 Switches and Wireless 20. CCNA4 Chap1 WAN see more

CCNA2 Chap2
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CCNA Exploration - Routing Protocols and Concepts
2 Static Routing
2.0 Chapter Introduction
2.0.1 Chapter Introduction Page 1:

Chapter Introduction

Routing is at the core of every data network, moving information across an internetwork from source to de network to the next.

As we learned in the previous chapter, routers learn about remote networks either dynamically using rout combination of both dynamic routing protocols and static routes. This chapter focuses on static routing.

Static routes are very common and do not require the same amount of processing and overhead as we w

In this chapter, we will follow a sample topology as we configure static routes and learn troubleshooting te results they display. We will also introduce the routing table using both directly connected networks and s

As you work through the Packet Tracer activities associated with these commands, take the time to expe soon become second nature.

2.0.1 - Chapter Introduction The diagram depicts the front panel of various Cisco routers and a list of chapter objectives. In this chapt - Define the general role a router plays in networks. - Describe the directly connected networks and the different router interfaces. - Examine directly connected networks in the routing table and use the CDP protocol. - Describe static routes with exit interfaces. - Describe summary and default routes. - Examine how packets get forwarded when using static routes. - Identify how to manage and troubleshoot static routes.

2.1 Routers and Network
2.1.1 Role of the Router Page 1: Role of the Router

The router is a special-purpose computer that plays a key role in the operation of any data network. Rout Determining the best path to send packets Forwarding packets toward their destination

Routers perform packet forwarding by learning about remote networks and maintaining routing informatio routers primary forwarding decision is based on Layer 3 information, the destination IP address.

The router's routing table is used to find the best match between the destination IP of a packet and a netw interface to forward the packet and the router will encapsulate that packet in the appropriated data link fra

2.1.1 - Role of the Router The diagram depicts the role of the router. A photograph of a router is shown with arrows pointing to route

Network Topology: PC1 is connected to switch S1, which is connected to router R1. Router R1 is connected to router R2 via connected to switch S2, which is connected R3.

2.1.2 Introducing the Topology Page 1: Introducing the Topology

The figure shows the topology used in this chapter. The topology consists of three routers, labeled R1, R R2 and R3 are connected through another WAN link. Each router is connected to a different Ethernet LAN Each router in this example is a Cisco 1841. A Cisco 1841 router has the following interfaces: Two FastEthernet interfaces: FastEthernet 0/0 and FastEthernet 0/1 Two serial interfaces: Serial 0/0/0 and Serial0/0/1

The interfaces on your routers may vary from those on the 1841, but you should be able to follow the com labs. In addition, Packet Tracer activities are available throughout the discussion of static routing so that y Configuration," mirrors the topology, configurations, and commands discussed in this chapter. 2.1.2 - Introducing the Topology The diagram depicts the role of the router.

Network Topology: There are three routers, R1, R2, and R3, three switches, S1, S2, and S3, and three PC's, PC1, PC2, and

PC1 is connected to LAN switch S1, which is connected to the R1 interface FA0/0. The R1 interface S0/0

PC2 is connected to LAN switch S2, which is connected to the R2 interface FA0/0. The R2 interface S0/0 router R3 via WAN links.

PC3 is connected to LAN switch S3, which is connected to the R3 interface FA0/0. The R3 interface S0/0 Chapter Topology Address Table: Device: R1 Interface: FA0/0 IP Address: 172.16.3.1 Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway: N/A Device: R1 Interface: S0/0/0 IP Address: 172.16.2.1 Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway: N/A Device: R2 Interface: FA0/0 IP Address: 172.16.1.1 Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway: N/A Device: R2

Interface: S0/0/0 IP Address: 172.16.2.2 Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway: N/A Device: R2 Interface: S0/0/1 IP Address: 192.168.1.2 Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway: N/A Device: R3 Interface: FA0/0 IP Address: 192.168.2.1 Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway: N/A Device: R3 Interface: S0/0/1 IP Address: 192.168.1.1 Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway: N/A Device: PC1 Interface: NIC IP Address: 172.16.3.10 Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway: 172.16.3.1 Device: PC2 Interface: NIC IP Address: 172.16.1.10 Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway: 172.16.1.1 Device: PC3 Interface: NIC IP Address: 192.168.2.10 Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway: 192.168.2.1

2.1.3 Examining the Connections of the Router Page 1: Router Connections

Connecting a router to a network requires a router interface connector to be coupled with a cable connec types. Serial Connectors Click 1 in the figure.

For WAN connections, Cisco routers support the EIA/TIA-232, EIA/TIA-449, V.35, X.21, and EIA/TIA-530 not important. Just know that a router has a DB-60 port that can support five different cabling standards. sometimes called a five-in-one serial port. The other end of the serial cable is fitted with a connector that

Note: The documentation for the device to which you want to connect should indicate the standard for tha Click 2 and 3 in the figure.

Newer routers support the smart serial interface that allows for more data to be forwarded across fewer c smaller than the DB-60 connector used to connect to a five-in-one serial port. These transition cables sup configurations.

Note: For a thorough explanation of DTE and DCE, see Lab 1.5.1, "Cabling a Network and Basic Router

These cable designations are only important to you when configuring your lab equipment to simulate a "r you by the WAN service you are using. Ethernet Connectors Click 4 in the figure.

A different connector is used in an Ethernet-based LAN environment. An RJ-45 connector for the unshiel interfaces. At each end of an RJ-45 cable, you should be able to see eight colored strips, or pins. An Ethe Two types of cables can be used with Ethernet LAN interfaces: A straight-through, or patch cable, with the order of the colored pins the same on each end of the cable A crossover cable, with pin 1 connected to pin 3, and pin 2 connected to pin 6 Straight-through cables are used for: Switch-to-router Switch-to-PC Hub-to-PC Hub-to-server Crossover cables are used for: Switch-to-switch PC-to-PC Switch-to-hub Hub-to-hub Router-to-router Router-to-server Note: Wireless connectivity is discussed in another course.

2.1.3 - Examining the Connections of the Router The diagram depicts router connections and connectors. Router connections to CSU/DSU connections a needed to connect to CSU/DSU varies and must be ordered based on the CSU/DSU being used. LAN UT

2. no interfaces have been configured with an IP address and su Note: Static routes and dynamic routes will not be added to the routing table until the appropriate local in This procedure will be examined more closely in later chapters. The show interfaces command shows the status and gives a detailed description for all interfaces on the view the same information. the As you can see in the routing table for R1. You will a Click the Packet Tracer icon for more details. You will notice that the show interfaces command does not show any IP addresses on R1's interfaces. use the show interface R1#show interfaces fastethernet 0/0 FastEthernet0/0 is administratively down. such as FastEthernet 0/0.Examining the Connections of the Router Link to Packet Tracer Exploration: Build the Chapter Topology Use the Packet Tracer Activity to build the topology that you will use for the rest of this chapter. 2. Page 2: Use the Packet Tracer Activity to build the topology that you will use for the rest of this chapter. Initially.1 Examining Router Interfaces Page 1: Examining Router Interfaces As we learned in Chapter 1. in this case. T the interfaces. the show ip route command is used to display the routing table. that the interface is not receiving a carrier signal from a switch or th mode.shown. Click show interfaces in the figure. Interfaces and their Status The status of each interface can be examined by using several commands. but for a specific interface. Additional Commands for Examining Interface Status .3 . line protocol is down Notice that the interface is administratively down and the line protocol is down. Administratively down protocol is down means.2 Router Configuration Review 2. You add 2. Photographs of a D T E Serial DB60 cable and a D T E Smart Serial DB60 cable are shown. The D T E s The EIA/T IA 568B UTP Ethernet Cable is shown.1.

Click show ip interface brief in the figure. Config implemented immediately by the router. show running-config command: Using this command is another way to verify the status of an interface su command. Network Topology: Same as 2. and the line protocol is down. For ex R1#show interfaces fast ethernet0/0 FastEthernet0/0 is administratively down. The show ip interface brief command can be used to see a portion of the interface information in a cond Click show running-config in the figure.2 diagram 1. the routing table is empty if n show interfaces command: Shows the status of each interface and gives a detailed description for each in information for a specific interface. Initially. U areup and up (administratively up and line protocol is up). The show running-config command displays the current configuration file that the router is using. specify the interface in the command. such as FastEthernet0/0.2.1 .Examining Router Interfaces The diagram depicts ways to check interfaces and their status. This command displa protocol.1. show i p interface brief command: Shows only a portion of the interface information. using show running-config is not necessarily the best way to verify interface configurations.2.2 Configuring an Ethernet Interface Page 1: . 2. The output from various commands is shown. Using this command is another way to verify the status of an inte R1#show running-config <some output omitted> interface FastEthernet0/0 no ip address shutdown <some output omitted> However. R1#show running-config some output omitted interface FastEthernet0/0 no i p address shutdown some output omitted 2. show i p route command: This command displays the routing table. line protocol is down Notice that the interface is administratively down. in a condensed format.

Note: Although enabled with no shutdown. which changes th R1(config)#interface fastethernet 0/0 R1(config-if)#ip address 172. physically interface is properly connected to a switch or a hub.212: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface FastEthernet0/0.Configuring an Ethernet Interface As shown.0 R1(config-if)#no shutdown The following message is returned from the IOS: *Mar 1 01:16:08.255. an Ethernet interface will not be active. The IOS message typing.3. R1 does not yet have any routes. or turned off. 2. unless it is rec The second changed state to up message indicates that the Data Link layer is operational. or up. Unsolicited Messages from I O S: The administrator attempts to configure the FastEthernet interface so t interrupted by an I O S message indicating that the interface is up when the no shutdown command is en Logging Synchronous: Using the logging synchronous command synchronizes I O S messages and com Page 2: .255. On LAN interf interfaces in a lab environment require clocking on one side of the link as discussed in Lab 1. changed s Both of these messages are important.2. changed state to up *Mar 1 01:16:09.214: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0.2 diagram 1. The IOS often sends unsolicited messages similar to the changed state to up messages just discussed. The first changed state to up message indicates that. To enable this interface.1.1. then line protocol (the Data Link Unsolicited Messages from IOS Click Unsolicited Messages from IOS in the figure. in the middle of typing a command.16. Let's add a route by configuring an interface and explore exa are shutdown. The following commands are shown. use the no shutdown command. "Cablin "Configuring a Serial Interface. Click Logging Synchronous in the figure. In order to keep the unsolicited output separate from your input." If you do not correctly set the clock rate.2 .1 255.5. Show i p route: The routing table has no routes.Configuring an Ethernet Interface The diagram depicts the logging synchronous command when configuring an interface to prevent unsolic Network Topology: Same as 2. such as configuring a description for the interface. enter line configuration mode for the con that messages returned by IOS no longer interfere with your typing.

1 subnets C 172.0/24 network. FastEthernet0/0 . the faster it will be to find a particular name.16. The routing table could contain all 254 individual hos storing addresses. Note: Occasionally.3.16.3.Reading the Routing Table Now look at routing table shown in the figure. there could be a separate listing for Harold Stanford. Notice R1 now has a "directly connected" FastEthernet 0/0 address which makes it a member of the 172. a "host route" is entered in the routing table.2. FastEthernet0/0 The C at the beginning of the route indicates that this is a directly connected network.Configuring an Ethernet Interface The diagram depicts a directly connected route in the routing table when using the show i p route comma Network Topology: Same as 2.0 is directly connected. Harold.3.2 diagram 1. A phone book is a good analogy for a routing table structure. If this were done for every family. R1 list of codes at the top of the routing table. The phon of the phone book. Examine the following line of output from the table: C 172. 555-1234 This is the single entry for everyone who lives at this address and has the same phone number. The topic of host routes is discussed in another course. 2. the Stanford family migh Stanford.0/24 is subnetted.0. 172. which results in faster routing table lookups. The /24 subnet mask for this route is displayed in the line above the actual route. The phone book only contains one listing for each phone number.000 entries. which represents an individual host IP a subnet mask.0 is directly connected. For example. The fewer the entries in the routing addresses with subnet masks are listed instead of individual host IP addresses. For example.16. FastEthernet0/0 Routers Usually Store Network Addresses With very few exceptions.0 is directly connected.1. The following entry is shown: C 172.3. Having a single route represent routes. routing tables have routes for network addresses rather than individual host ad matches all packets with a destination address belonging to this network. In other words. the phone book would be larger and take longer to Routing tables work the same way: one entry in the table represents a "family" of devices that all share th address space will become clearer as you move through the course). 742 Evergreen Terrace. Margaret Stanford and phone number. A than a book of 200 pages and 20. A phone book is a list of names and phone we can assume that the fewer names there are in the book.16.2 .16.

3.16. Ea both its FastEthernet 0/0 interface configured as 172. When the interfac the interface is enabled. with the default gateway IP address 172. no shutdown is not displayed.2 255. R1#show running-config <output omitted> interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 172.Verifying the Ethernet Interface The diagram depicts verifying the interface status with the show interfaces and show i p interface brief co Network Topology: Same as 2.3. Under the status and protocol ou .0/24 network. show interfaces fast ethernet 0/0 command: The command output shows that the interface is up.255. This is because the no sh 2. Notice that the IP address is now displayed. Under the status and p The show running-config command shows the current configuration of this interface.0 <output omitted> As explained in Chapter 1. 172. show i p interface brief command: The command output shows that the interface is up using a brief format.1 255. the router's Ethernet or FastEthernet interface will be the default gateway IP address for any de belonging to the 172. 2.1.1 is rou interface will also participate in the ARP process as a member of that Ethernet network.0 172.2. The no shutdown comma address is now displayed.255.16.0 overlaps with FastEthernet0/0 R1(config-if)# Typically.The show i p route output shows that router R1 now has a connected network.16.2 diagram 1.3.3.3. The show ip interface brief command also shows verifies this same information.255.3 . and the line protocol is up.1/24 address and mask and its FastEthernet 0 The IOS will return the following error message if you attempt to configure the second interface with the s R1(config-if)#int fa0/1 R1(config-if)#ip address 172.2. a router cannot have multiple interfaces that belong to the same IP subnet.16.3 Verifying Ethernet interface Page 1: Commands to Verify Interface Configuration The show interfaces fastethernet 0/0 command in the figure now shows that the interface is up.1.16.255.16. and th fromadministratively down to up. Click show ip interface brief in the figure.3.16.3.

R1#show interfaces fastethernet 0/0 As demonstrated in Chapter 1.2 diagram 1.2. is then sent via that Ethernet interface. The serial inter properly configured.Page 2: Ethernet Interfaces Participate in ARP A router's Ethernet interface participates in a LAN network just like any other device on that network. let's configure the Serial 0/0/0 interface on router R1. This The show interfaces command displays the MAC address for the Ethernet interfaces.16.3 .0 R1(config-if)#no shutdown After entering the commands above.Verifying the Ethernet Interface Link to Packet Tracer Exploration: Configure Ethernet Interfaces for IP on Hosts and Routers Use the Packet Tracer Activity to practice configuring Ethernet interfaces. 2. Network Topology: Same as 2. The router is now able to encapsul ARP table. Page 3: Use the Packet Tracer Activity to practice configuring Ethernet interfaces. We can display the current state of serial 0/0/0 using the show interfaces serial 0/0 As you can see. 2. an Ethernet interface participates in ARP requests and replies and mainta connected Ethernet network.2.Verifying the Ethernet Interface The diagram depicts verifying MAC addresses on Ethernet interfaces using the show interfaces fast ethe Ethernet interface. Follow the additional instruction Click the Packet Tracer icon for more details. the link is still down. This interface is on the 172. the state of the serial interface may vary depending upon the type o course. serial point-to-point connections between two routers.1 255.255.16.3 . with the encapsulated packet.1. The Ethernet frame. The device with the destination IP address sends back information is then added to the ARP table for that Ethernet interface.2.0/24 network we use for the configuration of the serial interface 0/0/0 is similar to the process we used to configure the R1(config)#interface serial 0/0/0 R1(config-if)#ip address 172.255. Follow the additional instruction 2.2.2. we will be using dedicated.4 Configuring A Serial Interface Page 1: Configuring a Serial Interface Next. The link is down because we have not yet configured and enabled t . it checks the ARP table for an entry with that destination IP address in orde the Ethernet interface sends out an ARP request.

Configuring a Serial Interface The diagram depicts a serial interface with a status of down and down even though it has an IP address a Network Topology: Same as 2.0/24 network. 2. Internet address is 172.16.5 Examining Router Interfaces Page 1: Physically Connecting a WAN Interface The WAN Physical layer describes the interface between the data terminal equipment (DTE) and the data and the DTE is the attached device. line protocol is down We will now configure the other end of this link.2. Cisco routers are DTE devices. By default. in a lab environment.16.0 R2(config-if)#no shutdown If we now issue the show interfaces serial 0/0/0 command on either router. line protocol is down. which is the DCE device. In most enviro clock. Serial 0/0/0 link for router R2.2.1.2/24. in this case. R2(config)#interface serial 0/0/0 R2(config-if)#ip address 172.2. Note: There is no requirement that both ends of the serial link use the same interface. . The router is usually connected to the CSU/DSU using a serial DTE cable.255. line protocol is down <output omitted> The physical link between R1 and R2 is up because both ends of the serial link have been configured co However. the line protocol is still down.2 255. The CSU/DSU (DCE device) is also responsible for conv (DTE device). In this model.R1#show interfaces serial 0/0/0 Serial0/0/0 is administratively down. (The terms network and subnet c with the IP address and subnet mask 172.16.2. the router is the DTE device and is connected to a CSU/DSU.2 diagram 1.2. The CS a form acceptable to the WAN service provider. Configuring 2. as shown. This is because the interface is not receiving a clock signal. The clock rate command will set the clock signal for the link.2. Ther the router with the DCE cable.4 . Serial interfaces require a clock signal to control the timing of the communications. we still see that the link is u R2#show interfaces serial 0/0/0 Serial0/0/0 is up. The following lines in the R1 show interfaces serial 0/0/0 command output are highlighted: Serial0/0/0 is administratively down. Serial both must have IP addresses that belong to the 172.255. the services offered to the DTE are made available eit Typically.1/24. However.16. we are not using any C Roll over the cables and devices in the figure to see what they are.

as in a lab environment. and 4000000. R1(config)#interface serial 0/0/0 R1(config-if)#clock rate 64000 01:10:28: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Serial0/0/0. You can also distinguish DTE from DCE by looking at the connector between the two cables. the clock can now be set with the clock rate command. A CSU/DSU is con identified: -RJ-45 to Telco Demarc . the Serial 0/0/0 interface on R1 is connected with the DCE end of the cable.2. 148000. 1000000. Configure the clock signal on the serial interface using the clock rate command.5 . you can use the show controllers command to determi notice that R1 has the DCE cable attached to its serial 0/0 interface and that no clock rate is set. we will configure that interface with a clock rate. To configure a router to be the DCE device: 1. The available clock r 72000. no clock <output omitted> Once the cable is attached. 1300000. The DTE ca If a cable is connected between the two routers. and the s should be labeled either DTE or DCE. R1#show controllers serial 0/0/0 Interface Serial0/0/0 Hardware is PowerQUICC MPC860 DCE V. changed state to up . 2000000.2. Connect the DCE end of the cable to the serial interface. one side of a connection must be are DTE devices by default. The serial cables used in the lab are typically one of two types. A DTE/DCE crossover cable on which one end is DTE and the other end is DCE A DTE cable connected to a DCE cable In our lab topology. 500000. 125000. Some bit rates m R1 has the DCE cable attached.35. they can be configured as DCE devices. 800000.Examining Router Interfaces The diagram depicts physical connections on a router focusing on the WAN interface.cable from CSU/DSU to Telco -CSU/DSU DCE device -V dot 35 cable from the router to CSU/DSU -Power Supply on CSU/DSU -Router D T E device -UTP cable to 10/100 Ethernet Port on a switch -Console cable to PC -AC/DC adapter for router Page 2: Configuring Serial Links in a Lab Environment For serial links that are directly interconnected. 2.

Examining Router Interfaces The diagram depicts verifying the type of serial cable (DCE or D T E) attached to router R1 using the sho DCE cable connected but no clock rate is set.Examining Router Interfaces The diagram depicts verifying the status of router R1's serial interface using the show interfaces and show protocol is up and verifies that both ends of the serial link are also up.16. R1#show running-config Note: Although the clock rate command is two words. the IOS will disre 2.Note: If a router's interface with a DTE cable is configured with the clock rate command.2. Remember.3.0/24 network.1 Verifying Changes to the Routing Table . no clock output omitted Page 3: Verifying the Serial Interface Configuration As you can see from the figure. Network Topology: Same as 2.2 diagram 1. the serial interface will be up only if both ends of the link are configured cor the DCE cable.2 Finally. R1#show controllers serial 0/0/0 Interface Serial0/0/0 Hardware is PowerQUICC MPC860 DCE V dot 35. Note that router R1 S0/0/0 is labeled DCE.3 Exploring Directly Connected Networks 2. we can determine that the line protocol is now up and verify this on both e brief commands.0/24 serial network in the routing tables of both routers.2.16. If we issue the s 172.2. we can see the 172. R1#show ip route Now take a look at router R1's running configuration by using the show running-config command. Network Topology: Same as 2. The output from R1 showing pings confirms the serial interface configuration and that status is up and up .1.16.5 . R1#ping 172.2.2. 2.2 diagram 1.5 . We can further verify that the link is up/up by pinging the remote interface. the IOS spells clockrate as a single word in the ru 2.1.

255.2. 2 subnets C 172.Verifying Changes to the Routing Table The diagram depicts basic routing table concepts by displaying the routing tables of routers R1 and R2.3. A two connected networks.0 is directly connected.3.16. Serial0/0/0 C 172.0/24 is subnetted.that is. we will configure the IP address and subnet mask for the FastEthernet 0/0 interface on R2 and use 172.0.16.0 is directly connected.1.16.0 is directly connected.2 diagram 1.16. we will enable debugging with the debug ip routing command so that we can see the directly conn R2#debug ip routing IP routing debugging is on Configuring the IP address and Subnet Mask Next.16. changed state to up 02:35:31: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0. Current Routing Table for R1: 172. the show ip route command reveals the content of the routing table.0. 2. FastEthernet0/0 Current Routing Table for R2: 172.2. R2(config)#interface fastethernet 0/0 R2(config-if)#ip address 172. Let's r store routing information acquired from different sources.1.0 R2(config-if)#no shutdown The following message will be returned from the IOS: 02:35:30: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface FastEthernet0/0. and deleted from.0/24 is subnetted.16.1 255. Network Topology: Same as 2.1. The debug ip routing command will let us see any changes that th interfaces on the R2 router and examine this process. Serial0/0/0 Page 2: Observing Routes as They are Added to the Routing Table We will now take a closer look at how directly connected routes are added to.255.Page 1: Routing Table Concepts As you can see in the figure.16. changed state to up .1 .0/24 network. First. those addresses that are direct routes for directly connected networks. and R2 has only one because its FastEthernet interface is still down. the routin monitor router operations in real time. The main purpose of a routing table is to provid The routing table consists of a list of "known" network addresses . 1 subnets C 172. it must be configured with a host IP address for that network.

0/24 via 0.1. as seen in the fig The debug ip routing command displays routing table processes for any route.16.0/24 via 0.16. Disable debug ip routing by using either the undebug ip routing command or the undebug all comma Changing an IP Address To change an IP address or subnet mask for an interface. changed state to administratively down 02:54:01: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0.After the no shutdown command is entered and the router determines that the interface and line protoco connected network to the routing table.1.0. whether that route is a d Click Disable Debug in the figure. use these two commands: shutdown and no ip a The shutdown command is used to disable interfaces. we will delete the configuration for R2's Fa R2(config)#interface fastethernet 0/0 R2(config-if)#shutdown We can see the routing table process removing the directly connected route.1. The routing table now shows the route for the directly connected network 172. 02:35:30: RT: add 172.0. connected metric [0/0] 02:35:30: RT: interface FastEthernet0/0 added to routing table Click Routing Table 1 in the figure. In our example. To remove a directly connected network from a router.0. this command will disable R2's FastEtherent interface.0.0.0/24. 02:53:58: RT: interface FastEthernet0/0 removed from routing table 02:53:58: RT: del 172. connected metric [0/0] 02:53:58: RT: delete subnet route to 172.0/24 The IOS also indicates that the interface and line protocol are now down: 02:54:00: %LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface FastEthernet0/0. howe After the shutdown command is used.0. The IP address. This command can be used by itself if you want to temporarily. reconfigure the IP address and subnet mask fo configure a single interface with multiple IP addresses. you can remove the IP address and subnet mask from the interfa Click Debug 2 in the figure. R2(config-if)#no ip address Disable debugging: R2#undebug all . changed state to dow We will now remove the IP address on the interface. as long as each address is on a different subnet.1.16.16. Using debug ip routing we can see the routing table process.

2 Devices on Directly Connected Networks Page 1: Accessing Devices on Directly Connected Networks To return to our configuration in the sample topology.1. The debug outpu comes up. These com configuring or troubleshooting a network.All possible debugging has been turned off Click Routing Table 2 in the figure. Notice Reconfiguring the interface to continue with the chapter. The output from the show i p route command shows directly connected networks 172.2 diagram 1.16. The debug interface goes down.1.16.1 .255. and the FA0/0 interface is shut down. should be used sparingly. and the FA0/0 interface is configured. we will now assume that all directly connected netw configurations for routers R2 and R3. we will assume that the addressing for FastEthernet 0/0 was R2(config)#interface fastethernet 0/0 R2(config-if)#ip address 172.1. You will also use debug ip routin Click the Packet Tracer icon for more details.Verifying Changes to the Routing Table Link to Packet Tracer Exploration: Configure Serial Interfaces and Verify the Routing Table Use the Packet Tracer Activity to practice configuring serial interfaces. The debug i p routing command is issued on R2. To verify that the route was removed from the routing table. Network Topology: Same as 2. 2.0 a off debugging. they can make intensive use of CPU and memory res disable them immediately when they are no longer needed. Debug commands should be used with cautio 2. The output from the show i p route command now shows only the directly connecte Page 3: Use the Packet Tracer Activity to practice configuring Serial interfaces.3.0 R2(config-if)#no shutdown WARNING: Debug commands.1 255. You also use the debug i p routing 2. .Verifying Changes to the Routing Table The diagram depicts routes as they are added to and removed from the routing table.3. The debug i p routing command is issued again on R2. For the purposes of the rest of this chapter. we use the command show ip route.3. especially the debug all command.255. however.1 .

0 R3(config)#no shutdown R3(config)#interface serial 0/0/1 R3(config)#i p address 192.2 diagram 1.16. By reviewing the routing tables in the figure.16. such as 172. 172.2 255. For R2.0/24.1.1. all the routes have 2.Devices on Directly Connected Networks The diagram depicts configuring devices on directly connected networks and verifying the configurations. The output in this figure verifies that all configured interfaces are "up" and "up".168.0/24 and 172.1. or a combination of both . Network Topology: Same as 2.3. To have a match between the packet's destination IP address o of left-most bits of the network address as indicated by the prefix of the route.10 and the subnet m address 172. Because these routers only know about their directly connected networks.168.3.1 255.16.16.16.16.0 R2(config)#clock rate 64000 R2(config)#no shutdown R3(config)#interface fast ethernet 0/0 R3(config)#i p address 192.2.0/24 network.1 and 172. the routers can only communic For example. Click ping in the figure.255.0/24 networks.3.168.16.2. Notice that the pings failed.255.3.0 R3(config)#no shutdown . Because R1 only knows the 172. dynamic. Packets from PC1 with any other destinat Let's take a look at the routing table for R2 in the figure. and the routing table contains the directly connected ne reachable. It failed because R2 does not have the ping packet's destination IP address.verify your initial network configurations with the sh proceeding with more complex configurations.2.255.16.168.16. R2 only knows about its three directly connected interfaces on one of the other routers.1. R2 can communicate with any device on the 172.255.2. When a router only has its interfaces configured. and 192.2.0/24.2.2. R1 can communicate with any device on the 172. Click show ip route in the figure. The following is the remaining configuration of routers R2 and R3. PC1 in the topology has been configured with the IP address 172.168.168.static. we can verify that all directly connected networks are installe The crucial step in configuring your network is to verify that all the interfaces are "up" and "up" and that th configure .2 .1 255.2. which is the router's FastEtherent 0/0 interface IP address.1.1. R3 can communicate with any device on the 192.255.0/24 networks. as indicated by the series of five periods. R2(config)#interface serial 0/0/1 R2(config-i f)#i p address 192.Click show ip interface brief in the figure.0/24 networks.1.0/24 and 192.255.

this route is rejected.1. But the last route.16.2. and R3. and R3.2 . If you convert these addresses to binary and compare them. Therefore. we see that the first 24 bits of the second route do not match because the 24th bit does next route in the routing table.1.0/24 is subnetted.1. "The Routing Tabl 2.168.1 interface o This time the ping succeeds! It is successful because R2 has a route in its routing table that matches 192 172. as shown in the animation.16.16. and PC3 192.1 on the R1 LAN.2.16.0/24.16. Serial0/0/1 The third route is also not a match. but i Click Pings are sent to R3 on the figure and play the animation.0 is directly connected.1. 172. this route is discarded. 2 subnets C 172.3.1 or 192.2 diagram 1. C 192. As shown. matches the first 24 bit HDLC protocol of Serial0/0/1. The router makes its forwarding decision at Layer 3.16.3. The output verifies that all directly connected The ping command is issued from R2 to PC1 172. Network Topology: Same as 2.1.1.168.0/24 is directly connected. .16. The output verifies that all configured The show i p route command is issued for R1. you will see that Therefore.0 is directly connected.2. Note: The routing table lookup process will be discussed in further detail in Chapter 8.0. the exit interface. 10 of the first 24 bits do not match.168. Let's look at the second animation to see what happens if the router R2 pings the 192.1 on the R3 because R2 does not have a route in its routing table that matches either 172.168.0/24. the p Page 2: Checking Each Route in Turn The first route in the table for R1 is 172.16. Serial0/0/0 In the animation. are rejected.1. and forwarded via the Serial0/0/1 interface.The show i p interface brief command is issued for R1.1. FastEthernet0/0 The IOS routing table process checks to see if the 24 left-most bits of the packet's destination IP address Play the first animation in the figure.Devices on Directly Connected Networks The animation depicts successful and unsuccessful pings based on the contents of the routing table. 172.0/24 is subnetted. R2 is now do routers regarding this packet are not its concern. R2.0/24 and 172.0.0/24. a "best effort" to forward the packet. R2. 192.168.16. 2 subnets C 172.2.3.

Devices on Directly Connected Networks Diagram 3. Packet Tracer Activity Link to Packet Tracer Exploration: Verify Connectivity of Directly Connected Devices Use the Packet Tracer Activity to test connectivity between directly connected devices.2 . Layer 2 Neighbors CDP operates at Layer 2 only. 2. which are known as CDP advertisements. we only have directly connected neighbors. each Cisco device sends periodic messages. . For example.16. CDP a network when such documentation is missing or lacking in detail. Click the Packet Tracer icon for more details. S3 will receive CDP advertisements from S1. what neighbors wou Click the Topology button in the figure. The router looks at the routes in its routing table and do Router R2 pings the R3 S0/0/1 interface with the IP address 192. by definition. routing space.3.168. R1 and R2 are neighbors. Therefore. to directl types of devices that are connected. R2 and R3 are R3 are not neighbors because they do not share any network address space. the interfaces used to m Most network devices. and making changes to equipment. The router looks at the routes i sent to R3. do not work in isolation.3 Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) Page 1: Network discovery with CDP Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) is a powerful network monitoring and troubleshooting tool. the router interfaces they are connected to. 2.Router R2 pings PC1 172. S2. troubleshooting. Familiarity with the general concept of neighbors is important for understanding CDP as well as for future Layer 3 Neighbors At this point in our topology configuration.3. If we connected R1 and R3 they would be neighbors. Page 3: Use the Packet Tracer Activity to test connectivity between directly connected devices.2.1. Assuming that all routers and switches in the figure are Cisco devices running CDP.3.0/24 network. CDP is a proprietary tool that enables you to access a summary of prot default. CDP is an info directly connected Cisco devices.1. and R2 only. A Cisco device frequently has other Cisco de assist you in making network design decisions.1 on the R1 LAN. Both are members of the 172. At Layer 3.16. CDP neighbors are Cisco devices that are directly connected p administrator is logged in to S3.

and switches. 2. S3. Beca as routers that support different Network layer protocols (for example.3 . CDP provides the following information about each CDP neighbor device: Device identifiers .For example. a Cisco 7200 series router 2.In our chapter topology. whether this device is a router or a switch Platform .2 diagram 1. S5. S2. for example.Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) The diagram depicts network device discovery with Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP). Switches S4. Let's see how CDP can be helpful to a network administrator. R1 and R2.For example. R3 and S3 are CDP neighbors. S3 is S1 and S3. R2 and R3 are CDP neighbors. S5. we can see the following CDP neighbor relationships: R1 and S1 are CDP neighbors.1.3. and R2. S4. CDP automatically discovers neighboring Cisco exchanges hardware and software device information with its directly connected CDP neighbors. R1 and R2 are CDP neighbors. Because S3 is connected to S1.3.The name of the local and remote port-in the form of an ASCII character string such as e Capabilities list . and S6.Up to one Network layer address for each protocol supported Port identifier . Notice the difference between Layer 2 and Layer 3 neighbors. S1.Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) The diagram depicts using the show cdp neighbors and show cdp neighbors detail commands to examine Network Topology: Same as 2. can learn about ea When a Cisco device boots up. is shown. the configured host name of a switch Address list . The switches are not neighbors to the rout switches are Layer 2 neighbors to their directly connected routers. CDP runs at the Data Link layer connecting the physical media to the upper-layer protocols (ULPs). .The hardware platform of the device. R2 and S2 are CDP neighbors.3 . S4 is connected to R1. CDP starts up by default. Page 2: CDP Operation Examine the output from the show cdp neighbors and show cdp neighbors detail commands in the fig switch connected to the Fast Ethernet interface on R3. the devices through CDP. A network administrator's PC is connected to switch S3. S2. IP and Novell ). and S6 are all interconnected. Network Topology: A group of interconnected routers.

Source Route Bridge S .Phone Device ID: S3 Local Interface: FastEthernet 0/0 Holdtime: 151 Capability: S I Platform: WS-C2950 Port ID: FastEthernet 0/6 Device ID: R2 Local Interface: Serial 0/0/1 Holdtime: 125 Capability: R Platform: 1841 Port ID: Serial 0/0/1 The show cdp neighbors detail command provides additional information about neighboring devices.3 . T .3. Click the Packet Tracer icon for more details.Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) Link to Packet Tracer Exploration: Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) Use the Packet Tracer Activity to explore the features of the Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP). 2.The following command issued on R2 discovers switch S3 and router R2 that are connected to R3. . Practice en power of using CDP to discover the topology of a network. prim Page 3: Use the Packet Tracer Activity to explore the features of the Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP).IGMP.Repeater. in seconds Neighbor device capability code Neighbor hardware platform Neighbor remote port ID Click show cdp neighbors detail in the figure. r .3. 2. H .Router.Trans Bridge.4 Using CDP for Network Discovery Page 1: CDP show commands The information gathered by the CDP protocol can be examined with the show cdp neighbors command Neighbor device ID Local interface Holdtime value.Host. I . B . P . R3#show cdp neighbors Capability Codes: R . Practice en power of using CDP to discover the topology of a network.Switch.

You can then telnet to the device and repea . CDP sh including an IP address that can be used to reach the device. R3(config)#no cdp run To disable CDP on only an interface. Click the Packet Tracer icon for more details. If you need to disable CDP globally. Disabling CDP Could CDP be a security risk? Yes. CDP sh including an IP address that can be used to reach the device.The show cdp neighbors detail command also reveals the IP address of a neighboring device. knowing the IP address of the CDP neighbor is often all the information can be gathered about a neighbor's directly connected Cisco devices. Network Topology: Same as 2. it could be. use this command: Router(config)#no cdp run If you want to use CDP but need to stop CDP advertisements on a particular interface. You can then telnet to the device and repea Use the Packet Tracer Activity to discover and map an unknown network using CDP and Telnet. The output from the show cdp neighbors and show cdp neighbors detail commands is the same as that p To disable CDP. for the entire device. Click Disabling CDP in the figure.Using CDP for Network Discovery The diagram depicts CDP show commands and disabling CDP.4 . In this fashion. You may already have seen CDP packets in your packet advertisements by default. For network discovery situations. use the following global command.Using CDP for Network Discovery Link to Packet Tracer Exploration: Mapping a Network with CDP and Telnet CDP show commands can be used to discover information about unknown devices in a network.3. it is important to know how to disable CDP.3.2 diagram 1. use: R3(config-i f)#no cdp enable Page 2: CDP show commands can be used to discover information about unknown devices in a network.4 . This command is very helpful when two Cisco routers cannot route across their shared data lin neighbors has an IP configuration error.1. you can telnet arou will do just that. 2. CDP wil neighbor. use this command Router(config-if)#no cdp enable 2.

4 Static Routes with "Next Hop" Addresses 2.Destination network address of the remote network to be added to the routing table .16. w how to configure a default static route from R1 to R2 later in the chapter so that R1 can send traffic to any 2. As shown in the figu Router(config)#ip route network-address subnet-mask {ip-address | exit-interface } The following parameters are used: network-address . 2.1 Purpose and Command Syntax of ip route Page 1: Purpose and Command Syntax of ip route As we have discussed previously.Purpose and Command Syntax of i p route The diagram depicts the purpose of static routes when used with a stub network. from configured static routes Automatically.4. Again.Use the Packet Tracer Activity to discover and map an unknown network using CDP and Telnet. whether to network stub network and R1 is a stub router. referring to the figure.0/24. A default route is configured on R1 pointing toward R2.16. The complete syntax for configuring a static route Router(config)#ip route prefix mask {ip-address | interface-type interface-number [ip-address]} [distance Most of these parameters are not relevant for this chapter or for your CCNA studies. network 172.1 .0/24 is shown with PC1 connected to switch S1.2. from a dynamic routing protocol The rest of this chapter focuses on configuring static routes.4. Network Topology: Stub network 172. a router can learn about remote networks in one of two ways: Manually. Running a routing protocol between R1 and R2 is a waste of resources because R1 has only one way ou connectivity to remote networks that are not directly connected to a router. Dynamic routing protocols are introduced in Static routes Static routes are commonly used when routing from a network to a stub network. A static route is Page 2: The ip route command The command for configuring a static route is ip route. Switch S1 is connected to router link to R2.3. A stub network is a ne that any network attached to R1 would only have one way to reach other destinations.

The figure shows the first route configured. The actua the ip-address parameter could be any IP address.The LAN on R2 192. 2.0 172.0/124 . The subnet mask can One or both of the following parameters must also be used: ip-address .0/24 .16.1.168. The subnet mask can b Parameter: i p-address Description: Commonly referred to as the next-hop router's IP address.Commonly referred to as the next-hop router's IP address exit-interface .0/24 .The LAN on R3 Click Static Route in the figure. First.1 .1.168.16.subnet-mask . enable debug ip routing to have the IOS display a message when the new route is added to the ro each of these networks. Parameter: subnet-mask Description: Subnet mask of the remote network to be added to the routing table.Subnet mask of the remote network to be added to the routing table.4. as long as it is resolvable in the routing table.2 Let's examine each element in this output: .255. These are the routes currently in its routing t 172.1.The serial network between R2 and R3 192.Outgoing interface that would be used in forwarding packets to the destination network Note: The ip-address parameter is commonly referred to as the "next-hop" router's IP address.2 Configuring Static Routes Page 1: Installing a Static Route in the Routing Table Remember R1 knows about its directly connected networks.2.2. This is b accuracy. Router(config)#i p route network-address subnet-mask {i p-address | exit-interface } Parameter: network-address Description: Destination network address of the remote network to be added to the routing table.Purpose and Command Syntax of i p route The diagram depicts the syntax and parameters of the i p route command. Parameter: exit-interface Description: Outgoing interface that is used to forward packets to the destination network.16. 2.0 255.255.4. R1#debug ip routing R1#conf t R1(config)#ip route 172.

0 .2. FastEthernet0/0 .1.2.2. this IP address is reachable from one of address 172.Administrative distance and metric for the static route (explained in a later chapter) via 172.16.2 .0 will use this 2.16.1. 00:20:15: RT: add 172.Routing table code for static route 172.2.0/24 is subnetted.16.Network address of remote network 255.16.1.16.1.0 . Serial0/0/1 R3#show i p route C 192.Serial 0/0/0 interface IP address on R2.0/24 is subnetted.Network address for the route /24 . and discus [1/0] . Serial0/0/1 C 192.16.0/24 via 172.1.Subnet mask of remote network 172.2 . 2 subnets C 172.0/24 is directly connected.0 is directly connected. Network Topology: Same as 2.2.0/24 is directly connected. this is displayed in the line above.4.16.16.1.2.16.0/24. Serial0/0/0 C 172.0 is directly connected. Serial0/0/0 C 192.16.2 . FastEthernet0/0 R2#show i p route 172.168.16. Verifying the Static Route The output from debug ip routing shows that this route has been added to the routing table.Static route command 172.IP address of the next-hop router.255. the IP address of R2's Serial 0/0/0 interface Any packets with a destination IP address that have the 24 left-most bits matching 172. Directly Connected Routes: R1#show i p route output omitted 172. 2 subnets C 172.255.0 is directly connected.168. known as the parent route.0.0. The static route entry Let's examine this output: S .0/24 is directly connected.1.ip route .0 . which is the "next-hop" to this network When the IP address is the actual next-hop router's IP address.16.2.16. FastEthernet0/0 C 172.Configuring Static Routes The diagram depicts directly connected routes and installing a static route in the routing table.2 is on router R1's directly connected Serial 0/0/0 network 172.2 diagram 1.Subnet mask for this route.2.16. static metric [1/0] Notice in the figure that entering show ip route on R1 shows the new routing table.1.3.168.16.2.0 is directly connected.

0 [1/0] via 172.2.255.168.2 The /24 subnet masks are located on the same line as the network address. R1 Static Routes to add: R1(config)#i p route 192. For now.Static Route: The debug i p routing command is issued on R1 to observe the static route being added to the routing tab R1#conf t R1(config)#i p route 172. this difference is no Closer Look.2 S 192.2.Configuring Static Routes The diagram depicts configuring the remaining R1 static routes.2. The static routes that have been configured can also be verified by examining the running configuration w Now is a good time to save the configuration to NVRAM: R1#copy running-config startup-config 2.1. S 192. Serial0/0/0 C 172.2. These are routes to two more remote ne Network Topology: Same as 2.0 172.255.255.255.255.2.168.2 The show i p route output verifies the new static route: R1#show i p route output omitted S 172.0 is directly connected.16.1.0/24 [1/0] via 172.2.0 255. as shown.2 R1(config)#i p route 192. we can see that this is true because packets for a Use the show ip route command again to examine the new static routes in the routing table.168.1.16.16.4.1.2 .16.2. Notice 172.2 R1(config)#end The show i p route output verifies the three static routes whose entries begin with the letter S for Static: R1#show i p route output omitted . Using the topology diagram as a reference.16.0 255.255.168.2.2.16.16.16.16.0 172.2 C 172.16.1. FastEthernet0/0 Page 2: Configuring Routes to Two More Remote Networks The commands to configure the routes for the other two remote networks are shown in the figure.0/24 [1/0] via 172." Click Verify Static Route Configuration in the figure.2.2.2 diagram 1.16.0 255.3.0 172.0 is directly connected.

based on the information it has in its own rou R1 has three static routes in its routing table and makes forwarding decisions based solely upon the infor routers.255.168.168.0 is directly connected.2.Gateway of last resort is not set 172.2.2.0 172.168.16.2.0/24 [1/0] via 172. In the diagram.0 is directly connected.16.16.0 255.2 output omitted end 2. R1 has a route route belong to the 192. Current configuration : 849 bytes hostname output omitted i p classless i p route 172.16.0. we still need to configure the proper routing on the other routers (R2 and R3) to make s .2.16.1.2 S 192. FastEthernet0/0 S 192.255.16.4.16.0/24 network and will be forwarded to router R2. Using Principle 2.255.2 i p route 192.2 C 172.0 255.0 [1/0] via 172.2 Verify Static Route Configuration: The show running-config command output also verifies the three static routes entered.0 172.16. as described by Alex Zinin in his book.16.16. Making each router Principle 2: "The fact that one router has certain information in its routing table does not mean th R1 does not know what information other routers have in their routing table.0/24 [1/0] via 172. 3 subnets S 172.3.255.168.2.0/24 reach their destination? Let's introduce three routing table principles.3 Routing Table Principles and Static Routes Page 1: Routing Table Principles Now that three static routes are configured.255.3..0 172.2.0/24 is subnetted. Cisco IP Routing. R1 does not know whethe administrator would be responsible for ensuring that the next-hop router also has a route to this network.255.168.1.0 255. For example. can you predict whether packets destined for these networks network 172.2. Nor does it know whether or not those routers have routes to other networks. Serial0/0/0 C 172.. Principle 1: "Every router makes its decision alone.16.2.2.1.2 i p route 192. the R1#show running-config Building configuration.16.1.

0/24 network. we will configure proper static routes on the other routers to make sure the 2.Principle 3: "Routing information about a path from one network to another does not provide rout Most of the communication over networks is bidirectional. Examine the routing tables in the figure to verify that all routers now have routes to all remote networks. R1 has a static route to th R2 does not yet contain a route for this network in its routing table. Would packets from PC1 reach their destination? In this case.3.3. becaus Click R2 and R3 Static Routes in the figure. PC1's 172.3. This means that packets must travel in both dir because all the routers involved have routes to the destination network 192.16. packets destined for 172. Principle 1: Every router makes its decision alone. 2. based on the information it has in its own routing table Principle 2: The fact that one router has certain information in its routing table does not mean that other ro Principle 3: Routing information about a path from one network to another does not provide routing inform Page 2: Applying the Principles With these principles in mind.0/24. Any PC.2.0/24.1. the suc not the routers involved have a route to the return path.2 diagram 1. Connectivity can be further verified by pinging remote router interfaces from router R1. However.16.1.168.0/24 networks would reach their destinatio packets reach router R2. all routers now have routes to all remote networks. these networks are directly connected on R2 and are routed using its routing tab Packets destined for 192. can now access P . how would you answer the questions we posed regarding packets that orig 1. the packet will not reach its destination.0/24 and 192.0/24 network would not reach their destination. Click ping in the figure.3 . With the commands shown in the figure. on any LAN.16. Network Topology: Same as 2. Using Principle 3 as guidance.1.2.4. Does this mean that any packets from these networks destined for 172.16.168.168.Routing Table Principles and Static Routes The diagram depicts Alex Zinin's routing principles. as shown in the fig Full connectivity is now achieved for the devices in our topology.0/24 network will reach the If R2 or R3 receives a packet destined for 172. Click show ip route in the figure.

1.4 .3.168.0 255.4.168.16.0 255. R2 and R3 static routes.2 Finding a route is only the first step in the lookup process.255.1. The next-hop IP address of the static route. In this example: 1. it is performing a process known as a recursive lookup.Routing Table Principles and Static Routes The diagram depicts configuring static routes on R2 and R3 and verifying connectivity.16. Network Topology: Same as 2.4.255.2.2. R1 must determine how to reach the next-hop 172.16.4 Resolving to an Exit Interface Page 1: Recursive Route Lookup Before any packet is forwarded by a router.2.168.16.16.0 172. these routes are resolved to routes in the routing table that are directly connected networks.16. must ha has an exit interface.168.0 192.2.255.1 R2(config)#i p route 192.2.2. Serial0/0/0 The 172.2.255. Typically. 2.2.0 192. R1 has a static route for the remote network 1 S 192.255. it actually takes two routing table lookup processes to forward any packet to the 192.1 R3(config)#i p route 172. The packet's destination IP address is matched to the static route 192.2.2 R3(config)#i p route 172.0 255.2 R3(config)#i p route 172.2. the routing table process must determine the exit interface to process by looking at the routing table for R1 in the figure.16.16.255.2. This means that they do not need to be 2.0 255.255.1. be section that static routes can be configured with an exit interface.2.0 route is a directly connected network with the exit interface Serial 0/0/0. the IP address 172. and does not reference an exit-interface. is matched to the directly connected network 1 Every route that references only a next-hop IP address.255. 172. In this case.168.1.2 Use the show i p route command to verify that all routers now have routes to all remote networks.1.255.168.1.0 192. Connectivity can be further verified by pinging remote router interfaces from router R1. R2(config)#i p route 172.168.2 diagram 1.2 matches the route for the directly connected network 1 C 172. With the commands shown. This lookup tells Therefore.168.3. all routers now have routes to all remote networks.0 192.0 is directly connected.4.2.16.2.2.16.3 .16.0/2 before forwarding a packet.0 255.0/24 with the next-hop IP 2.Resolving to an Exit Interface The diagram depicts recursive route lookup with a static route for the remote network that uses the next h .0/24 [1/0] via 172.255.

what would happen to R1 route cannot be resolved to an exit interface. Step 2: Find an exit interface. In the example. which allows the routing table to resolve the exit interface .4 . For R1 to send a packet to the R3 LAN 192.Network Topology: Same as 2.Resolving to an Exit Interface The diagram depicts what happens to routing table entries when an exit interface is down. in this case Serial 0/0/0. In the routing table. Currently. If the interface comes b reinstall these static routes back into the routing table. R1 first uses the static entry to identify the desired destination network.168. this static route requires a second routing table lookup to reso routes can be configured with an exit interface.0 172. R1's static route for the 192. note the following line: ip route 192.1 running configuration. R1 routes depend on an exit interface to get to all other networks.2. the static routes are still in the R1's running configuration. R1 does a recursive lookup: Step 1: Find a route. Network Topology: Same as 2.5.16. Serial0/0/0 Page 2: Exit Interface is Down Let's consider what would happen if an exit interface goes down. the static route is removed from the Examine this process with debug ip routing on R1 and then configure the Serial 0/0/0 to shutdown. C 172. which is the network to dire 2.0/24 [1/0] via 172.2 diagram 1.1 Configuring a Static Route with an Exit Interface Page 1: Configuring a Static Route with an Exit Interface Let's investigate another way to configure the same static routes. Only one route is left in the table. For example.0 network.2 diagram 1. However.1.5 Static Routes with Exit Interfaces 2.2. S 192. 2.255.2 Then it uses the directly connected entry to find the exit interface that leads to the next hop.0 is directly connected. as Notice from the debug output that all three static routes were deleted when the Serial 0/0/0 interface was Serial 0/0/0.16.168.168. the debug command is routes are removed from R1's routing table.0 255.2.16.1.2.255.2.2 As you will recall from the previous section.4.2.

Next.2. Notice that the entry i the exit interface. The subnet mask can b Parameter: i p-address Description: Commonly referred to as the next-hop router's IP address. For now.0/24 is directly connected. We will examine the importance of this fact when we discuss Admin still has an Administrative Distance of "1". it will be able to resol other two static routes still must be processed in two steps.Configuring a Static Route with an Exit Interface The diagram depicts syntax and parameters of the i p route command. .0/24 using the exit interface Serial 0/0/0 Then use the show ip route command to examine the change in the routing table. These types of point-to-point serial links are like pipes. It is important to understand that this do route.5.168. resolving to the same Serial 0/0/0 interface. when the routing table process has a match for a packet and this static route. The first thing routecommand as shown in the figure. One of the parameters is the spec Router(config)#i p route network-address subnet-mask {i p-address | exit-interface } Parameter: network-address Description: Destination network address of the remote network to be added to the routing table. A pipe has only two ends. Parameter: exit-interface Description: Outgoing interface that is used to forward packets to the destination network.2. configure R1's static route to 192. The routed IP pack address. Note: The static route displays the route as directly connected. Parameter: subnet-mask Description: Subnet mask of the remote network to be added to the routing table. This route is still a static route. This exit interface is the same one that the static route was resolved to when it used the S 192. R2's serial i Note: Under certain conditions. the network administrator will not want to configure the static route with a the scope of this course but is important to note.1 .2. just note that this route is still a static route with an ad Static routes and point-to-point networks Static routes that are configured with exit interfaces instead of next-hop IP addresses are ideal for most s HDLC and PPP do not use the next-hop IP address in the packet forwarding process.168. What enters one end ca sent via R1's Serial 0/0/0 interface can only have one destination: R2's Serial 0/0/0 interface. Page 2: Static Route and an Exit Interface Let's reconfigure this static route to use an exit interface instead of a next-hop IP address. Serial0/0/0 Now.

255. and either the intermediate address or the exit interface has to be chan There is no way to modify an existing static route. and therefore the static route should be deleted.0 172.1. add no in front of the ip route command.Configuring a Static Route with an Exit Interface The diagram depicts an exit interface specified in the static route.1 .Modifying Static Routes The diagram depicts modifying static routes to remove the next hop IP address and add an exit interface Network Topology: . followed by the rest of the static route t In the previous section.2 R1(config)#i p route 192. As you can see in the figure.at least f routes on R1.0/24 is directly connected. there is no need for a recur Network Topology: Same as 2.255. As a result.0 172.255.5.16.255.0 serial 0/0/0 It is more efficient for the routing table lookup process to have static routes with exit interfaces .2 diagram 1.168.2. and R3 to use exit interfaces.2.2. we will configure a new route to the same network 2.0 serial 0/0/0 R1(config)#end The output from the show i p route command shows that the exit interface is now specified in the static ro S 192.2.5.0 255.0 255.168.255.16.168.2.0 255.168.0 255.2. Serial0/0/0 2. as we delete each route. R2. The static route must be deleted and a new one config To delete a static route.2 As you will recall. There is a change in the topology.2.2 .2 We can delete that static route with the no ip route command: no ip route 192. we had a static route: ip route 192. we deleted the static route because we wanted to modify it to use an exit interface inste interface: R1(config)#ip route 192.16.2. The following commands show removing the current static route with the next-hop router's IP address an R1(config)#no i p route 192.0 172.255.255.2.2.5.0 255.168.2 Modifying Static Routes Page 1: Modifying Static Routes There are times when a previously configured static route needs to be modified: The destination network no longer exists.168.255.255.255.

show Network Topology: Same as 2.or to other aspects of the network .2 diagram 1.3 Verifying the Static Route Configuration Page 1: Verifying the Static Route Configuration Whenever changes are made to static routes . Notice that static routes with exit interfaces have b addresses have been deleted.2 diagram 1. This figure shows successful ping outputs.5. similar to routes are made by replacing the next hop IP address with an exit interface.Verifying the Static Route Configuration The diagram depicts verifying the static route configuration for all three routers using the show run. This figure shows the routing table for all three routers. Remember.5.3 . we can test tha is also working properly.3 .5. 2.verify that the changes Verifying Static Route Changes In the previous section. Click show ip route in the figure. Verify your changes by examining the running configura show the current static route. the and parameters that the router is currently using. we deleted and reconfigured the static routes for all three routers. Page 2: Use the Packet Tracer Activity to practice removing static routes and reconfiguring static routes using the Click the Packet Tracer icon for more details. The ultimate test is to route packets from source to destination.5.4 Static Routes with Ethernet Interfaces Page 1: Ethernet Interfaces and ARP .Same as 2.1.1. 2. 2. Configuration examples of static routes are shown for all three routers in the network topology. Click ping in the figure. Using the ping command.Verifying the Static Route Configuration Link to Packet Tracer Exploration: Removing and Configuring Static Routes Use the Packet Tracer Activity to practice removing static routes and reconfiguring static routes using the 2.

2. With Ethernet networks.1.16.4 .2 The routing table entry for this route would be: .2 As discussed in the previous section "Configuring an Ethernet interface".2.2.0 255. Network Topology: Same as 2. the destination MAC address will be the address of the next-h will be matched to the next-hop IP address 172.255. the IP packet must be encapsul packet should be sent to a next-hop router.2. As you can see in the figure.16. R1 sends an ARP request via its FastEthernet 0/1 interface.0/24 network. One might ask: Is there any way to configure a static route over an Ethernet network so that it does not h by configuring the static route to include both the exit interface and the next-hop IP address.0 255. Depending upon the topology and the configurations on other routers.2.2 IP address. and the associated MAC address.0 fastethernet 0/1 The difference between an Ethernet network and a point-to-point serial network is that a point-to-point ne link.255.168. The Ethernet frame with the encapsulated packet is the 2.16.0 fastethernet 0/1 172. can be set using this command: R1(config)#ip route 192. The Laye should respond with its MAC address. R1 checks its FastEthernet 0/1 ARP table for an e Sending an ARP Request If this entry is not in the ARP table. this static route may or may not wo interface is an Ethernet network.Static Routes with Ethernet Interfaces The diagram depicts using Ethernet as an exit interface between routers R1 and R2.168.255.Sometimes the exit interface is an Ethernet network.2.16.0 172.255.5. Suppose that the network link between R1 and R2 is an Ethernet link and that the FastEthernet 0/1 interf a next-hop IP address for the 192.0 255.255. you do not use only the exit interface in the static route.2. the router will not have sufficient information to determine which device is the R1 knows that the packet needs to be encapsulated in an Ethernet frame and sent out the FastEthernet 0 cannot determine the destination MAC address for the Ethernet frame.168.255.1 R1 receives the ARP reply and adds the 172.2 diagram 1. the exit interface would be FastEthernet 0/1 and the next-hop IP address wo R1(config)#ip route 192. Change the R1(config)#ip route 192. there may be many different devices sharing the same multi-access network interface in the static route.168. to its A destination MAC address found in the ARP table.2. except the serial WAN link between R1 and R2 is replaced with an Ethernet lin Page 2: Static routes and Ethernet exit interfaces Let's configure a static route with an Ethernet exit interface instead of a next-hop IP address. Because R2's FastEthernet 0/1 interface has the IP address 172.2.

and so it is not needed.255.5.2 FastEthernet0/1 The routing table process will only need to perform a single lookup to get both the exit interface and the n Advantages of using an exit interface with static routes There is an advantage to utilizing exit interfaces in static routes for both serial point-to-point and Ethernet to find the exit interface instead of a second lookup to resolve a next-hop address.0.0 255.0 Serial0/0/1 .0. All three routes are forwarding traffic out the same Serial0/0/1 ip route 172. For example.1.16.0/ through 10.16. a single static route can be used to re We can use a single network address to represent multiple subnets.6.16.0. In many cases.255. the networks 10.2 2. In our example.255.S 192. For static routes with outbound Ethernet networks.4.255.255.1.168.5. it is best to configure static routes with only routing table is never used by the packet delivery procedure. R1(config)#i p route 192.0/8. For static routes with outbound point-to-point serial networks.0 FastEthernet 0/1 172.0.0/16 can be represented by a single network address: 10. Route Summarization Multiple static routes can be summarized into a single static route if: The destination networks can be summarized into a single network address. it is best to configure the static routes with both the ne Note: For more information about the issues that can occur with static routes that only use an Ethernet o 2.4 .0 255.0 255.2. R3 has three static routes. because there are routes.2.Static Routes with Ethernet Interfaces The diagram depicts a static route configuration for R1 that uses FA0/1 and an IP address of the next hop Network Topology: Same as 2.16.0/24 [1/0] via 172.6 Summary and Default Static Routes 2.2.255.255.2.2.168.1 Summary Static Routes Page 1: Summarizing Routes to Reduce the Size of the Routing Table Creating smaller routing tables makes the routing table lookup process more efficient.0. the size of the routing table will be reduced.0 Serial0/0/1 ip route 172. and The multiple static routes all use the same exit-interface or next-hop IP address This is called .

so these routes can be summarized into one route: 172.0 255.0/24 172.16. as shown in the figure: 1. Work your way to the right.0 255.0 serial0/0/1 R3(config)#no ip route 172. To find the network address for summarization. Write out the networks that you want to summarize in binary.3.0.0/24.1.2.16.0/22 The subnet mask for the summarized network is /22 or 255. Routes on R3 that can be summarized include: 172. 5.255. which in our example is 22.252. we can discover that the three static routes on R3 can be summarized into a sin ip route 172.0. they can be summarized to the single 172.0/24 The subnet mask for these individual networks is /24 or 255. count the number of left-most matching bits.0/24 172. start with the left-most bit.255.255.0 Serial0/0/1 If possible.0 255.0 25 Calculating a summary route Here's the process of creating the summary route 172.0 255. The first 22 bits are the same. Page 2: Configuring a To implement the summary route. 3.0. finding all the bits that match consecutively.1 .16.0 serial0/0/1 R3(config)#no ip route 172.255.0. we will configure the summary static route: .6.255.255.1.16.0 serial0/0/1 Next.1. 2. Network Topology: Same as 2.255.0.2 diagram 1.3.3.2.16 Because all three routes use the same exit interface. To find the subnet mask for summarization. we must first delete the three current static routes: R3(config)#no ip route 172.ip route 172.255. Now. we would like to summarize all of these routes into a single static route.255. This number becomes y 6.Summary Static Routes The diagram depicts summarizing routes to reduce the size of the routing table.16.0 255. 4.252. When you find a column of bits that do not match.16.16.16.0 Serial0/0/1 2. stop.16. 172.255.16.0.255. You are at the summary boundary.16. copy the matching 22 bits and add all 0 bits to the end By following these steps.16.0/22.255. 172.1.

R3(config)#ip route 172.16.16.16.16. As you can see in the figure.16.x. Serial0/0/0 and S 172. 172.0. the subnet mask in th destination IP address for this route to be a match.1.0. Serial0/0/1 Consider a packet with the destination IP address 172.0/24. or 172. Serial0/0/1 S 172. 1 subnets S 172.252. Note: This process is the same for all routes in the routing table including static routes.Summary Static Routes The diagram depicts the effect of a summary route on the routing table and how to verify the summary ro Effect of Summary Route: The output of the show i p route command on R3 before summarization is: S 172.16.16.3.0.16. For 172.16.6. routes learned fro process will be explained in more detail in a later chapter.000 routes in the Internet core routers.0/24 route.16. there are over 200.0. The match the 172. Serial0/0/1 The output of the show i p route command on R3 after summarization is: S 172. and only 16 bits of the 172.0 255.16.0.0 serial0/0/1 Click Effect of Summary Route in the figure.0/24 is subnetted. the static route with the encapsulated in a Layer 2 frame and sent via the Serial 0/0/0 interface.0 is directly connected.1.0/24. Serial0/0/1 With this summary route.1. we can test the reconfiguration using the ping command.x networks on R1 and R2 are successful. Remember.0.0 is directly connected. Serial0/0/1 Verify Summary Route Pings from R3 to the three 172. Click Verify Summary Route in the figure. as shown: 172. To verify the new static route.16.0/24 network matches this summarized route.6.16. Most of these are sum 2.0.1 . We verify that we Note: As of March 2007. This IP address matches both routes.2 Default Static Route Page 1: Most Specific Match It is possible that the destination IP address of a packet will match multiple routes in the routing table. the destination IP address of a packet only needs to match the left-most 22 bits belonging to the 172.0 is directly connected.10.2.1.0 is directly connected. .255.3.0/16 is directly connected. examine R3's routing table with the show ip route command.16.2. 3 subnets S 172.16.0/16 route match.0 is directly connected.1.0/22 is subnetted. 2. Serial0/0/1 S 172.0 is directly connected.16.16.

1.255. delete the R1(config)#no ip route 172.0/24. Default static routes are used: When no other routes in the routing table match the packet's destination IP address.0 255.168.168.16.0.255.0. Currently R1 has three static routes.168. forwarding packets to the next-hop router R2. whe company's edge router to the ISP network.1.255.0 255. Network Topology: The stub network with an address of 172.255. This condition is known as a stub router Configuring a Default Static Route The syntax for a default static route is similar to any other static route. The three static routes on R1 are: ip route 172.1. A default r Page 2: Verifying a Default Static Route Verify the change to the routing table with the show ip route command.2 . configure the single default static route using the same Serial 0/0/0 exit interface as the three previo R1(config)#ip route 0.0.255.0 network address and mask is called a "quad-zero" route.255.0 serial 0/0/0 R1(config)#no ip route 192. This WAN link has a network address of 172.The default static route matches all packets A default static route is a route that will match all packets.0.255.0 255.0 serial 0/0/0 R1(config)#no ip route 192. the asterisk indica .0. R1 is a stub router. When a router has only one other router to which it is connected.0.0/0 is directly connected.3.16.168.0 [exit-interface | ip-address ] The 0.0.0 0.0/24 is shown with PC1 connected to switch S1.2.0.0 0.0 serial 0/0/0 R1 is an ideal candidate to have all of its static routes replaced by a single default route.0 255. In other words.255.255.0 255.0.2.0 serial 0/0/0 Next.255.0.0 0. except that the network address is Router(config)#ip route 0. which are used to rea interface Serial 0/0/0.0 255.0 serial 0/0/0 2.1.16. as shown in the Figure: S* 0.6. It is only connected to R2.2.0 serial 0/0/0 ip route 192.255. As you can see from the Codes table in the figure.255.0.0 serial 0/0/0 ip route 192. Serial0/0/0 Note the * or asterisk next to the S.0. Switch S1 another network via a WAN link to R2.0.16.Default Static Route The diagram depicts a default static route for the R1 stub network router to R2. First.0.

Network Topology: Same as 2.Default Static Route Link to Packet Tracer Exploration: Configuring a Default Route Use the Packet Tracer Activity to practice configuring summary routes and default routes. Default routes are very common on routers.0.7 Managing and Troubleshooting Static Routes 2.0/0 is directly connected. R1(config)#i p route 0. We previously said that it is the subnet mask in the routing ta of the packet and the route in the routing table.1 Static Routes and Packet Forwarding Page 1: Static Routes and Packet Forwarding The following is an example of the packet forwarding process with static routes. R1 uses the de 3.0. Because the link to R2 is a point-to-point link.7."default static" route. This topic will be discussed in more detail when we discuss dynamic routin 2. R1 adds an .0/24.2 . The three static routes to netwo with a single default route. 2. Then verify the Click the Packet Tracer icon for more details. We will see in later chapters that a "default" route does not always have to be a "sta The key to this configuration is the /0 mask. 2. As you can see in the an 1.2.6.6.0 serial 0/0/0 The change to the routing table is verified with the show i p route command: S* 0. R1 encapsulates the packet in a new frame. 192.0.Default Static Route The diagram depicts the effect of a default route on the R1 routing table.0. Serial0/0/0 Note: The asterisk or star next to the S indicates that this static route is a candidate default route.2 diagram 1. R1 does not have a specific route to the destination network.0 0. therefore. A /0 mask indicates that zero or no bits are needed to ma match all packets.0.0.2 . The packet arrives on the FastEthernet 0/0 interface of R1.168.6. Then verify the 2. Page 3: Use the Packet Tracer Activity to practice configuring summary routes and default routes. Instead of routers having to store routes for all of the netw that is not in the routing table.

The packet arrives on the Serial 0/0/0 interface on 5.1 .is fundamental to all routing discussion demonstrate your knowledge of the path determination and packet forwarding process. There is an over-saturation of links.168.10 to find the Layer 2 MAC address for PC3. R3 has a connected route to 192. Because the link to R3 is a point-to-point link. R2 decapsulates the frame and looks for a route to the destination. you should be very familiar with some tools that can help you isolate routing problems. Listed in ping . The frame is forwarded out the Serial0/0/1 interface. b.Static Routes and Packet Forwarding The animation depicts static routes and packet forwarding from PC1 on the R1 LAN to PC3 on the R3 LA associated with this page. 6. R3 encapsulates the packet in a new frame with the MAC address of interface FastEthernet 0/0 as th address. 2. 2. When there is a change in the network.1 9. A service provider drops a connection.2. The packet arrives on the NIC interface of This process is no different from the process demonstrated in Chapter 1. PC3 responds with an ARP reply which includes the PC3 MAC address. If no entry exists. An administrator enters a wrong configuration. As a network administrator. 11.7. 10. R3 looks up the ARP table entry for 192.7. connectivity may be lost. The frame is forwarded out the serial 0/0/0 interface. R3 decapsulates the frame and looks for a route to the destination.4. R2 has a static route to 192.2 diagram 1.168. R3 sends an ARP request out FastEthernet 0/0. As was explained in Chapter 1.1. The packet arrives on the Serial0/0/1 interface on 8. R2 adds an 7. its two basic functions-path determination and packet forwarding .2 Troubleshooting a Missing Route Page 1: Troubleshooting a Missing Route Networks are subject to many different forces that can cause their status to change quite often: An interface fails. you are the What steps can you take? By now. Network Topology: Same as 2. a.2. R2 encapsulates the packet in a new frame. The frame is forwarded out the FastEthernet 0/0 interface.

Solving the Missing Route Link to Packet Tracer Exploration: Solving the Missing Route .3.7.not Serial0/0/1.2 diagram 1.show i p route .7.7.0/24 with the R2(config)#no ip route 172.trace route .3.Solving the Missing Route The diagram depicts a problem with a missing route on R2 resulting from a misconfigured static route to 1 Network Topology: Same as 2. A traceroute reveals that R2 is responding but that there is 172. These include: . In Simulation mod zero.16.0 255. R2 must use Serial 0/0/0 as the exit interface . As we go further into this course. 2. To remedy the situation. Ob Therefore.ping .3 Solving the Missing Route Page 1: Solving the Missing Route Finding a missing (or misconfigured) route is relatively straightforward if you methodically use the correct Consider this problem: PC1 cannot ping PC3.3 . For example.3 . show ip interface brief give about the IP configuration of a directly connected Cisco device using the show cdp neighbors detail co 2.show cdp neighbors detail 2. remove the incorrect route and add the route for network 172.1.255.0 255.3.7. Then fix the problem and test for connectivity between PC1 and PC3.traceroute show ip route Although we have not used traceroute yet in this course.show i p interface brief .255. you will discover more tools.255.3. The exit interface is configured to send packets to R3. Click the Packet Tracer icon for more details.16.0/24 network is configured incorrectly.255.0 serial 0/0/0 2.0 serial0/0/1 R2(config)#ip route 172.16. you should be very familiar with its capabilities f from source to destination.16.Troubleshooting a Missing Route The animation depicts Cisco I O S command-based connectivity troubleshooting tools. Page 2: Use the Packet Tracer Activity to see how the loop explained in this section can occur.2 .

Challenge Static Route Configuration Link to Hands-on Lab: Challenge Static Route Configuration In this lab activity. you will be given a network address that must be subnetted to complete the addressing link between the HQ and ISP routers has already been completed.8 Static Route Configuration Labs 2.1 Basic Static Route Configuration Page 1: In this lab activity. You then configure the sta Page 2: Use this Packet Tracer Activity to repeat a simulation of Lab 2. Click the lab icon for more details.8. Remember. Static routes will also need to be confi communicate with each other. Click the Packet Tracer icon for more details. Use the Lab PDF for more details.8. You wil the hosts. 2.1.2 Challenge Static Route Configuration Page 1: In this lab activity. You cable the network and perf basic configuration. You will cable the network a completing the basic configuration. Then fix the problem and test for connectivity between PC1 and PC3.Basic Static Route Configuration Link to Hands-on Lab: Basic Static Route Configuration In this lab activity. you create a network like the one used in this chapter.Use the Packet Tracer Activity to see how the loop explained in this section can occur. you will test connectivity between the devices on the network.1 .1.8. Static routes also need to be configured s each other. you will create a network like the one used in this chapter. you are given a network address that must be subnetted to complete the addressing o between the HQ and ISP routers has already been completed. however.2 .8. 2. 2.Basic Static Route Configuration Link to Packet Tracer Exploration: Basic Static Route Configuration Use this Packet Tracer Activity to repeat a simulation of Lab 2.1 . . Click the lab icon for more details. In Simulation mod zero.8. that Packet Trac A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. you test connectivity between the devices on the network. 2. 2.8.8.

Page 2: Use this Packet Tracer Activity to repeat a simulation of Lab 2. however. and then use the appropriate commands t all hosts on the network should be able to communicate with each other. Use the Lab PDF for more details. Click the lab icon for more details.3. 2.3 . These scripts cont troubleshoot each router to determine the configuration errors.Challenge Static Route Configuration Link to Packet Tracer Exploration: Challenge Static Route Configuration Use this Packet Tracer Activity to repeat a simulation of Lab 2.8. you begin by loading corrupted configuration scripts on each of the routers. Remember.2 . however. Click the Packet Tracer icon for more details.8. 2.2. that Packet Trac A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.Page 2: Use this Packet Tracer Activity to repeat a simulation of Lab 2. that Packet Trac A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. 2.8.9.8. Use the Lab PDF for more details.8.8. 2.2.Troubleshooting Static Routes Link to Hands-on Lab: Troubleshooting Static Routes In this lab.3 .8.3 Troubleshooting Static Routes Page 1: In this lab.3.1 Summary and Review Page 1: .9 Chapter Summary 2. Click the Packet Tracer icon for more details.Troubleshooting Static Routes Link to Packet Tracer Exploration: Troubleshooting Static Routes Use this Packet Tracer Activity to repeat a simulation of Lab 2.8. These scripts c will need to troubleshoot each router to determine the configuration errors. you will begin by loading corrupted configuration scripts on each of the routers. all of the hosts on the network should be able to communicate with each other. and then use the appropriate c configuration errors. Remember. 2.

Therefore. List three commands used to display interface configuration information.9. . Explain the difference between attaching a serial interface to a service provider in a productio environment. Note: The routing table lookup process is examined more closely in Chapter 8. the static In many cases. .show running-config Question 3. configured with a 0.0. Remote networks ar Static routes are easily configured. Norma directly connected through the serial interface. "The Routing Table: A Cl 2. several static routes can be configured as a single summary route. in large networks this manual operation can become quite c when a dynamic routing protocol is implemented. .1 . one of the routers must provide the clocking sp . On point-to-point serial links it is usually more efficient to configu Ethernet. Answer: In a production environment.Define the general role a router plays in networks.Summary and Review This is a review and is not a quiz. Question 1.Summary In this chapter you learned how static routes can be used to reach remote networks.0.0.Describe summary and default routes.show interfaces . This administrative distance also applies to sta A static route will only be entered in the routing table if the next-hop IP address can be resolved through a or exit interface.9. . This means fewer ent ultimate summary route is a default route.0 network address and a 0. Questions and answers are provided. Page 2: 2.1 . serial interfaces are attached to service provider equipment.0. if the exit interface that is used to forward that packet is not in the routing table. Static routes can be configured with a next-hop IP address. Static routes have a default administrative distance of "1".Examine how packets get forwarded when using static routes.show i p interface brief . which is commonly the IP address of the nex resolve this address to an exit interface. .Identify how to manage and troubleshoot static routes. . Answer: Straight-through cables are used to connect PC's and routers to hubs and switches. However. Describe the cabling used to connect devices to an Ethernet LAN.Describe static routes with exit interfaces. both a next-hop IP address and an exit interface can be configured on the static route. Answer: . Crossover c and switches to switches.Examine directly connected networks in the routing table and use the CDP protocol.Describe the directly connected networks and the different router interfaces.Summary and Review In this chapter. you learned to: . Question 2.0 subne will use the default route to forward the packet to another router.

Question 8. only a crossover cable would work between two computers.2.1 Status: up Prot: up Router R1: Interface: Serial0/0 IP Address: 172. If a router has a large collection summarized into one routing table entry. The original route must also be removed from the configu configuration.3. However. List the commands used to test and troubleshoot a network implementation.16. What is the simpler form used for the i p route command syntax? Answer: Router(config)#i p route network-address subnet-mask {i p-address | exit-interface } Question 6. On some newer computers. Explain the value of summary and default routes. Because Cisco I O S needs an exit interface. The informatio O S versions) presents a security risk. What is CDP and why would you want to disable it? Answer: CDP. Answer: . or Cisco Discovery Protocol. What is a recursive route lookup and when does it occur? Answer: A recursive route lookup is another search of the routing table to find an exit interface for an outb resolves to an IP address for the next hop.1 Status: up Prot: up Router R2: Interface: FastEthernet0/0 IP Address: 172.Question 4. is a proprietary protocol for gathering information about direc send CDP advertisements by default when the Data Link Layer of the shared link is active.1.2 diagram 1 and the key parts of the outpu Router R1: Interface: FastEthernet0/0 IP Address: 172. it must look up t Question 7. CDP can be disabled on an interface-by-interface basis or disable Question 5. Refer to the standard network topology from 2.1.show cdp neighbors Question 10.show i p interface brief .trace route . One of the computers switches the 1 and 3 pins to Question 11. Answer: Summary and default routes decrease the size of routing tables. Why must you remove a static route from the configuration before modifying it? Answer: A static route cannot just be changed. it does not matter whether you attach a straight-through or cros Why do you think this happens? Answer: In older computers.1 Status: up Prot: up . many auto-detect what type of device is on the other end of the connection and then internally switches the tran computers directly works with a straight-through cable. every router would need a route to every Question 9. Without default routing.16.show i p route .ping .16.

B .2.1. the p address from the 192. and suggest a solution Answer: R2 and R3 are sharing the same IP address on the 192. and PC3 have full connectivity.16. I .IGMP.168.1 Status: up Prot: up Router R3: Interface: FastEthernet0/0 IP Address: 192.2 Status: up Prot: up Router R2: Interface: Serial0/1 IP Address: 192.Phone Device ID: S4 Local Interface: FastEthernet0/0 Capability: S Platform: WS-C2960 Port ID: FastEthernet0/16 Device ID: EAST Local Interface: Serial0/0 Capability: R Platform: C1841 Port ID: Serial0/1 Device ID: WEST . the ping it sourced from the Serial0/0/1 interface w and replies.1.168.1. When R1 pings R3 have to trace route to 192. P .Switch. On a piece of paper.0/24 network.168.) Question 12. Pings from R1 to R2 and cannot ping either address on R1.168. However. PC2. r . use the output from the show cdp neighbors command to draw the top You might want to contact your instructor for assistance with this activity.1. HQ#show cdp neighbors Capability Codes: R -Router. H . Identify the problem. T .168. R2 accepts the ping reply sent to 192.Source Route Bridge S .Repeater.1 as belonging to R2.1.1.Trans Bridge.2.1.1 Status: up Prot: up Router R3: Interface: Serial0/1 IP Address: 192. PC1. explain why the ping fails. (192.2 is used in the chapter example. When R3 pings R1.Router R2: Interface: Serial0/0 IP Address: 172.168.Host. Therefore.1 Status: up Prot: up All network interfaces are up and up.168.168.1.0/24 network.

Network Topology: There are three routers. S2. S3. Router HQ interface S0/0 is connected to router East interface S0/1. S1. HQ. East. There are fours switches. . and West. Router HQ interface FA0/0 is connected to switch S4 interface FA0/16.Local Interface: Serial0/1 Capability: R Platform: C1841 Port ID: Serial0/0 EAST#show cdp neighbors Device ID: S1 Local Interface: FastEthernet0/1 Capability: S Platform: WS-C2960 Port ID: FastEthernet0/3 Device ID: HQ Local Interface: Serial0/1 Capability: R Platform: C1841 Port ID: Serial0/0 Device ID: S2 Local Interface: FastEthernet0/0 Capability: S Platform: WS-C2960 Port ID: FastEthernet0/3 WEST#show cdp neighbors Device ID: S1 Local Interface: FastEthernet0/0 Capability: S Platform: WS-C2960 Port ID: FastEthernet0/4 Device ID: HQ Local Interface: Serial0/0 Capability: R Platform: C1841 Port ID: Serial0/1 Device ID: S3 Local Interface: FastEthernet0/1 Capability: S Platform: WS-C2960 Port ID: FastEthernet0/12 Answer: Note: Contact your instructor to discuss the diagram to be drawn. and S4.

Router East interface FA0/0 is connected to switch S2 interface FA0/3.16. Router West interface S0/0 is connected to router HQ interface S0/1.0.0 Serial0/0/2 HQ has the following static route configuration: i p route 0.0 255. for Region A.0.0 Serial0/0/1 i p route 172.254.0.0 255.0.240. Router West interface FA0/1 is connected to switch S3 interface FA0/12.Router HQ interface S0/1 is connected to router West interface S0/0.0. Router East interface FA0/1 is connected to switch S1.0. 2. The Web Server s Answer: Branch 1.0.9.0 255. you mu an effective static routing configuration.0.0 Serial0/0/0 i p route 172. Branch 2.16.0 255.0 s0/0/0 Region A has the following static route configuration: i p route 0. All the Branch routers need to be configured with a default route to Region A.0 0.0 0.0.0.0.0 0.248.240. Starting with an addressing space and network requirements.0. Router East interface S0/1 is connected to router HQ interface S0/0.0 255.24. Router West interface FA0/0 is connected to switch S1.0. Region A needs a default r each of the LAN's attached to each Branch router with one static route pointing to each of the Branch rou the static default routes for each Branch router.1 .0.0. The Packet Tracer Skills Integration Challenge Activity for this chapter integrates all the knowledge and s .254.0.0. and Branch 3 all have the same default static route: i p route 0.0 Serial0/0/3 i p route 172.0 Serial0/0/1 i p route 172. and for HQ? What are the summary static r Build the topology in Packet Tracer and test your static and default routing commands.Summary and Review Link to Packet Tracer Exploration: Chapter 2 .0 Serial0/0/0 Page 3: The Packet Tracer Skills Integration Challenge Activity for this chapter integrates all the knowledge and s build a network from the ground up.0.16. Click the Packet Tracer icon for more details. Question 13.0.Packet Tracer Skills Integration Challenge.0 Serial0/0/0 ISP has the following static route configuration: i p route 172.18.0. Note: The topology diagram for this question is relatively complex and requires you to use Packet Tracer.

Customer A has the network address of 172.0. The ISP router will receive those packets and send them back to Customer A's edg once again send them back to the ISP.255.1 Chapter Quiz Page 1: .0.1 .0 0. Alex Zinin's book.0. Cisco IP Routing. Starting with an addressing space and network requirements. Page 4: To Learn More Floating Static Routes A floating static route is a backup route to a route which is either a dynamic route or another static route. you must impl effective static routing configuration. covers static routing and IOS's static route processing in detail.0 255.0. static route using a different exit-interface or next-hop IP address which would only be added to the routin Hints: Remember. This Cisco IOS and its routing processes.0 serial 0/0/1 A problem can occur when packets are originated from the Customer A's network for a subnet that does packets onto the ISP.10 Chapter Quiz 2.network from the ground up.10. 2.0.Summary and Review The diagram depicts a collage of people using computers and networks. if the router has two routes to the same destination network with two different administ static route will be removed from the routing table if the exit-interface or next-hop IP address is no longer Discard Route A common configuration in many networks is to have a static default route on the edge router forwarding customer's network.9. The packets are caught in a loop until the TTL of the packet expir Configure a static route on the Customer A's edge router to discard those packets instead of forwarding t Further Reading on Static Routing Although static routes can be easily understood and configured. For example. 2.0.16.0 serial 0/0/0 The ISP router has a static default route for forwarding traffic to Customer A's network: ip route 172.16.0/16.0. there are some situations when the IOS are various static routes configured that cover the same range of networks. which is subnetted into several /24 other traffic to the ISP router: ip route 0.

B#i p route 192.0 is directly connected.16.168.0.0.0.2 B. FastEthernet0/0 S 192.255. D. Which statement is true concerning configuring static routes using next hop addresses? A.0.133.0. A(config)#i p route 10.1.255.0.0/16 is directly connected.16. Topology description: Router A interface FA0/0/0 is connected to network 192.16.0 255.0.0 255. Routers configured with a static route using a next hop address must either have the exit interface liste interface.10.2.0.0 255. When the router identifies that a packet is destined for a route associated with a next hop address in th forward the packet.16.0.255.1 .168.1 E.255.255.0 255.255.0.0.0.40. 3.40. Which two commands must be configured to allow communication between the 192.0 192.1.2.255.0 4.0.1 D.16.40.16. A(config)#i p route 10. Serial0/0 C 192. B.0.0.1.219.40. no i p address 10.0. What command accomplishes A.1.0 172.0/8.0.40.0. 1 subnets C 64. Routers cannot use more than one static route with a next hop address.16. Routes associated with next hop addresses are more efficient than routes going to exit interfaces.0 10.40.0.0 255.0.2 D.1 255.16. 1 subnets C 172.16.0 172.2 F.40. Refer to the topology description to answer the question.0.40. B(config)#i p route 192.16. Serial0/1 C 128.0 172.255.2 64. Loopback0 The network administrator must remove the route to the 10. A#show i p route output omitted Gateway of last resort is not set. C. S 10.0.0/16 is subnetted.0.1. no network 10. no i p route 10.0/24.168.168.2 .168.1. no router rip C. A.255. Refer to the show i p route command output below to answer the question.0.0 network.2 C 198. A(config)#i p route 10.1/24 is connected to Router B interface S0/0/0 w Router B interface FA0/0/0 is connected to network 10.0. Refer to the command output below to answer the question.255.0.0.0.0/24 is directly connected.0.0.0.2 B.0. Router A interface S0/1/0 with the IP address 172.1 2.Chapter Quiz 1.0.0.0.100.0/24 [1/0] via 172. Loopback2 172.1.0 255.40. B(config)#i p route 192.168.0/24 and 10.168.0/24 is subnetted.0 172.0 255.168.1 2 106 ms 70 ms 74 ms 192.168.0 is directly connected.0.0 172.107.0/8 [1/0] via 172.0 255.0.0/24 is directly connected. Router1> 1 53 ms 43 ms 36 ms 10.0 s 0/0/0 C.

1. Ensures that there is always a path available.2 E. Router R2 is connected to the Internet. D. F.0. Used for routers that connect to stub networks.0 0.3 * * * Request timed out What command was used on Router1 to produce the output? A.0 0. F. R1(config-i f)#i p route 0. They appear in the routing table when the routing protocol is configured on the router.1.0 0.0.1.0.) A. Which command correctly configures a static default route on R1? A.0. 9. Used for networks with a single route to a destination network.1. R1(config)#i p route 0.0. C. The V dot 35 DCE end of a serial cable that plugs into the CSU/DSU.2 D.0 0. It displays the device capability code of all non-Cisco routers. A photograph is shown of a cable with a V dot 35 male connector on one end and a very small connec shown? A. Topology description: Router R1 interface S0 with IP address 2. Commands: . C. B. The EIA/T IA-232 DCE end of a serial cable that plugs into the CSU/DSU. C. Match each command to the associated configuration task. Which of the following is a function of the Cisco I O S command show cdp neighbors? A.0. Reduces the memory and processing burdens on a router.0 2.0. Which statement is true concerning directly connected routes? A. The EIA/T IA-530 DCE end of a serial cable that plugs into the CSU/DSU.1 is connected to Router R2 interface S1 with IP address 2.0 s1 C. D. D.0. B. It displays the protocol encapsulations used by neighboring routers.0. Which three are characteristics of a static route? (Choose three.1. They appear in the routing table when the no shutdown command is entered in router interface configu D. It displays the port type and platform of neighboring Cisco routers. R1(config)#i p route 0.1. E.0. They appear in the routing table as soon as cables are connected to the router. trace route B. extended ping C. R1(config-router)#default-information originate 6.0 2. It displays platform information for all devices in the network. The D T E end of a smart serial cable used with newer routers.0. Reduces configuration time. Refer to the topology description to answer the question.0 s0 B. They appear in the routing table when an IP address is configured on an interface. C. 8. B. R1(config-i f)#i p route 0.0. The EIA /T IA-449 DCE end of a serial cable that plugs into the CSU/DSU.0. The DB-60 D T E end of the serial cable for 1600 and 2500 series routers. show i p route D. E. 7. and the show interf 10.0. show cdp neighbor detail 5.0. Used for networks with multiple routes to a destination network. B.0.

Display detailed port information. i p 192. Commands: A. no shutdown H. show cdp neighbors Descriptions: 1.0 F.35.168.11 255. show interface brief C. show controllers E. 3.35.255.11/24 G.A.255. interface fast ethernet 0/0 B. i p address 192. Display all known networks. 2. . Display routing troubleshooting information.0 C. Enter global configuration mode. Configure an IP address.11/24 D.35. i p 192.11 255. 3.35.168. show interface fast ethernet 0/0 Configuration Tasks: 1. show i p route B. debug i p routing F. Display basic port information. config terminal E. Match each command to the description of its output.255.168. show interfaces D. 11. Display directly connected routers. Activate the interface. 5. 6. 4. 2. Enter interface configuration mode. i p address 192. 4.255.168. Display D T E/DCE information.

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