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‫ألبرت أينشتاين‬

‫من ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة‬

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‫ألبرت أينشتاين )باللمانية: ‪ 14 ) (Albert Einstein‬مارس 9781 – 81 أبريل 5591(، عالم‬ ‫في الفيزياء النظرية. ولد في ألمانيا، لبوين يهوديين، وحصل على الجنسيتينالسويسرية والمريكية. يشتهر أينشتاين بأنه‬ ‫واضع النظرية النسبية الخاصة والنظرية النسبية العامة الشهيرتين اللتان حققتا له شهرة إعلمية منقطعة النظير بين‬ ‫جميع الفيزيائيين، حاز في العام 1291 على جائزة نوبل في الفيزياء. بعد تأسيس دولة إسرائيل عرض على أينشتاين تولي‬ ‫منصب رئيس الدولة في إسرائيل لكنه رفض مفضل عدم النخراط فيالسياسة وقدم عرضا من عدة نقاط للتعايش‬ ‫بين العرب واليهود في فلسطين. والوثيقة التي أرسلها أينشتاين تدل أنه كان بعيدا تماما عن معرفة‬ ‫المور السياسية وتعقيداتها وبعيد عن أي معرفة بالفكار الصهيونية التي تقوم عليها إسرائيل.‬
‫محتويات‬ ‫1 حياته‬ ‫2 قبسات من تكهناته‬ ‫3 عمله‬ ‫4 النظرية النسبية الخاصة‬ ‫5 منتصف حياته‬ ‫6 الخصائص الفيزيائية للفوتون‬ ‫7 العوام اللحقة‬ ‫8 أينشتاين والصهيونية‬ ‫9 السنوات الخيرة‬ ‫01 وفاته‬ ‫11 مواضيع ذات صلة‬ ‫21 مصادر‬ ‫31 مراجع‬

‫حياته‬
‫ولد ألبرت أينشتاين في مدينة أولم اللمانية في 41مارس 9781 وأمضى سن يفاعته في ميونخ. كان أبوه "هيرمان أينشتاين"‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫يعمل في بيع الريش المستخدم في صناعة الوسائد، وعملت أمه "ني بولين كوخ" معه في إدارة ورشة صغيرة لتصنيع‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫الدوات الكهربائية بعد تخليه عن مهنة بيع الريش. تأخر أينشتاين الطفل في النطق حتى الثالثة من عمره، لكنه أبدى شغفا‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫كبيرا بالطبيعة، ومقدرة على إدراك المفاهيم الرياضية الصعبة، وقد درس وحده الهندسة القليدية، وعلى الرغم من‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ً‬ ‫انتمائه لليهودية، فقد دخل أينشتاين مدرسة إعداديةكاثوليكية وتلقى دروسا في العزف على آلة الكمان ولكن أينشتاين رفض‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫فكرة الله الشخصي والديان بشكل كامل ورسائله الخاصة تبين أنه يؤمن بإله سبينوزا وهي الطبيعة. وفي الخامسة من عمره‬ ‫أعطاه أبوه بوصلة، وقد أدرك أينشتاين آنذاك أن ثمة قوة في الفضاء تقوم بالتأثير على إبرة البوصلة وتقوم بتحريكها. وقد كان‬ ‫ّ ً‬ ‫يعاني من صعوبة في الستيعاب، وربما كان مرد ذلك إلى خجله في طفولته. ويشاع أن أينشتاين الطفل قد رسب في‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫مادة الرياضيات فيما بعد، إل أن المرجح أن التعديل في تقييم درجات التلميذ آنذاك أثار أن الطفل أينشتاين قد تأخر ورسب في‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫مادة الرياضيات. وتبنى اثنان من أعمام أينشتاين رعايته ودعم اهتمام هذا الطفل بالعلم بشكل عام فزوداه بكتب تتعلق‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫بالعلوم والرياضيات. بعد تكرر خسائر الورشة التي أنشأها والداه في عام 4981، انتقلت عائلته إلى مدينة بافيا في إيطاليا،‬

‫وأستغل أينشتاين البن الفرصة السانحة للنسحاب من المدرسة في ميونخ التي كره فيها النظام الصارم والروح الخانقة.‬ ‫وأمضى بعدها أينشتاين سنة مع والديه في مدينة ميلنو حتى تبين أن من الواجب عليه تحديد طريقه في الحياة فأنهى دراسته‬ ‫ً‬ ‫الثانوية في مدينة آرواالسويسرية، وتقدم بعدها إلى امتحانات المعهد التحادي السويسري للتقنية في زيورخ عام 5981، وقد‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫أحب أينشتاين طرق التدريس فيه، وكان كثيرا مايقتطع من وقته ليدرس الفيزياءبمفرده، أو ليعزف على كمانه، إلى أن اجتاز‬ ‫ً‬ ‫المتحانات وتخرج في عام 0091، لكن مدرسيه لم يرشحوه للدخول إلى الجامعة.‬ ‫ُ ّ‬ ‫ُ ّ‬ ‫ّ‬

‫قبسات من تكهناته‬
‫‪ ‬عد أول من تنبأبوجود ما يعرف بالموجات الثقالية.والتي نجح علماء الفيزياء من رصدها على وجه موارب‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫وملتو، حيث انها وان لم تبد للعيان، لكنها تعقب خلفها بصمات على وجودها.تظهر أكثر ماتظهر عندما تسبح‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫]1[‬ ‫الجرام الهائلة في الفضاء باتقاد وزخم .‬ ‫‪ ‬ومن تكهناته ايمانه باستحالة قياس السرعة اللحظية للجسيمات متناهية الدقة والتي تهتز عشوائيا صوب‬ ‫مختلف التجاهات بما يعرف باسم الحركة البراونية.لكن بعد قرن من الزمان، تمكن عالم يدعى مارك‬ ‫رايزن من تفنيد هذه المقولة عمليا بمعمل أبحاثه بجامعة تكساس واستطاع قياس السرعة اللحظية لتلكم الجسام،‬ ‫في خضم اختباراته لقانون التوزع المتساويالذي يقرر أن طاقة الجسيم الحركية تعتمد بحتا على حرارته وليس‬ ‫على على كتلته أو حجمه.و بفضل تلك الختبارات برهن بالتجريب صحة القانون على الجسام البراونية ]2[.‬ ‫‪ ‬خلل لقاء مع صحيفة في مدينة بيتسبرق،بخس أينشتاين قدرة العلماء علي شطر الذرة بتصويب القذائف‬ ‫البروتونية،واصفا اياهم كالذي يسدد بالليل نحو العصافير في بلد ليس فيه ال قلة من العصافير.وهذا ما‬ ‫]3[‬ ‫دحضه فيرمي ورفاقه بعيد ٠١ سنوات حينما شطروا الذرة وصنعوا القنبلة النووية‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫كان أينشتاين قد تنازل عن أوراقه الرسمية اللمانية في عام 6981، مما جعله بل هوية إثبات شخصية أو انتماء لي بلد‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫معين، وفي عام 8981، التقى أينشتاين بـ "ميلفا ماريك ‪ "Mileva Maric‬زميلته الصربية على مقاعد الدراسة ووقع في‬ ‫غرامها، وكان في فترة الدراسة يتناقش مع اصدقائه المقربين في المواضيع العلمية. وبعد تخرجه في عام 0091 عمل‬ ‫أينشتاين مدرسا بديل، وفي العام الذي يليه حصل على حق المواطنة السويسرية، ورزق بطفلة غير شرعية من صديقته‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫اسمياها )ليسيرل( في كانون الثاني )يناير( من العام 1091.‬

‫عمله‬
‫معظم ما أخذه أينشتاين في نظريته النسبية الخاصة كان من العالم النجليزي إسحاق نيوتن. جرأة أينشتاين في شبابه حالت بينه‬ ‫وبين الحصول على عمل مناسب في سلك التدريس، لكن وبمساعدة والد أحد زملء مقاعد الدراسة حصل على وظيفة فاحص‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫)مختبر( في مكتب تسجيل براءة الختراعات السويسري في عام 2091. تزوج أينشتاين من صديقته "ميلفا" في 6 كانون‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ُ ِ‬ ‫الثاني )يناير( 3091 ورزق بابن حمل اسم "هانز" في 41 من أيار )مايو( عام 4091، وفي هذه الثناء أصبح عمل أينشتاين‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫في مكتب التسجيل السويسري دائما، وقام بالتحضير لرسالة الدكتوراه في نفس الفترة، وتمكن من الحصول على شهادة‬ ‫ً‬ ‫الدكتوراه في عام 5091 من جامعة زيورخ، وكان موضوع الرسالة يدور حول أبعاد الجزيئات، وفي العام نفسه كتب‬ ‫أينشتاين 4 مقالت علمية دون الرجوع للكثير من المراجع العلمية أو التشاور مع زملئه الكاديميين، وتعتبر هذه المقالت‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫العلمية اللبنة الولى للفيزياء الحديثة التي نعرفها اليوم. درس أينشتاين في الورقة الولى مايعرف باسمالحركة البراونية، فقدم‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫العديد من التنبؤات حول حركة الجسيمات الموزعة بصورة عشوائية في السائل. عرف أينشتاين "بأبي النسبية"، تلك النظرية‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫التي هزت العالم من الجانب العلمي، إل أن جائزة نوبل منحت له في مجال آخر )المفعول الكهرضوئي( وهو ما كان موضوع‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫الورقة الثانية.‬

‫النظرية النسبية الخاصة‬
‫ورقة أينشتاين العلمية الثالثة كانت عن "النظرية النسبية الخاصة"، فتناولت الورقة الزمان، والمكان، والكتلة، والطاقة،‬ ‫وأسهمت نظرية أينشتاين بإزالة الغموض الذي نجم عن التجربة الشهيرة التي أجراها المريكيان الفيزيائي‬ ‫"ألبرت ميكلسون والكيميائي إدوارد مورلي" أواخر القرن التاسع عشر في عام 7881، فقد أثبت أينشتاين أن‬ ‫موجات الضوء تستطيع أن تنتشر في الخلء دون الحاجة لوجود وسط أو مجال، على خلف الموجات الخرى المعروفة التي‬ ‫تحتاج إلى وسط تنتشر فيه كالهواء أو الماء وأن سرعة الضوء هي سرعة ثابتة وليست نسبية مع حركة المراقب )الملحظ(،‬ ‫تجدر الشارة إلى أن نظرية أينشتاين تلك تناقضت بشكل كلي مع استنتاجات "إسحاق نيوتن". جاءت تسمية النظرية بالخاصة‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫للتفريق بينها وبين نظرية أينشتاين اللحقة التي سميت بالنسبية العامة.‬ ‫ُّ‬

‫منتصف حياته‬
‫في العام 6091 ترقى أينشتاين في السلم الوظيفي من مرتبة فاحص فني مختبر أول إلى مرتبة فاحص فني من الدرجة الثانية،‬ ‫وفي العام 8091 منح إجازة للقاء الدروس والمحاضرات من "بيرن" في سويسرا، وولد الطفل الثاني لينشتاين الذي سمي‬ ‫ُّ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫"إدوارد" في 82 تموز )يوليو( 0191، وطلق أينشتاين بعدها زوجته ميلفا في 41 شباط )فبراير( 9191 وتزوج بعدها من‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ابنة عمه "ايلسا لوينثال" التي تكبره بثلث سنوات في 2 حزيران )يونيو( 9191. ليعلم أحد حتى هذه الساعة شيئا عن مصير‬ ‫ً‬ ‫طفلة أينشتاين الولى غير الشرعية من زوجته ميلفا إذ يعتقد البعض أنها ماتت في فترة الرضاعة، ويعتقد البعض الخر أن‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫والديها أعطياها لمن ل أولد له للتبني، أما بالنسبة لولد أينشتاين، فقد أصيب أحدهما بمرض انفصام الشخصية ومات فيما‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫بعد في المصح العقلي الذي تولى علجه ورعايته. أما البن الثاني، فقد انتقل لولية كاليفورنيا المريكية للعيش فيها ومن ثم‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫أصبح استاذا )دكتور( في الجامعة، وكانت اتصالته مع والده محدودة جدا.‬ ‫ً ً‬ ‫ً‬ ‫في العام 4191 وقبيل الحرب العالمية الولى، استقر أينشتاين في مدينة "برلين" اللمانية، ولم يكن أينشتاين من دعاة الحرب‬ ‫ولكنه كان ألمانيا من أصل يهودي، مماتسبب بشعور القوميين اللمان بالضيق تجاه هذا الرجل، وتأجج هذا المتعاض‬ ‫لينشتاين من قبل القوميين اللمان عندما أصبح أينشتاين معروفا على المستوى العالمي بعدما خرجت مجلة‬ ‫ً‬ ‫"التايم" المريكية في 7 تشرين الثاني )نوفمبر( 9191 بمقال يؤكد صحة نظرية أينشتاين المتعلقة بالجاذبية.‬ ‫ٍ‬

‫الخصائص الفيزيائية للفوتون‬
‫الفوتون عديم الكتلة والشحنة الكهربائية]4[ ول يضمحل في الفضاء الخالي.]5[ ]6[.‬ ‫العلقة بين طاقة وزخم حركة الفوتون هي "‪ ،"E = pc‬حيث أن "‪ "E‬هي الطاقة و"‪ "p‬هي مقدار متجه زخم الحركة و"‪"c‬‬ ‫هي سرعة الضوء]7[. طاقة وزخم حركة الفوتون يعتمدان فقط إما علىتردده )‪ (ν‬أو بشكل مساو على طوله الموجي )‪:(λ‬‬

‫حيث أن "‪ "K‬هو "متجه الموجة" و"‪ "ω‬هو التردد الزاوي و"‪ "ħ‬هو ثابت بلنك]8[.‬

ومن المعروف أن أينشتاين رفض قبول منصب رئيس الدولة الصهيونية حينما عرض عليه. ولذا، فقد كان يؤمن بفكرة‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫الشعب العضوي، وبأن السمات القومية سمات بيولوجية تورث وليست سمات ثقافية مكتسبة. والشيء الذي أزعج أينشتاين وأقلقه أكثر من غيره هو مشكلة العرب.]01[. وهذه مبالغة من جانبه حيث أنه، كما أشرنا من قبل، أدلى بتصريحات تحمل معنى التأييد‬ ‫ُ َ‬ ‫الكامل لفكرة القومية اليهودية على أساس عرفي. وفي عام 6491، مثل‬ ‫َ‬ ‫أمام اللجنة النجلو أمريكية وأعرب عن عدم رضاه عن فكرة الدولة اليهودية، وأضاف قائل: » ددد دد ددد‬ ‫ً‬ ‫دددددد ددددد «.‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ً‬ ‫أينشتاين والصهيونية‬ ‫لم يكن موقف أينشتاين، في بداية حياته على القل، رافضا للصهيونية. ففي‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫رسالة بعث بها إلى وايزمان عام 0291، حذر أينشتاين من تجاهل المشكلة العربية، ونصح الصهاينة بأن يتجنبوا‬ ‫»دددددددد ددددد ددددد ددد دددددددد «، وأن يسعوا إلى التعاون مع العرب وإلى عقد‬ ‫َْ‬ ‫مواثيق شرف معهم. وقد عبر أينشتاين في عدة مناسبات عن حماسه للمشروع الصهيوني وتأييده له، بل واشترك في‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫]9[‬ ‫عدة نشاطاتصهيونية . وفي عام 2591 كتب أينشتاين في رسالة إلى الملكة‬ ‫الم البلجيكية: "لقد أصبحت نوعا من المشاغب في وطني الجديد بسبب عدم قدرتي على الصمت والصبر على كل ما يحدث‬ ‫ً‬ ‫]01[‬ ‫هنا.‫العوام اللحقة‬ ‫بوصول القائد النازي أدولف هتلر إلى السلطة في العام 3391 تزايدت الكراهية تجاه أينشتاين فاتهمه القوميون الشتراكيون‬ ‫)النازيون( بتأسيس "الفيزياء اليهودية"، كما حاول بعض العلماء اللمان النيل من حقوق أينشتاين في نظرياته المر الذي دفع‬ ‫أينشتاين للهرب إلى الوليات المتحدة المريكية والتي منحته بدورها إقامة دائمة، وانخرط في "معهد الدراسات المتقدمة"‬ ‫ً‬ ‫التابع لجامعة برينستون في ولية نيو جيرسي، ففي عام 9391 كتب رسالته الشهيرة إلى الرئيس المريكي روزفلت لينبهه‬ ‫على ضرورة السراع في إنتاج القنبلة قبل اللمان وذلك قبل أن يهاجر إلى الوليات المتحدة. وأعرب‬ ‫عن مخاوفه من الضرر الداخلي الذي ستتكبده اليهودية، إذا تم تنفيذ البرنامج الصهيوني، وفي هذا رفض للفكر الصهيوني‬ ‫َْ‬ ‫ولفكرة التاريخ اليهودي الواحد. وهذا تصريح ينطوي على اليمان بضرورة الحفاظ على الجماعات اليهودية المنتشرة في‬ ‫أرجاء العالم وعلى تراثها، كما يشير إلى إمكانية التعايش بين اليهود وغير اليهود في كل أرجاء العالم. فقد نشأ وتعلم في ألمانيا."‬ . ولهذا السبب، وفي العام نفسه، فسر انتماءاته الصهيونية وفقا لسس ثقافية، فصرح بأن قيمة‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫الصهيونية بالنسبة إليه تكمن أساسا في » ددددددد دددددددد ددددددددد ددد دددددد‬ ‫ً‬ ‫دد ددددد ددددد «. ففي خطاب بتاريخ أبريل سنة 8491، أيد هو والحاخام ليو بايك موقف الحاخام يهودا ماجنيس الذي‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫كان يروج فكرة إقامة دولة مشتركة )عربية ـ يهودية(، مضيفا أنه كان يتحدث باسم المبادئ التي هي أهم إسهام قدمه الشعب‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫اليهودي إلى البشرية. وقد نبه أينشتاين إلى الخطر الكامن في الهجرة الصهيونية. وفي العام 0491، صار‬ ‫أينشتاين مواطنا أمريكيا مع احتفاظه بجنسيته السويسرية.‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ََ‬ ‫السنوات الخيرة‬ ‫عرضت الحكومة السرائيلية على أينشتاين منصب رئيس الدولة في العام 2591 ولكن أينشتاين رفض هذا‬ ‫العرض السرائيلي قائل: "انا رجل علم ولست رجل سياسة". وفي نهاية حياته اتهمته المخابرات المريكية بالميول‬ ‫للشيوعية لنه قدم انتقادات لذعة للنظام الرأسمالي الذي لم يكن يروق له. ولم تتضاءل جهود أينشتاين أو اهتمامه‬ ‫بالعرب على مر السنين. فقد صرح بأن اليهودي يظل‬ ‫ُّ‬ ‫يهوديا حتى لو تخلى عن دينه. ولكن موقف أينشتاين هذا لم يكن نهائيا، إذ عدل عن هذه المواقف فيما بعد، فقد صرح بأن القومية‬ ‫ََ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫مرض طفولي، وبأن الطبيعة الصلية لليهودية تتعارض مع فكرة إنشاء دولة يهودية ذات حدود وجيش وسلطة دنيوية.

‬ ‫2.‬ ‫‪ ‬النسبية بين نيوتن وأينشتاين .V..‬ ‫7.0891م. doi‬‬ ‫.stm‬‬ ‫^ ‪Kobychev.5433881.01:‪151.Role as gauge boson and polarization section 5.بيروت .A.J.‬ ‫.com/pg/10024/1030712-426.I. Popov.31 in Amsler.6 in Alonso.M‬‬ .1 in Aitchison. (2005). ISBN‬‬‫.بيروت .دار مير .G. (2008).تأليف د.1/4311. Gauge Theories in Particle Physics. Physics‬‬ ‫6.تأليف كولين رونان ..dailygalaxy.B.‬ ‫0 ‪Hey.R‬‬ ‫5. IOP Publishing.‬ ‫مراجع‬ ‫^ ‪http://www.‬ ‫‪ ‬ماهي نظرية النسبية .‬ ‫4.sciencedaily. V.com/my_weblog/2007/11/searching-for-o.الطبعة الثامنة .الدكتور عبد الرحمن مرحبا.تأليف لنداو ورومر .‬ ‫^ ‪. C.html‬‬ ‫^ ‪http://www.J.بغداد . et al. Astronomy Letters‬‬ ‫.0431–1 :766‪.‬ ‫–741 :13 ‪from observations of extragalactic sources". طالب ناهي الخفاجي .8791م.‫وفاته‬ ‫وفي العام 5591، توفي أينشتاين، وحرق جثمانه في مدينة "ترينتون" في ولية "نيو جيرسي" في 81 نيسان )أبريل( 5591‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ونثر رماد الجثمان في مكان غير معلوم، وحفظ دماغ العالم أينشتاين في جرة عند الطبيب الشرعي "توماس هارفي" الذي قام‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫بتشريح جثته بعد موته.دار القلم .post-gazette. "Constraints on the photon charge‬‬ ‫1.موسكو .com/releases/2010/05/100520141206. (1993). وقد أوصى أينشتاين أن تحفظ مسوداته ومراسلته في الجامعة العبرية في القدس، وأن تنقل حقوق‬ ‫استخدام اسمه وصورته إلى هذه الجامعة. "Review of Particle Physics".htm‬‬ ‫^ ‪http://www.Letters B‬‬ ‫:‬ ‫^ ‪. S.‬ ‫^ ‪See p.4791م.‬ ‫3.‬ ‫‪ ‬الكون .‬ ‫مواضيع ذات صلة‬ ‫‪ ‬التوسع الكوني‬ ‫مصادر‬ ‫‪ ‬أينشتين والنظرية النسبية .9-823-47258‬ ‫.شباط‬ ‫1891م.See section 1.

United Kingdom. Austria. German Empire Died 18 April 1955 (aged 76) Princeton.E. (1968). United States Citizenship • • • • Württemberg/Germany (1879– 1896) Stateless (1896–1901) Switzerland (1901–1955) Austria (1911–1912) .J.9 . New Jersey. ISBN 0-201-00262-0. . United States Residence Germany. Addison-Wesley. Italy. Fundamental University Physics Volume III: Quantum and Statistical Physics.10 ↑ Albert Einstein Albert Einstein in 1921 Born 14 March 1879 Ulm.Finn.8 . Electromagnetic radiation is made of photons ^ 1999 ،‫^ موسوعة اليهود واليهودية والصهيونية، الدكتور عبد الوهاب المسيري‬ ‫سيرة حياة أينشتاين قي موقع جامعة برينستون‬ ‫أ أ‬ . Belgium. Switzerland. Kingdom of Württemberg.

Straus Nathan Rosen Leo Szilard Raziuddin Siddiqui[1] General relativity and special relativity Known for • • • • • • • • Photoelectric effect Mass-energy equivalence Theory of Brownian Motion Einstein field equations Bose–Einstein statistics Unified Field Theory EPR paradox Nobel Prize in Physics (1921) Matteucci Medal (1921) Copley Medal (1925) Max Planck Medal (1929) Time Person of the Century (1999) Notable awards • • • • • Spouse Mileva Marić (1903–1919) Elsa Löwenthal. (1919–1936) .• • Fields Institutions Physics Germany (1914–1933) United States (1940–1955) • • • • • • • • Swiss Patent Office (Bern) University of Zurich Charles University in Prague ETH Zurich Prussian Academy of Sciences Kaiser Wilhelm Institute University of Leiden Institute for Advanced Study ETH Zurich University of Zurich Alma mater • • Doctoral advisor Other academic advisors Notable students Alfred Kleiner Heinrich Friedrich Weber • • • • Ernst G. née Einstein.

[5] The latter was pivotal in establishing quantum theory within physics. and with his subsequent theory of gravitation in 1916. which led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules. however.S. but largely denounced using the new discovery of nuclear fission as a weapon. He realized. and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect". together with Bertrand Russell. In 1917. until his death in 1955.Signature Albert Einstein From Wikipedia. this eventually led to what would become the Manhattan Project. Einstein applied the general theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe as a whole. effecting a revolution in physics. the free encyclopedia http://en.[9] . Roosevelt that Germany might be developing an atomic weapon. Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. he published a paper on the general theory of relativity. and recommended that the U. He also investigated the thermal properties of light which laid the foundation of the photon theory of light. Einstein signed the Russell–Einstein Manifesto. This led to the development of his special theory of relativity.. Einstein was in support of defending the Allied forces. 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of general relativity. Near the beginning of his career. begin similar research. he received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics.[6] He was visiting the United States when Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933. Einstein was affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Study inPrinceton. Einstein is often regarded as the father of modern physics. He continued to deal with problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein "Einstein" redirects here.S.[7] On the eve of World War II. and did not go back to Germany. where he had been a professor at the Berlin Academy of Sciences. Later. German: [ˈalbɐt ˈaɪnʃtaɪn] ( listen). becoming a citizen in 1940.[2][3] While best known for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2 (which has been dubbed "the world's most famous equation")[4]. Albert Einstein ( /ˈælbərt ˈaɪnstaɪn/. that the principle of relativity could also be extended to gravitational fields.[6][8] His great intelligence and originality have made the word "Einstein" synonymous with genius. Einstein published more than 300 scientific papers along with over 150 non-scientific works. which highlighted the danger of nuclear weapons. he helped alert President Franklin D. He settled in the U. For this achievement. For other uses.wikipedia. New Jersey. see Einstein (disambiguation).

3 General principles 2.12 Hole argument and Entwurf theory 2.6 Love of music 1.6 Quantized atomic vibrations 2.1 Einstein–de Haas experiment 2.15 Bose–Einstein statistics 2.16 Energy momentum pseudotensor 2.7.7 Emigration 1.23 Bohr versus Einstein 2.22.5 Photons and energy quanta 2.20 Equations of motion 2.19 Einstein–Cartan theory 2.11 General relativity and the Equivalence Principle 2.21 Other investigations 2.24 Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen paradox 3 Political and religious views 4 Non-scientific legacy 5 In popular culture 6 Awards and honors .5 Travels abroad 1.S.14 Modern quantum theory 2.7 Adiabatic principle and action-angle variables 2.22.2 U.1 World War II and the Manhattan Project 1.4 Academic career 1.10 Zero-point energy 2.2 Marriages and children 1.4 Theory of relativity and 2.17 Unified field theory 2.2 Thermodynamic fluctuations and statistical physics 2.22.8 Wave–particle duality 2. citizenship 1.3 Einstein refrigerator 2.9 Theory of critical opalescence 2.8 Death 2 Scientific career 2.2 Schrödinger gas model 2.Annus Mirabilis papers 2.22 Collaboration with other scientists 2.Contents 1 Biography 1.1 Early life and education 1.13 Cosmology 2.18 Wormholes 2.7.1 1905 .3 Patent office 1.

a company that manufactured electrical equipment based on direct current. (His sister Maja later married the Wintelers' son. first to Milan and then. He later wrote that the spirit of learning and creative thought were lost in strict rote learning. [17] It was during his time in Italy that he wrote a short essay with the title "On the Investigation of the State of theEther in a Magnetic Field. Marie. was introduced to the Einstein family by his brother. his father's company failed: direct current (DC) lost the War of Currents to alternating current (AC).[14][15][fn 1] In 1894. on a scale 1-6). In search of business. where his father and his uncle founded Elektrotechnische Fabrik J. Switzerland for a teaching post.[11] Although it has been thought that Einstein had early speech difficulties. he attended the Aargau Cantonal School in Aarau. but Einstein clashed with authorities and resented the school's regimen and teaching method. While lodging with the family of Professor Jost Winteler. When the family moved to Pavia. In 1880. Einstein's future wife.[10] When Einstein was ten years old Max Talmud (later changed to Max Talmey). Einstein was transferred to the Luitpold Gymnasium where he received advanced primary and secondary school education until he left Germany seven years later. Paul. the only woman among the six students in the mathematics and physics section of the teaching diploma course. and they read books . at the age of sixteen. a salesman and engineer. but obtained exceptional grades in physics and mathematics. At the end of December 1894 he travelled to Italy to join his family in Pavia. and during weekly visits over the next five years he gave the boy popular books on science. His father intended for him to pursue electrical engineering. mathematical texts and philosophical writings. convincing the school to let him go by using a doctor's note. also enrolled at the Polytechnic that same year.[22] In September 1896 he passed the SwissMatura with mostly good grades (gaining maximum grade 6 in physics and mathematical subjects. Einstein sat the entrance examinations for the Swiss Federal Polytechnic in Zurich (later the Eidgenössische Polytechnische Schule). Marie Winteler moved to Olsberg.[10] The Einsteins were non-observant Jews. He failed to reach the required standard in several subjects. with his father's approval. Einstein realized that there must be something causing the needle to move. he renounced his citizenship in the German Kingdom of Württemberg to avoid military service. he fell in love with Winteler's daughter. Over the next few years. in the Kingdom of Württemberg in the German Empire on 14 March 1879. the Einstein family moved to Italy. Albert attended a Catholic elementary school from the age of five for three years. a poor Jewish medical student from Poland. at the age of eight. Einstein built models and mechanical devices for fun and began to show a talent for mathematics. the family moved to Munich. Later.Biography Early life and education Albert Einstein was born in Ulm.[23] and though still only seventeen he enrolled in the four year mathematics and physics teaching diploma program at the Zurich Polytechnic.[12] His father once showed him a pocket compass. this is disputed by the Albert Einstein Archives. Einstein and Marić's friendship developed into romance. in 1895-96 to complete his secondary schooling. to Pavia. These included Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason andEuclid's Elements (which Einstein called the "holy little geometry book"). [20] On the advice of the Principal of the Polytechnic. Einstein stayed in Munich to finish his studies at the Luitpold Gymnasium. despite the apparent "empty space".)[21] In January 1896."[18][19] In late summer 1895. Switzerland. and he excelled at the first school that he attended. Mileva Marić. His mother was Pauline Einstein (née Koch). a few months later.[13]As he grew.[10] His father was Hermann Einstein. Einstein & Cie.

which influenced his scientific and philosophical outlook. as an assistantexaminer. His dissertation was entitled "A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions". Einstein spent almost two frustrating years searching for a teaching post. In 1900 Einstein was awarded the Zurich Polytechnic teaching diploma. was born in Bern.[35] Much of his work at the patent office related to questions about transmission of electric signals and electrical-mechanical synchronization of time.together on extra-curricular physics in which Einstein was taking an increasing interest.[24] There have been claims that Marić collaborated with Einstein on his celebrated 1905 papers. Marić and Einstein divorced on 14 February 1919. Einstein and Mileva Marić (Милева Марић) had a daughter they named Lieserl in their correspondence. which has been called Einstein's annus mirabilis (miracle year). which met regularly to discuss science and philosophy. Einstein married Elsa Löwenthal (née Einstein) on 2 June 1919. on the photoelectric . the couple's first son.[27][28][29][30] Marriages and children Main article: Einstein family In early 1902. Hans Albert Einstein. but Marić failed the examination with a poor grade in the mathematics component. and David Hume. Elsa Einstein was diagnosed with heart and kidney problems and died in December 1936. In 1935. serving as proforma advisor. was born in Zurich in July 1910. theory of functions. Einstein started a small discussion group. Switzerland. Their readings included the works of Henri Poincaré. although he was passed over for promotion until he "fully mastered machine technology". and her fate is uncertain after 1903.[25][26] but historians of physics who have studied the issue find no evidence that she made any substantive contributions. Einstein completed his thesis.[38][39] That same year. In May 1904. the patent office. In 1933.[37] On 30 April 1905.Ernst Mach. In 1914. having lived apart for five years. but a former classmate's father helped him secure a job in Bern. with Alfred Kleiner. the paper "Folgerungen aus den Kapillarität Erscheinungen" ("Conclusions from the Capillarity Phenomena") was published in the prestigious Annalen der Physik.[31] Her full name is not known. self-mockingly named "The Olympia Academy". he published four groundbreaking papers. after having had a relationship with her since 1912. Academic career During 1901. they emigrated permanently to the United States. Their second son.[33] Patent office After graduating. two technical problems that show up conspicuously in the thought experiments that eventually led Einstein to his radical conclusions about the nature of light and the fundamental connection between space and time.[34] He evaluated patent applications for electromagnetic devices. Einstein's position at the Swiss Patent Office became permanent. Eduard. Einstein moved to Berlin. Professor of Experimental Physics. while his wife remained in Zurich with their sons. She was his first cousin maternally and his second cousin paternally. at the Federal Office for Intellectual Property. In 1903. Einstein was awarded a PhD by the University of Zurich.[36] With a few friends he met in Bern.[32] Einstein and Marić married in January 1903. who was born in Novi Sad where Marić's parents lived.

and he was appointed lecturer at the University of Bern. and have a feel for art. Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his explanation of the photoelectric effect. In 1921. he traveled throughout Asia and later to Palestine. he had calculated that. This included a cannon salute upon his arrival at the residence of the British high commissioner. intelligent. intellectual and political figures. based on his new theory of general relativity. I have been made happy by the sight of the Jewish people learning to recognize themselves and to make themselves recognized as a force in the world. I like the Japanese most. That prediction was claimed confirmed by observations made by a British expedition led by Sir Arthur Eddington during the solar eclipse of 29 May 1919. Before. which were to bring him to the notice of the academic world. The following year. as they are modest. and in Washington he accompanied representatives of the National Academy of Science on a visit to the White House.effect. His first lecture in Tokyo lasted four hours. Travels abroad Einstein visited New York City for the first time on 2 April 1921. the leading British newspaper The Times printed a banner headline that read: "Revolution in Science – New Theory of the Universe – Newtonian Ideas Overthrown". he was recognized as a leading scientist. he expressed his happiness over the event: I consider this the greatest day of my life. On his return to Europe he was the guest of the British statesman and philosopher Viscount Haldane in London. I have always found something to regret in the Jewish soul. he quit the patent office and the lectureship to take the position of physics docent [40] at the University of Zurich. Ceylon. followed by three weeks of lectures and receptions. Sir Herbert Samuel.[47]:308. He went on to deliver several lectures at Columbia University and Princeton University. In 1916. His travels included Singapore. . Brownian motion. light from another star would be bent by the Sun's gravity. considerate. the building was "stormed by throngs who wanted to hear him"."[46]:308 On his return voyage. On 7 November 1919.[45] In 1922. and the equivalence of matter and energy. During one reception given to him. "He was greeted with great British pomp. He became a member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences. Einstein was appointed president of the German Physical Society (1916–1918). In 1914. He became a full professor at Karl-Ferdinand University in Prague in 1911. where he met several renowned scientific. as relativity was considered still somewhat controversial. By 1908. questions were raised whether the measurements had been accurate enough to support Einstein's theory). as part of a six-month excursion and speaking tour. In Einstein's talk to the audience. and delivered a lecture at Kings College. he returned to Germany after being appointed director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics (1914–1932)[41] and a professor at the Humboldt University of Berlin. and Japan. and that is the forgetfulness of its own people. where he gave a series of lectures to thousands of Japanese. as if he were a head of state rather than a theoretical physicist". he also visited Palestine for 12 days in what would become his only visit to that region. special relativity.[42][43] During 1911. with a special clause in his contract that freed him from most teaching obligations. International media reports of this made Einstein world famous.[44] (Much later. Einstein later gave his impressions of the Japanese in a letter to his sons:[46]:307 "Of all the people I have met. He also received the Copley Medal from the Royal Society in 1925. where he received an official welcome by the Mayor. Today. after which he met the emperor and empress at the Imperial Palace where thousands came to watch. writes Isaacson.

"Einstein fell in love" with Mozart's music. was that Einstein "displayed a deep love of the music. Einstein is said to have begun playing when he was five. he did play chamber music with others.[48] Einstein developed an appreciation of music at an early age. a quality that was and remains in short supply. According to conductor Leon Botstein. His mother played the piano reasonably well and wanted her son to learn the violin. Einstein is said to have begun playing when he was five. however.Love of music Einstein developed an appreciation of music at an early age. Although the idea of becoming a professional was not on his mind at any time."[48] At age seventeen. Zurich. Near the end of his life. According to conductor Leon Botstein. According to Einstein. but didn't enjoy trying to learn it at that age. notes Botstein. 1939 When he turned thirteen."[48] Botstein notes that music assumed a pivotal and permanent role in Einstein's life from that period on. he was heard by a school examiner in Aarau as he played Beethoven's violin sonatas. and Berlin. he discovered the violin sonatas of Mozart. His mother played the piano reasonably well and wanted her son to learn the violin.'" What struck the examiner. Music possessed an unusual meaning for this student. where he played with Max Planck and his son." adding that "Love is a better teacher than a sense of duty. and performed for private audiences and friends. not only to instill in him a love of music but also to help him assimilate within German culture. not only to instill in him a love of music but also to help him assimilate within German culture. writes Botstein. the young Juilliard Quartet visited him and he joined them playing his violin.[48] Playing violin at home in Princeton. although they slowed the tempo to . but didn't enjoy trying to learn it at that age. while living in Princeton. Chamber music also became a regular part of his social life while living in Bern. he taught himself to play by "ever practicing systematically. among others. the examiner stating afterward that his playing was "remarkable and revealing of 'great insight. and learned to play music more willingly.

including teaching at universities. He was one of the four first selected (two of the others being John von Neumann and Kurt Gödel). drawing on its "immense material. the Nazi book burnings occurred. and Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels proclaimed. 1933. both unsuccessfully.[54] President Roosevelt could not take the risk of allowing Hitler to possess atomic bombs first."[48] Emigration In 1933. and scientific resources" to initiate the Manhattan Project. Other scientists also fled to America. often working side by side. notes Botstein.[51] an affiliation that lasted until his death in 1955.S."[47] Einstein also learned that his name was on a list of assassination targets.S. Einstein tried to develop a unified field theory and to refute the accepted interpretation of quantum physics."[47] World War II and the Manhattan Project In 1939." In another letter he writes. His last assistant was Bruria Kaufman. A month later. with a "$5. the U. It became the only country to successfully develop an atomic bomb during World War II. "In my whole life I have never felt so Jewish as now. "For me the most beautiful thing is to be in contact with a few fine Jews—a few millennia of a civilized past do mean something after all. who later became a renowned physicist. At the institute."[46]:630[53] In the summer of 1939. Roosevelt to alert him of the possibility.000 bounty on his head. Einstein decided to emigrate to the United States due to the rise to power of the Nazis under Germany's new chancellor. However.accommodate his lesser abilities. As a result of Einstein's letter and his meetings with Roosevelt. Adolf Hitler. The two would take long walks together discussing their work. a few months before the beginning of World War II in Europe." One German magazine included him in a list of enemies of the German regime with the phrase. he learned that the new German government had passed a law barring Jews from holding any official positions. adoption of serious investigations into nuclear weapons on the eve of the U. The letter is believed to be "arguably the key stimulus for the U. Einstein was persuaded to lend his prestige by writing a letter with Szilárd to President Franklin D. "not yet hanged". he soon developed a close friendship with Gödel. With so many other Jewish scientists now forced by circumstances to live in America.S.[50] He took up a position at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton. "regarded it as their responsibility to alert Americans to the possibility that German scientists might win therace to build an atomic bomb. entry into World War II".[52]Einstein and Szilárd. The group's warnings were discounted. entered the "race" to develop the bomb. .[49] While visiting American universities in April. and to warn that Hitler would be more than willing to resort to such a weapon. "Jewish intellectualism is dead. On his return to Europe in March 1933 he resided in Belgium for some months. along with other refugees such as Edward Teller and Eugene Wigner. financial. a group of Hungarian scientists that included emigre physicist Leó Szilárd attempted to alert Washington of ongoing Nazi atomic bomb research.S. government pay attention to and become directly involved in uranium research and associated chain reaction research. the quartet was "impressed by Einstein's level of coordination and intonation. During this period. Among them were Nobel laureates and professors of theoretical physics. Einstein wrote to a friend.[47] Einstein was undertaking his third two-month visiting professorship at the California Institute of Technology when Hitler came to power in Germany. with Einstein's works being among those burnt. The letter also recommended that the U. New Jersey. before temporarily moving to England.

removed Einstein's brain for preservation without the permission of his family. saying: "I want to go when I want. [and] he called for resistance to war. Thomas Stoltz Harvey. he urged the Western powers to prepare themselves against another German onslaught. .[59] The offer was presented by Israel's ambassador in Washington." But in 1933. No one humbles himself before another person or class. in November 1952. "war was a disease . Rudolph Nissen in 1948. without social barriers. Linus Pauling. the pathologist of Princeton Hospital.[58] After the death of Israel's first president."[56] U. B. . but he did not live long enough to complete it.S. he recognized the "right of individuals to say and think what they pleased". who explained that the offer "embodies the deepest respect which the Jewish people can repose in any of its sons". Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion offered Einstein the position of President of Israel.[46]:522[59][60] Death On 17 April 1955. Albert Einstein experienced internal bleeding caused by the rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. According to Isaacson. American youth has the good fortune not to have its outlook troubled by outworn traditions. .. the individual was "encouraged" to be more creative. [62] Einstein refused surgery. hence I lack both the natural aptitude and the experience to deal properly with people and to exercise official function. and as result. It is tasteless to prolong life artificially. I will do it elegantly. . Not long after settling into his career at Princeton. and "at once saddened and ashamed" that he could not accept it: All my life I have dealt with objective matters.[46]:522 However. I am the more distressed over these circumstances because my relationship with the Jewish people became my strongest human tie once I achieved complete clarity about our precarious position among the nations of the world.[47]:432 As a member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) at Princeton who campaigned for the civil rights of African Americans.[61] He took the draft of a speech he was preparing for a television appearance commemorating the State of Israel's seventh anniversary with him to the hospital. . having continued to work until near the end. citizenship Einstein became an American citizen in 1940. Du Bois. E. "Race prejudice has unfortunately become an American tradition which is uncritically handed down from one generation to the next. Einstein declined."[63] He died in Princeton Hospital early the next morning at the age of 76. I have done my share. it is time to go.. "I made one great mistake in my life — when I signed the letter to President Roosevelt recommending that atom bombs be made. Chaim Weizmann. Einstein said to his old friend.For Einstein. a mostly ceremonial post. Einstein writes: What makes the new arrival devoted to this country is the democratic trait among the people. he expressed his appreciation of the "meritocracy" in American culture when compared to Europe. after Hitler assumed full power in Germany. "he renounced pacifism altogether . but there was some justification — the danger that the Germans would make them."[55]:110 In 1954. During the autopsy. The only remedies are enlightenment and education". in the hope that the neuroscience of the .[57] He later stated. Abba Eban. and wrote in his response that he was "deeply moved". which had previously been reinforced surgically by Dr. In fact. a trait he valued from his own early education. Einstein corresponded with civil rights activist W. . and in 1946 Einstein called racism America's "worst disease". a year before his death.

.[67] 1905 . .[65][66] In his lecture at Einstein's memorial. and Mass–energy equivalence The Annus Mirabilis papers are four articles pertaining to the photoelectric effect (which gave rise to quantum theory). There was always with him a wonderful purity at once childlike and profoundly stubborn. and eject electrons.[64] Einstein's remains were cremated and his ashes were scattered at an undisclosed location. Brownian motion. Throughout his life. nuclear physicist Robert Oppenheimer summarized his impression of him as a person: "He was almost wholly without sophistication and wholly without worldliness . the special theory of relativity."[55] Scientific career Albert Einstein in 1904 The photoelectric effect.future would be able to discover what made Einstein so intelligent. Photoelectric effect.Annus Mirabilis papers Main articles: Annus Mirabilis papers. the Einstein refrigerator and others. depicted as flying off to the right.[8][10] In addition to the work he did by himself he also collaborated with other scientists on additional projects including the Bose–Einstein statistics. Incoming photons on the left strike a metal plate (bottom). Einstein published hundreds of books and articles. Special theory of relativity. and E = mc2 that Albert Einstein .

It was published in 1901 with the title "Folgerungen aus den Kapillarität Erscheinungen. and matter.published in the Annalen der Physik scientific journal in 1905. Two papers he published in 1902–1903 . the ability of gravity to "bend" light). the existence of "rest energy"."[71] Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content? Matter–energy 27 Sept equivalence 21 Nov Equivalence of matter and energy. and statistical physics Albert Einstein's first paper[72] submitted in 1900 to Annalen der Physik was on capillary attraction.[69] On the Motion of Small Particles Suspended in a Stationary Liquid. The four papers are: Title (translated) Area of focus Received Published Significance On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning Photoelectric the Production and 18 March 9 June effect Transformation of Light Resolved an unsolved puzzle by suggesting that energy is exchanged only in discrete amounts (quanta).[68] This idea was pivotal to the early development of quantum theory. On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies Special relativity 30 June 26 Sept Reconciled Maxwell's equations for electricity and magnetism with the laws of mechanics by introducing major changes to mechanics close to the speed of light. supporting the application of statistical physics. These four works contributed substantially to the foundation of modern physics and changed views on space. [70] Discredited the concept of an "luminiferous ether. as Required by the Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat Brownian motion 11 May 18 July Explained empirical evidence for the atomic theory. and the basis of nuclear energy. resulting from analysis based on empirical evidence that the speed of light is independent of the motion of the observer." which translates as "Conclusions from the capillarity phenomena". thermal fluctuations. Thermodynamic fluctuations and statistical physics Main articles: Statistical mechanics. E = mc2 (and by implication. time.

But he does suggest that this idea would explain certain experimental results. This later became known as Einstein's special theory of relativity. because he is not sure how the particles are related to the wave.[78] Quantized atomic vibrations Main article: Einstein solid . These papers were the foundation for the 1905 paper on Brownian motion. This paper also argued that the idea of a luminiferous aether – one of the leading theoretical entities in physics at the time – was superfluous. with Robert Millikan's detailed experiments on the photoelectric effect. It reconciles Maxwell's equations for electricity and magnetism with the laws of mechanics. Einstein's light quanta were nearly universally rejected by all physicists. Other principles postulated by Einstein and later vindicated are the principle of equivalence and the principle of adiabatic invariance of the quantum number. Theory of relativity and Main article: History of special relativity Einstein's "Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper" ("On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies") was received on 30 June 1905 and published 26 September of that same year. and with the measurement of Compton scattering. Consequences of this include the time-space frame of a moving body appearing to slow down and contract (in the direction of motion) when measured in the frame of the observer. His research in 1903 and 1904 was mainly concerned with the effect of finite atomic size on diffusion phenomena.[77] Einstein postulated that light itself consists of localized particles (quanta).[75][76] Photons and energy quanta Main articles: Photon and Quantum In a 1905 paper.(thermodynamics) attempted to interpret atomic phenomena from a statistical point of view. notably the photoelectric effect. by introducing major changes to mechanics close to the speed of light.[73] In his paper on mass–energy equivalence Einstein produced E = mc2 from his special relativity equations.[72] General principles He articulated the principle of relativity. Einstein concluded that each wave of frequency f is associated with a collection of photons with energy hf each.[74] Einstein's 1905 work on relativity remained controversial for many years. where h is Planck's constant. He does not say much more. including Max Planck and Niels Bohr. starting with Max Planck. which showed that Brownian movement can be construed as firm evidence that molecules exist. This idea only became universally accepted in 1919. This was understood by Hermann Minkowski to be a generalization of rotational invariance from space to space-time. but was accepted by leading physicists.

Ordinarily the density fluctuations are controlled by the second derivative of the free energy with respect to the density. Niels Bohr was able to show that the same quantum mechanical postulates introduced by Planck and developed by Einstein would explain the discrete motion of electrons in atoms. Einstein was aware that getting the frequency of the actual oscillations would be different. giving a treatment of the density variations in a fluid at its critical point.[79] Adiabatic principle and action-angle variables Main article: Old quantum theory Throughout the 1910s. Theory of critical opalescence Main article: Critical opalescence Einstein returned to the problem of thermodynamic fluctuations. This paper introduced the photon concept (although the name photon was introduced later by Gilbert N. he had not given up on academia. Einstein noted in 1911 that the same adiabatic principle shows that the quantity which is quantized in any mechanical motion must be an adiabatic invariant. Arnold Sommerfeld identified this adiabatic invariant as the action variable of classical mechanics.In 1907 Einstein proposed a model of matter where each atom in a lattice structure is an independent harmonic oscillator. Lewis in 1926) and inspired the notion of wave–particle duality in quantum mechanics. Einstein relates this to Raleigh scattering. At the critical point. each atom oscillates independently – a series of equally spaced quantized states for each oscillator. Einstein showed that Max Planck's energy quanta must have welldefined momenta and act in some respects as independent. this derivative is zero. which is what happens . but he nevertheless proposed this theory because it was a particularly clear demonstration that quantum mechanics could solve the specific heat problem in classical mechanics. and in an earlier 1909 paper.[80] In "über die Entwicklung unserer Anschauungen über das Wesen und die Konstitution der Strahlung" ("The Development of Our Views on the Composition and Essence of Radiation"). he became a privatdozent at theUniversity of Bern. Einstein contributed to these developments by linking them with the 1898 arguments Wilhelm Wien had made. quantum mechanics expanded in scope to cover many different systems. point-like particles. on the quantization of light. making the fluid look milky white. The effect of density fluctuations is that light of all wavelengths is scattered. In the Einstein model. After Ernest Rutherford discovered the nucleus and proposed that electrons orbit like planets. and the periodic table of the elements. The law that the action variable is quantized was a basic principle of the quantum theory as it was known between 1900 and 1925. Peter Debye refined this model. Wien had shown that the hypothesis of adiabatic invariance of a thermal equilibrium state allows all the blackbody curves at different temperature to be derived from one another by a simple shifting process. leading to large fluctuations. In 1908.[citation needed] Wave–particle duality Main article: Wave–particle duality Although the patent office promoted Einstein to Technical Examiner Second Class in 1906.

Theory of relativity. which was made in 1913 in collaboration with Otto Stern. and demonstrated how both the effect and Rayleigh scattering originate from the atomistic constitution of matter. was based on the thermodynamics of a diatomic molecule which can split apart into two free atoms. the observed gravitational attraction between masses results from the warping of space and time by those masses. General relativity and the Equivalence Principle Main article: History of general relativity See also: Principle of equivalence. the reason for the development of general relativity was that the preference of inertial motions within special relativity was unsatisfactory. In that article. to half the energy spacing between levels. According to general relativity. General relativity (GR) is a theory of gravitation that was developed by Albert Einstein between 1907 and 1915.[82] So in 1908 he published an article on acceleration under special relativity. [81] Einstein quantitatively derived critical opalescence from a treatment of density fluctuations. This argument. he argued that free fall is really inertial motion. and which explains why the sky is blue. regions of space where gravitational attraction is so strong that not even light can escape. General relativity has developed into an essential tool in modernastrophysics. He modified Planck's hypothesis by stating that the lowest energy state of an oscillator is equal to 1⁄2hf. It provides the foundation for the current understanding of black holes. and that for a freefalling observer the rules of special relativity must apply. This . while a theory which from the outset prefers no state of motion (even accelerated ones) should appear more satisfactory. As Albert Einstein later said. and Einstein field equations Eddington’s photograph of asolar eclipse. Zero-point energy Main article: Zero-point energy Einstein's physical intuition led him to note that Planck's oscillator energies had an incorrect zero point.when the fluctuation size is much smaller than the wavelength.

the universe could be an eternal static sphere.[83] Cosmology Main article: Cosmology In 1917. at the height of his work on relativity. Einstein became confused about the gauge invariance in the theory. He formulated an argument that led him to conclude that a general relativistic field theory is impossible. As its name suggests.[85] This article showed that the statistics of absorption and emission of light would only be consistent with Planck's distribution law if the emission of light into a mode with n photons would be enhanced statistically compared to the emission of light into an empty mode. 1913 the Entwurf ("draft") theory was the result of these investigations. he believed that Mach's principle would hold. the physical process that makes possible the maser and the laser. To fix this. In 1911. because it would obey Mach's principle.[84] Einstein believed a spherical static universe is philosophically preferred. He had shown that general relativity incorporates Mach's principle to a certain extent in frame dragging by gravitomagnetic fields. Einstein modified the general theory by introducing a new notion. Modern quantum theory Main article: Schrödinger equation In 1917. Mach's principle has generated much controversy over the years. the cosmological constant. He gave up looking for fully generally covariant tensor equations. but this type of universe is not consistent with relativity. With a positive cosmological constant. Einstein discovered Louis de Broglie's .argument is called the Equivalence principle. in which additional effects such as the deflection of light by massive bodies were predicted. Einstein published another article expanding on the 1907 article. 1915 after realizing that the hole argument was mistaken. but he knew that Mach's idea would not work if space goes on forever. Hole argument and Entwurf theory Main article: Hole argument While developing general relativity. and searched for equations that would be invariant under general linear transformations only. Einstein also predicted the phenomenon of gravitational time dilation. Einstein published an article in Physikalische Zeitschrift that proposed the possibility of stimulated emission. Einstein applied the General theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe as a whole. In a closed universe. In June. it was a sketch of a theory. Simultaneously less elegant and more difficult than general relativity. because it was the first paper to show that the statistics of atomic transitions had simple laws. This paper was enormously influential in the later development of quantum mechanics. after more than two years of intensive work Einstein abandoned the theory in November. with the equations of motion supplemented by additional gauge fixing conditions. In the same article. He wanted the universe to be eternal and unchanging.

Bose–Einstein statistics Main article: Bose–Einstein condensation In 1924. and supported his ideas. Einstein noted that Bose's statistics applied to some atoms as well as to the proposed light particles. but general covariance makes translation invariance into something of a gauge symmetry. Einstein received a description of a statistical model from Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose.work. This paper would inspire Schrödinger's work of 1926.[87] Bose–Einstein statistics are now used to describe the behaviors of any assembly of bosons. In another major paper from this era. This approach has been echoed by Lev Landau and Evgeny Lifshitz. Einstein argued that this is true for fundamental reasons. The use of non-covariant objects like pseudotensors was heavily criticized in 1917 by Erwin Schrödinger and others. and has become standard. In his pursuit of a unification of the . among them the Bose–Einstein condensate phenomenon that some particulates should appear at very low temperatures. Einstein entered into a series of attempts to generalize his geometric theory of gravitation to include electromagnetism as another aspect of a single entity.[88] Although he continued to be lauded for his work. He maintained that the non-covariant energy momentum pseudotensor was in fact the best description of the energy momentum distribution in a gravitational field.[67] Energy momentum pseudotensor Main article: Stress-energy-momentum pseudotensor General relativity includes a dynamical spacetime. so it is difficult to see how to identify the conserved energy and momentum. and others. In 1950. based on a counting method that assumed that light could be understood as a gas of indistinguishable particles. Einstein became increasingly isolated in his research. because the gravitational field could be made to vanish by a choice of coordinates. which Einstein suggested was the Hamilton– Jacobi equation of mechanics. Noether's theorem allows these quantities to be determined from aLagrangian with translation invariance. which were received skeptically at first. Unified field theory Main article: Classical unified field theories Following his research on general relativity. he described his "unified field theory" in a Scientific American article entitled "On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation". The energy and momentum derived within general relativity by Noether's presecriptions do not make a real tensor for this reason. Einstein also published his own articles describing the model and its implications. Einstein's sketches for this project may be seen in the Einstein Archive in the library of the Leiden University. Einstein gave a wave equation for de Broglie waves. and submitted his translation of Bose's paper to the Zeitschrift für Physik.[86] It was not until 1995 that the first such condensate was produced experimentally by Eric Allin Cornell and Carl Wieman using ultra-cooling equipment built at the NIST–JILA laboratory at the University of Colorado at Boulder. and his efforts were ultimately unsuccessful.

fundamental forces. This modification was made by Einstein and Cartan in the 1920s. Equations of motion Main article: Einstein–Infeld–Hoffmann equations The theory of general relativity has a fundamental law – the Einstein equations which describe how space curves. which were not well understood until many years after his death. If one end of a wormhole was positively charged. Since the equations of general relativity are non-linear. Other investigations Main article: Einstein's unsuccessful investigations . This was established by Einstein. the geodesic equation which describes how particles move may be derived from the Einstein equations. Infeld. and by Roy Kerr for spinning objects. So Einstein proposed that the path of a singular solution. These properties led Einstein to believe that pairs of particles and antiparticles could be described in this way. Einstein's dream of unifying other laws of physics with gravity motivates modern quests for a theory of everything and in particular string theory. called the torsion. Wormholes Main article: Wormhole Einstein collaborated with others to produce a model of a wormhole. Einstein ignored some mainstream developments in physics. Einstein–Cartan theory Main article: Einstein–Cartan theory In order to incorporate spinning point particles into general relativity. would be determined to be a geodesic from general relativity itself. and Hoffmann for pointlike objects without angular momentum. would move on a trajectory which is determined by the Einstein equations themselves. His motivation was to model elementary particles with charge as a solution of gravitational field equations. not by a new law. in line with the program outlined in the paper "Do Gravitational Fields play an Important Role in the Constitution of the Elementary Particles?". where geometrical fields emerge in a unified quantum-mechanical setting. the other end would be negatively charged. These solutions cut and pasted Schwarzschild black holes to make a bridge between two patches. the affine connection needed to be generalized to include an antisymmetric part. like a black hole. in turn. largely ignored Einstein's approaches to unification. like a black hole. Mainstream physics. a lump of energy made out of pure gravitational fields. most notably the strong and weak nuclear forces.

This formulation is a form of second quantization.[90] On 11 November 1930.541 was awarded to Albert Einstein and Leó Szilárd for the refrigerator. gravitational waves. they reversed the magnetization in an iron bar suspended on a torsion pendulum. Collaboration with other scientists In addition to long time collaborators Leopold Infeld. Quantizing these oscillators. because the angular momentum associated with electrons is small. Einstein–de Haas experiment Main article: Einstein–de Haas effect Einstein and De Haas demonstrated that magnetization is due to the motion of electrons. as the most promising of their patents were quickly bought up by the Swedish company Electrolux to protect its refrigeration technology from competition. These pertain to force. because the electron's angular momentum changes as the magnetization changes. Peter Bergmann and others. Their debates are remembered because of their importance to the philosophy of science. superconductivity. Schrödinger urged Einstein to add his name as co-author. Nathan Rosen. which will be the number of particles in it.781. nowadays known to be the spin. Einstein also had some one-shot collaborations with various scientists. Erwin Schrödinger applied this to derive the thermodynamic properties of a semiclassical ideal gas. patented) the Einstein refrigerator. although Einstein declined the invitation. Then to each possible quantum motion of a particle in a box associate an independent harmonic oscillator. Patent 1. Please see the main article for details.Einstein conducted other investigations that were unsuccessful and abandoned.[91] Bohr versus Einstein Main article: Bohr–Einstein debates The Bohr–Einstein debates were a series of public disputes about quantum mechanics between Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr who were two of its founders. Their invention was not immediately put into commercial production. but it definitively established that electron motion of some kind is responsible for magnetization. Schrödinger gas model Einstein suggested to Erwin Schrödinger that he might be able to reproduce the statistics of a Bose– Einstein gas by considering a box.[92][93][94] . each level will have an integer occupation number. U. In order to show this. This absorption refrigerator was then revolutionary for having no moving parts and using only heat as an input.[89] Einstein refrigerator Main article: Einstein refrigerator In 1926. Einstein and his former student Leó Szilárd co-invented (and in 1930. but it predates modern quantum mechanics. This experiment needed to be sensitive. and other research. They confirmed that this leads the bar to rotate.S.

He noted. along with his collaborators. He considered how a measurement on one of two entangled particles would affect the other. that by performing different measurements on the distant particle No higher resolution available. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensio User ns Comment .Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen paradox Main article: EPR paradox In 1935. Einstein returned to the question of quantum mechanics. file size: 124 KB.jpg (626 × 480 pixels. D Death_headline. MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time.

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attended the Cantonal School of Aargau. he received the following grades: 1. & mündl. On taking the written and oral exam of maturity on 18. 19 and 21 September. 19. 7. & IV. Deutsche Sprache und Litteratur: 5 Französische Sprache und Litteratur: 3 Englische Sprache und Litteratur: — Italienische Sprache und Litteratur: 5 Geschichte: 6 Geographie: 4 Algebra: 6 Geometrie (Planimetrie. 13. file size: 1. 10. Maturitätsprüfung am 18. 3..27 MB. 9. geboren den 14. Aarau. März 1879. 4. Im Namen des Erziehungsrates. Klasse der Gewerbeschule. 5. Nach abgelegter schriftl. Stereometrie & analytische Geometrie): 6 Darstellende Geometrie: 6 Physik: 6 Chemie: 5 Naturgeschichte: 5 Im Kunstzeichnen: 4* Im technischen Zeichnen: 4* *Hier gelten die Jahresleistungen Gestützt hierauf wird demselben das Zeugnis der Reife erteilt.479 × 2. the IIIrd and IVth class of the Commercial School. 2. and on 30 September 1896. 12. sowie am 30. 6. born 14 March 1879. September 1896. den 3ten Oktober 1896. 11. besuchte die aargauische Kantonsschule & zwar die III. MIME type: image/jpeg) Transcription [edit]German Der Erziehungsrat des Kantons Aargau urkundet hiermit: Herr Albert Einstein von Ulm. 2. 3. namely. Der Präsident: Der Sekretär: [edit]English translation The Council of Education of the Canton of Aargau hereby certifies: Mr. Trigonometrie. German language and literature: 5 French language and literature: 3 English language and literature: — . 8. erhielt derselbe folgende Noten: 1.F Full resolution (1. September. Albert Einstein of Ulm.419 pixels. 14. & 21.

9. 5. 13. 10. trigonometry. The President: The Secretary: . 7. 12. Aarau.4. 11. stereometry and analytical geometry): 6 Descriptive geometry: 6 Physics: 6 Chemistry: 5 Natural history: 5 In drawing: 4* In technical drawing: 4* *The performance over the course of the year is considered. Italian language and literature: 5 History: 6 Geography: 4 Algebra: 6 Geometry (planimetry. 6. Based thereon he is issued the certificate of maturity. 14. 8. In the name of the Council of Education. 3 October 1896.

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