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Technical Interview Questions – Networking      What is an IP address? What is a subnet mask? What is ARP? ARP-Address Resolution Protocol is used to resolve MAC address to IP address. When an incoming packet destined for a host machine on a particular local area network arrives at a gateway, the gateway asks the ARP program to find a physical host or MAC address that matches the IP address. The ARP program looks in the ARP cache and, if it finds the address, provides it so that the packet can be converted to the right packet length and format and sent to the machine. If no entry is found for the IP address, ARP broadcasts a request packet in a special format to all the machines on the LAN to see if one machine knows that it has that IP address associated with it. A machine that recognizes the IP address as its own returns a reply so indicating. ARP updates the ARP cache for future reference and then sends the packet to the MAC address that replied.  What is ARP Cache Poisoning?  What is the ANDing process? When a source host attempts to communicate with a destination host, the source host uses its subnet mask to determine whether the destination host is on the local network or a remote network. This is known as theANDing process.  What is a default gateway? What happens if I don't have one? A gateway is a node (a router) on a TCP/IP Network that serves as an access point to another network. A default gateway is the node on the computer network that is chosen when the IP address does not match any other routes in the routing table. In homes, the gateway is usually the ISP-provided device that connects the user to the Internet, such as a DSL or cable modem. In enterprises, however, the gateway is the node that routes the traffic from a workstation to another network segment. The default gateway is commonly used to be the node connecting the internal networks and the outside network (Internet). In such a situation, the gateway node could act as a proxy server and a firewall. The gateway is also associated with both a router, which uses headers and forwarding tables to determine where packets are sent, and a switch, which provides the actual path for the packet in and out of the gateway.     Can a workstation computer be configured to browse the Internet and yet NOT have a default gateway? no What is a subnet? What is APIPA? What is an RFC? Name a few if possible (not necessarily the numbers, just the ideas behind them) A Request For Comments (RFC) document defines a protocol or policy used on the Internet. An RFC can be submitted by anyone. Eventually, if it gains enough interest, it may evolve into an Internet Standard Each RFC is designated by an RFC number. Once   published, an RFC never changes. Modifications to an original RFC are assigned a new RFC number. What is RFC 1918? In Internet Protocol terminology, a private network is typically a network that uses private IP address space, following the standards set by RFC 1918 and RFC 4193. These addresses are common in home and office local area networks (LANs), as globally routable addresses are scarce, expensive to obtain, or their use is not necessary. Private IP address spaces were originally defined in efforts to delay IPv4 address exhaustion, but they are also a feature of the next generation Internet Protocol, IPv6. What is CIDR? The Classless Inter Domain Routing (CIDR) standard is already in effect and most newer routers supports it. In a few years it is likely to be the way IP addressing is handled. It is already becoming common for ISP and major providers to use this scheme.                            You have the following Network ID: 192.115.103.64/27. What is the IP range for your network? if Network id- 192.115.103.64/27 subnet mask- 255.255.255.224 block size=32 no of possible network=8 1st network id-192.115.103.0-192.115.103.31 2nd network id-192.115.103.32-192.115.103.63 3rd network id-192.115.103.64-192.115.103.95 4th network id-192.115.103.96-192.115.103.127 5th network id-192.115.103.128-192.115.103.159 6th network id-192.115.103.160-192.115.103.191 7th network id-192.115.103.192-192.115.103.223 8th network id-192.115.103.224-192.115.103.255 our network id is 192.115.103.64 so valid ip range of this net is 192.115.103.65192.115.103.94 because 192.115.103.64 is a network address and 192.115.103.95 is a broadcast address You have the following Network ID: 131.112.0.0. You need at least 500 hosts per network. How many networks can you create? What subnet mask will you use? You need to view at network traffic. What will you use? Name a few tools How do I know the path that a packet takes to the destination? What does the ping 192.168.0.1 -l 1000 -n 100 command do? What is DHCP? What are the benefits and drawbacks of using it? Describe the steps taken by the client and DHCP server in order to obtain an IP address. What is the DHCPNACK and when do I get one? Name 2 scenarios. What ports are used by DHCP and the DHCP clients? Describe the process of installing a DHCP server in an AD infrastructure. What is DHCPINFORM?                                           Describe the integration between DHCP and DNS. What options in DHCP do you regularly use for an MS network? What are User Classes and Vendor Classes in DHCP? How do I configure a client machine to use a specific User Class? What is the BOOTP protocol used for, where might you find it in Windows network infrastructure? DNS zones – describe the differences between the 4 types. DNS record types – describe the most important ones. Describe the process of working with an external domain name Describe the importance of DNS to AD. Describe a few methods of finding an MX record for a remote domain on the Internet. What does "Disable Recursion" in DNS mean? What could cause the Forwarders and Root Hints to be grayed out? What is a "Single Label domain name" and what sort of issues can it cause? What is the "in-addr.arpa" zone used for? What are the requirements from DNS to support AD? How do you manually create SRV records in DNS? Name 3 benefits of using AD-integrated zones. What are the benefits of using Windows 2003 DNS when using AD-integrated zones? You installed a new AD domain and the new (and first) DC has not registered its SRV records in DNS. Name a few possible causes. What are the benefits and scenarios of using Stub zones? What are the benefits and scenarios of using Conditional Forwarding? What are the differences between Windows Clustering, Network Load Balancing and Round Robin, and scenarios for each use? How do I work with the Host name cache on a client computer? How do I clear the DNS cache on the DNS server? What is the 224.0.1.24 address used for? What is WINS and when do we use it? Can you have a Microsoft-based network without any WINS server on it? What are the "considerations" regarding not using WINS? Describe the differences between WINS push and pull replications. What is the difference between tombstoning a WINS record and simply deleting it? Name the NetBIOS names you might expect from a Windows 2003 DC that is registered in WINS. Describe the role of the routing table on a host and on a router. What are routing protocols? Why do we need them? Name a few. What are router interfaces? What types can they be? In Windows 2003 routing, what are the interface filters? What is NAT? What is the real difference between NAT and PAT? How do you configure NAT on Windows 2003? How do you allow inbound traffic for specific hosts on Windows 2003 NAT? What is VPN? What types of VPN does Windows 2000 and beyond work with natively? What is IAS? In what scenarios do we use it? What's the difference between Mixed mode and Native mode in AD when dealing with RRAS? What is the "RAS and IAS" group in AD?            What are Conditions and Profile in RRAS Policies? What types or authentication can a Windows 2003 based RRAS work with? How does SSL work? How does IPSec work? How do I deploy IPSec for a large number of computers? What types of authentication can IPSec use? What is PFS (Perfect Forward Secrecy) in IPSec? How do I monitor IPSec? Looking at IPSec-encrypted traffic with a sniffer. What packet types do I see? What can you do with NETSH? How do I look at the open ports on my machine?