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The techniques involved are way too diversed to classify. I will use examples to introduce some important techniques. Example 0.1 (2000 A-1). Let A be a positive real number. What are the ∞ 2 possible values of j=0 xj , given that x0 , x1 , . . . are positive numbers for ∞ which j=0 xj = A? This is probably one of the easiest Putnam problem: inf sup x2 = A2 . So the possible values are (0, A2 ). j Example 0.2 (2000 A-4). Show that the improper integral

B B→∞ 0

x2 = 0 and j

lim

sin(x) sin(x2 ) dx

converges. Write

B 0 B 0 B 0

sin(x) sin(x2 )dx =

1 2

cos(x2 − x)dx −

1 2

cos(x2 + x)dx

Substitutions u = x2 ± x will do the trick. Example 0.3 (2000 B-3). Let f (t) = N aj sin(2πjt), where each aj is j=1 real and aN is not equal to 0. Let Nk denote the number of zeroes (including kf multiplicities) of d k . Prove that dt N0 ≤ N1 ≤ N2 ≤ · · · and lim Nk = 2N.

k→∞

[Editorial clariﬁcation: only zeroes in [0, 1) should be counted.] The ﬁrst statement follows directly from Rolle’s theorem (Mean Value Theorem). For the second part, note that 1 f (k) (x) = ± sin(2πN x) or ± cos(2πN x) k→∞ (2πN )k lim You just have to show the following: if fn (x) converges uniformly to f (x) as n → ∞ on [a, b], f (x) has only ﬁnitely many zeroes on [a, b] and f (a)f (b) = 0, then fn (x) and f (x) has the same number zeroes as n is large enough. Example 0.4 (2000 B-4). Let f (x) be a continuous function such that f (2x2 − 1) = 2xf (x) for all x. Show that f (x) = 0 for −1 ≤ x ≤ 1.

1

One of them is ax and the other is b(x − 1). Prove that for some k. there are polynomials f1 (x). where each Qi (x) = ax2 + bx + c is a quadratic polynomial with a > 0 and b2 − 4ac ≤ 0.g(x). So p(x) = j=1 (fj (x))2 . .6 (1999 A-2). Note that (g2 + h2 )(m2 + n2 ) = (gm − hn)2 + (gn + mh)2 Example 0. . . Example 0. 0. I will let you supply the rest of the argument for g(θ) ≡ 0. fk (x) such that k where ai = ±1. −1 if x < −1 |f (x)| − |g(x)| + h(x) = 3x + 2 if −1 ≤ x ≤ 0 −2x + 2 if x > 0. . then 1 |p(0)| ≤ C −1 |p(x)| dx.2 CALCULUS PROBLEMS IN PUTNAM EXAM If we let x = cos(θ). . if p(x) is a polynomial of degree 1999. such that for all x. So g(θ) is continuous and periodic and satisﬁes g(2θ) = g(θ) (continuity needs some veriﬁcation). Let p(x) be a polynomial that is nonnegative for all real x. We can write Qi (x) = (g(x))2 + (h(x))2 . Note that p(x) = Qi (x). we rewrite it as f (cos(θ)) f (cos(2θ)) = sin(2θ) sin(θ) Let g(θ) = f (cos(θ))/ sin(θ). 2. then the relation f (2x2 − 1) = 2xf (x) becomes f (cos(2θ)) = 2 cos(θ)f (cos(θ)) Use the formula sin(2θ) = 2 sin(θ) cos(θ). So f (x) and g(x) are both of degree 1. Example 0. if they exist.5 (1999 A-1).7 (1999 A-5). Prove that there is a constant C such that. Note that |f (x)| = af (x) for a = ±1. Find polynomials f (x). So a1 f (x) + a2 g(x) + h(x) = −1 a3 f (x) + a4 g(x) + h(x) = 3x + 2 a5 f (x) + a6 g(x) + h(x) = −2x + 2 b1 f (x) + b2 g(x) = −3 − 3x b3 f (x) + b4 g(x) = 5x where bi = −2. and h(x).

Then 1 1/4 |p(x)|dx ≥ −1 −1/4 |q(x)||1 − αx|dx 1 2 1 8 1/4 ≥ ≥ |q(x)|dx −1/4 1 |q(x/4)|dx ≥ −1 Cd−1 8 So it suﬃces to pick Cd = min(Cd−1 /8. . 1/2d ). If one of root of f (x) is outside of the disc |x| < 1/2. then 1 −3/4 1 |p(x)|dx ≥ ( −1 −1 + 3/4 )|p(x)|dx > 2−d . we write p(x) = q(x)(1 − αx) with |α| ≤ 2.CALCULUS PROBLEMS IN PUTNAM EXAM 3 We prove the following: Let p(x) be a polynomial of degree d and p(0) = 1. −1 If all of roots of f (x) are in the disc |x| < 1/2. Then there exists a number Cd > 0 such that 1 |p(x)|dx ≥ Cd .

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