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Apple Inc.

Apple's first logo, designed by Ron Wayne, depicts Sir Isaac Newton sitting under an apple tree. Almost immediately, though, this was replaced by Rob Janoff's "rainbow Apple", the nowfamiliar rainbow-colored silhouette of an apple with a bite taken out of it. Janoff presented Jobs with several different monochromatic themes for the "bitten" logo, and Jobs immediately took a liking to it. While Jobs liked the logo, he insisted it be in color to humanize the company. The Apple logo was designed with a bite so that it would not be recognized as another fruit. The colored stripes were conceived to make the logo more accessible, and to represent the fact the Apple II could generate graphics in color. In 1998, with the roll-out of the new iMac, Apple discontinued the rainbow theme and began to use monochromatic themes, nearly identical in shape to its previous rainbow incarnation, on various products, packaging and advertising. An Aqua-themed version of the monochrome logo was used from 2001–2003, and a Glass-themed version has been used since 2003. Slogans Apple's first slogan, "Byte into an Apple", was coined in the late 1970s. From 1997–2002, Apple used the slogan "Think Different" in advertising campaigns. Although the slogan has been retired, it is still closely associated with Apple. Apple also has slogans for specific product lines — for example, "iThink, therefore iMac" was used in 1998 to promote the iMac, and "Say hello to iPhone" has been used in iPhone advertisements. "Hello" was also used to introduce the original Macintosh, Newton, iMac ("hello (again)"), and iPod. Apple Web Site Apple is primarily a consumer company, and makes most of its profit selling hardware, like its iPod music players and Mac computers. This

as well as selling them through their online store. If you’re not interested in any of the 4 suggested items. selling and providing support for its products to consumers. the visitors will leave. followed by 3 other ads to another 3 products or news that is important at the moment. The navigation bar also incorporates a search field. iPod and iPhone. because if it doesn’t.makes the target of Apple’s site much clearer — marketing. Homepage The homepage is one of the most important pages of the whole site because it’s the first. You’ve got a few seconds to convince them that the site has enough value for them to keep using it. such as the online store and support pages. They use this page as a kind of advertising board that always shows a big ad of their latest product. which is split into their core businesses: Mac. followed by a couple of other important links. Apple’s approach to the homepage has been consistent throughout all the years that the site has been running. so the key purpose of the website would be to advertise and promote their multiple product lines. and in many cases the only chance you get to impress the visitor enough to keep them browsing. 1. . you can use the large navigation bar at the top. They don’t have to worry about selling licenses to manufacturers because they’re the only manufacturer.

Flow What I mean by flow is this: is the site structured and laid out in such a way that I can easily find items to focus on? Do I know what to read after I focus on those items — is the site design directing me across the page with less effort on my part. notices or extra navigation items — there are only a few items on the page. If this doesn’t grab your attention then nothing will. there . One other thing to note is the lack of content. Apple knows the importance of getting the customer’s attention using good marketing. Here. 2.The interesting thing here is that the main ad at the top is huge — indeed it almost covers the entire page. the first thing you focus on is probably the picture on the right and then the large headline on the left. which leads nicely into a call to action signup button for the free trial. focusing your attention and making the decision of where to go next easier. so they’re not afraid to really go for it. or do I have to work to try and navigate around the content to find what I need? Here’s the MobileMe section on Apple.com: I think Apple has done a great job at structuring all of their pages. After you’ve read the headline you can proceed to read the marketing blurb below. You’re not distracted by sidebars. If you’re not interested in the trial.

each one ending with a “Learn more” link to a more detailed feature page. such as support and the store. Ensure that there is enough contrast between the text and background. 4. Any extra sub-navigation is located on individual site pages and is placed within the context of that page. Provide enough white space around the text to keep other content and graphics from distracting the reader. which remains there consistently whichever section of the site you go to. 3. it’s vital to ensure that everything is readable and legible. Here are the main things to consider when working on readability of your site’s content: • • • • • • Make the text large enough so that it’s easy to see and read. or as a horizontal bar at the top. i.are more features below to persuade you. The options available show the main sections split by its lines of business as well as a couple of essentials. This leaves no dead ends and keeps the user browsing. Readability Because most of the content on the sites is text. Keep the text short and to the point. Add images and icons to make it easier to focus on individual sections of the text. whether on a sidebar. Navigation Apple’s website has a large navigation bar at the top. . product or feature descriptions.e. The bar also integrates search and branding as the home button displays the Apple logo instead of a label. Provide plenty of headings or highlighted/bold text to allow users to quickly scan the content for key information.

The text is generally small. Here’s a typical page on the Apple. the results are grouped in categories and are fetched very quickly. Search Apple’s search is integrated into the navigation bar. Headings are set in heavier type and stand out. Fonts get pretty small to allow more content to fit in. It’s very well done — there is no lag when typing. When you type something in the search box you actually get live search results with AJAX. allowing you to quickly get the gist of each section. but never too small so as to be a problem. Apple also makes heavy use of white space to separate everything apart and adds images to make each text blurb more interesting.Let’s see how Apple fare in this area. by way of a little box which pops up. Really busy with lots of products and category links everywhere.com website: Apple does a great job of keeping everything easy to read. This is the Apple store. although good use of white space ensures things are still usable 5. Here’s what it looks like: . usually before you finish typing your full query. showing you the results as you type.

Conclusion If you’re looking at usability alone. Apple has always worked on unifying the look and feel of its interface across its entire product line. yet they keep things simple by not overusing too many different text treatments. They have consistent navigation across all of their pages. . Research shows that people perceive better looking interfaces as more usable. It’s very clean and organized by categories. It’s functional and clean. They have a great designed homepage that offers less choice. and works well when you’re trying to find any products that they sell. They use a lot of white space and sub-headings to make everything more readable. selectable from the menu on the right. Aesthetics Apple’s website aesthetics closely mirrors that of its product line. from the hardware to software. they do. You can drill the results further down by category. and their website is no exception. 6.If you want to see more results you can just hit Enter when you’ve finished typing and you’ll be taken to the standard search results page. Apple comes out ahead. which means the user needs to think less. There are also plenty of reflections and minimalist design elements. The navigation bar looks like it’s crafted out of aluminum and features gentle gradients and indented text. Do aesthetics have anything to do with usability? Actually. The Apple site is generally user friendly and offers a great experience to consumers who use it to check out Apple’s latest products.

a former marketing executive for Pepsi. design and innovation. Apple chose to announce the Apple Mac in one of the most famous-ever commercials.” Apple’s marketing strategy helped turn it into one the leading technology companies in the world. When Apple faced tough times in the mid-1990s. The Wired article quotes marketing expert Marc Globe. Smart companies put a lot of thought into brand management. Throughout its history. aired during the third quarter of Super Bowl XVIII on 22 January 1984. Apple has employed a brilliant branding strategy that has created a loyal community of customers.Apple's Original Apple Macintosh Marketing Strategy Stanford University has published contemporary records and original documents of the marketing strategy for the Apple Macintosh launch in 1984. John Sculley. but people said we've got to support it." Apple's Branding Strategy . It goes beyond commerce. 1984). including the original Apple marketing strategy and the Apple Macintosh product introduction plan written by Regis McKenna. it was the Apple brand that helped the company survive. crafting a brand character that will draw in customers. This corporate identity plays an important role in how consumers view a company and its products. A company’s brand is the identity it presents to the public. Apple’s Early Focus on Brand Marketing In the 1980s and 1990s. More than just a product name. Having proven itself and already gained considerable popularity with the Apple II. Apple’s brand marketing has been one of the key components to its success. Apple focused on establishing a strong brand identity. raised the Apple advertising budget from $15 million to $100 million. “Apple is about imagination. According to a December. 2002 article in Wired called “Apple: It’s All About the Brand. This business should have been dead 10 years ago. a brand can make the difference in why consumers chose one product over another. It is now nearly 3 decades since the launch of the Apple Macintosh (on January 24.

synchronised. and other electronic devices. the full impact of a very well throught out brand strategy has come into focus and one in which customer experience is central. Apple's co-Founder. described Apple as "mobile devices company" . and movie and TV content distribution with Apple TV. the iPhone with it's touch screen "gestures" that are re-used on the iPad.Apple Inc. Apple's core competence is delivering exceptional experience through superb user interfaces. cellular phones. More recently. and Mac). Samsung. magazine. digital video and still cameras.the largest one in the world (Apple's revenues are bigger than Nokia. using iCloud as the hub. iPhone. the consumer electronics industry with products such as the iPod. For marketers. and the Mac is no longer the hub of all things Apple. book. and the Apple Apps store all playing key roles. The company's product strategy is based around this. including the personal computer industry with its Macintosh line of computers and related software. a For several years Apple's product strategy involved creating innovative products and services aligned with a "digital hub" strategy. the smart phone market with the Apple iPhone. The company now offers a harmonised. via its Apps business and iAd network. the company is also establishing a very strong presence to rival Google in the advertising market. Steve Jobs. The Apple Brand Personality . or Sony's mobility business). with iTunes. personal digital assistants. and integrated user experience across all of its main devices (iPad. whereby Apple Macintosh computer products function as the digital hub for digital devices. uses the Apple brand to compete across several highly competitive markets. digital music distribution through its iTunes Music Store. games and applications publishing via the AppsStore for iPhone and the iPad tablet computing device. including the Apple iPod.

In terms of price to the consumer. Apple fully understands that all aspects of the customer experience are important and that all brand touch-points must reinforce the Apple brand.. The innovative. beautifully-designed. imagination. The Apple Customer Experience The huge promise of the Apple brand. and about being a really humanistic company with a heartfelt connection with its customers.Apple has a branding strategy that focuses on the emotions. Apple has made big advances in becoming more efficient with its manufacturing supply chain. for instance. of course presents Apple with an enormous challenge to live up to. . highly ergonomic. not only kept the company alive for much of the 90's (when from a rational economic perspective it looked like a dead duck) but it even enables the company to sustain pricing that is at a premium to its competitors. dreams and aspirations. peopledriven product design. and there is a real sense of community among users of its main product lines. but are fundamental to keeping it. Apple Brand Equity and Apple's Customer Franchise The Apple brand is not just intimate with its customers. The Apple brand personality is also about simplicity and the removal of complexity from people's lives. The preference for Apple products amongst the "Mac community". Apple's product costs are very similar to those of Dell. and technology-leading products which Apple delivers are not only designed to match the brand promise. Small market share PC vendors with weaker brand equity have struggled to compete with the supply chain and manufacturing economics of Dell. The brand equity and customer franchise which Apple embodies is extremely strong. passion. However. and it can be assumed that as far as like-for-like hardware manufacturing comparisons are comcerned. and power-to-thepeople through technology. It is arguable that without the price-premium which the Apple brand sustains in many product areas. hopes. logistics and operations. it's loved. The Apple brand personality is about lifestyle. the company would have exited the personal computer business several years ago. innovation. Apple's computer products have an additional cost advantage: the company does not have to pay another company for operating system licences. liberty regained.

MacBook. Apple TV.Apple has expanded and improved its distribution capabilities by opening its own retail stores in key cities around the world in up-market. Apple provides Apple Mac-expert retail floor staff staff to selected resellers' stores (such as Australian department store David Jones). even when investing strongly in the Apple iPod and Apple iTunes products. but iMac. try out the company's products.everything being associated with the Apple name. even though marketing investments around iPod are substantial. Apple Brand Architecture From a brand architecture viewpoint. Apple has also increased the accessibility of iPods through various resellers that do not currently carry Apple Macintosh systems. While the "i" prefix is used only for consumer products. it has entered into strategic alliances with other companies to co-brand or distribute Apple's products and services (for example. iWork. quality shopping venues. Apple's current line-up of product families includes not just the iPod and iTunes. the company maintains a "monolithic" brand identity . iLife. HP who was selling a co-branded form of iPod and pre-loading iTunes onto consumer PCs and laptops in the mid-2000s . QuickTime. Apple retail staff are helpful. Apple has not established an "i" brand. it is not used for a large number of Apple's consumer products (eg Mac mini. Apple Store visitors experience a stimulating.and how it should fit into people's lives. iBook. and now iCloud.though in retrospect this may now just have been a stepping-stone). iPad. and Mighty Mouse). no-pressure environment where they can discover more about the Apple family. Safari. The very successful Apple retail stores give prospective customers direct experience of Apple's brand values. informative. The overall feeling is one of inclusiveness by a community that really understands what good technology should look and feel like . . and let their enthusiasm show without being brash or pushy. iPhone. and has increased the reach of its online stores. Airport Extreme. and get practical help on Apple products at the shops' Guru Bars. However.

and Xserve). In a so-called iPod halo effect. and now iPad to reinforce and re-invigorate the Apple brand personality. Since the take-off of the iPod there has been a dramatic rise in Apple's computer sales and market share. the Apple brand came full-circle . A couple of years ago. Products whose market includes Microsoft computer users (for example MobileMe. Yet other product have been developed more for a professional market (eg Aperture. and therefore more acceptable to Windows users. QuickTime. these product initiatives are growing a highly relevant. combined with a great product in its own . the Final Cut family.having been built into a branding system that originates in the personal computer market. Apple is using iPod. iTunes. and then back into the consumer personal computer market. iPhone. and Safari) have been named so they are somewhat neutral. In this instance. This does seem to have happened. appealing brand image in the minds of consumer segments that Apple has not previously reached.The list of Apple's Trademarks reflects something of a jumbled past. then leveraged into the consumer electronics market. Apple's aspirations for the iPod halo effect was was highlighted most strongly when it used the slogan "from the creators of iPod" in its promotion of iMac G5 computers. The iPod Halo Effect Though Apple's iPhone and iTunes music business is profitable in its own right. At the same time. This halo effect is extended with the hugely successful Apple iPad tablet computer. Apple's venture into these product areas was based on a strategy of using the music business to help boost the appeal of Apple's computing business. Bonjour. The predominant sub-brand since the introduction of the Apple Macintosh in January 1984 has always been the Apple Mac. Great customer experience with iPhone (and familiarity with Apple's touch screen gesture controls). Apple hoped that the popularity of iPod and iTunes among these new groups of customers would cause these segments to be interested in Apple's computer products.

By . This small but important branding change opens the way for Apple to consolidate. With the introduction of Mountain Lion. and Apple has achieved several "best ever" quarterly financial results in recent years.right. the 2011 Lion version of Mac OSX brought to the Mac the same touch screen gesture controls which iPad and iPod users have learned. Apple will drop the Mac part of the name from the operating system. Apple's buzz marketing efforts in the first half of 2007 were truly superb. Apple launched the iPhone (released in July 07) to extend the brand even further. the software used across its multiple devices. For example. Apples' branding strategy is bearing fruit. Apple reports that half of all computer sales through its retail channel are to people new to Macintosh. Leveraging the success of the iPod. so that it will be called just "OS X". the previous top business. and in early 2012 when Apple's share price passed $500 per share for the first time. has made iPod a huge success that in turn is drawing even more people to Apple's Mac computer products. Apple Brand Strength Now Creating Financial Success So far. rather than "Mac OS X". perhaps into a single Operating System. the company was the most valuable business in the world with a market capitalization which exceeded oil company Exxon. culminating in the release of one of the most highly anticipated products for many years . the company's sales and margins have been growing strongly since 2006.and launching apple into a completely new market: mobile handsets. Apple has announced that in mid-2012 it will further harmonise the user experience of Mac and iPad users by introducing even more features from iPad into the new Mountain Lion version of the Mac operating system. In a move which brings matters full circle. This is extension of a common user experience across Apple products was further strengthened by the introduction of the Apps Store to Mac OSX in mid-2011. Mac users can now buy their OSX applications with the same convenience as iPad or iPhone users can buy iOS Apps.

despite the fact that the majority of personal computers are still Windows-based. smartphones and mobile applications dominated the consumer electronics market. This is brand marketing at its finest. The introduction and marketing of the iPod in 2001 was its first strategic brand marketing move of the new millennium. Future Benefits of Apple Brand Marketing Besides increasing product sales. but it soon cornered the market by creating a brand character that was irresistible to many people. packaging and publicity combined to convince consumers that their lives would be enhanced by an MP3 player that carried the Apple brand. As the “naughts” drew to a close. as evidenced by the buzz surrounding Apple’s new tablet computer.July 2008 the buzz about the 3G iPhone resulted in over 1 million units being sold in the first 3 days of its release in over 20 countries around the world. The Apple brand name became inextricably linked with portable digital music. Other MP3 players could not compete as consumers flocked to the iPod. The iPod was not the first portable digital music player on the market. In addition to pushing the iPod brand. The Key to the Apple Brand Success Apple continued to focus on brand marketing in the 2000s. this decade has seen Apple focus on the brand character of the Macintosh personal computer. especially young people. A catchy tagline (“There’s an app for that”) and clever advertising campaign established the iPhone as the must-have smartphone brand. New products from Apple are eagerly anticipated. The third prong of Apple’s brand marketing strategy has centered on the iPhone. This success was repeated in 2010 with the introduction of the iPad tablet computer. Apple has succeeded in creating a cult around the Mac. which according to rumors will be announced in January of 2010. Apple got a head start with the iPhone and integrated iTunes App Store. brand marketing brings additional benefits to Apple. which Amazon has reported as its top-selling item over the 2009 holiday . and in March 2011 with the launch of the iPad 2 which sold 1 million units within 24 hours. Apple’s brand marketing strategy for the Mac has convinced many people to pay more for a computer that is perceived to be cooler and more fun to use. Microsoft Windows. The iPod’s design. The tablet is expected to compete with Amazon's Kindle e-book reader. A wellknown series of television commercials have emphasized the usability of the Mac OS vs.

Amazon has been tight-lipped about exact sales figures). When it comes to creating standing out in a crowded field of technical product. Consumers who feel great loyalty to the Apple corporate identity are expected to line up to purchase the Apple tablet and other new Apple products. 2009. Apple has shown that strategic brand marketing can be just as important as functionality and price. Many feel that Apple’s tablet stands a good chance of surpassing the Kindle to become the reader of choice.season (though according to a Reuters article from Dec. . 31.