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Introduction

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Conventional Power Plant:A Conventional Power Plant is a fossil-fuel power station. It is a type of power station that burns fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas or petroleum (oil) to produce electricity. Central station fossil-fuel power plants are designed on a large scale for continuous operation. In many countries, such plants provide most of the electrical energy used.

Basic Concepts:In a fossil fuel power plant the chemical energy stored in fossil fuels such as coal, fuel oil, natural gas or oil shale and oxygen of the air is converted successively into thermal energy, mechanical energy and, finally, electrical energy.

The second law of thermodynamics states that any closed-loop cycle can only convert a fraction of the heat produced during combustion into mechanical work. The rest of the heat, called waste heat, must be released into a cooler environment during the return portion of the cycle. The fraction of heat released into a cooler medium must be equal or larger than the ratio of absolute temperatures of the cooling system (environment) and the heat source (combustion furnace). Raising the furnace temperature improves the efficiency but complicates the design, primarily by the selection of alloys used for construction, making the furnace more expensive. The waste heat cannot be converted into mechanical energy without an even cooler cooling system. However, it may be used in cogeneration plants to heat buildings, produce hot water, or to heat materials on an industrial scale, such as in some oil refineries, plants, and chemical synthesis plants.

The world's power demands are expected to rise 60% by 2030. Kilowatt hour. The Carnot efficiency dictates that higher efficiencies can be attained by increasing the temperature of the steam.06 MPa). The generated power is then measured as KWh i. these power plants can be categorized as:  THERMAL(COAL) POWER PLANT  DEISEL POWER PLANT  NATURAL GAS POWER PLANT  Power.e. a greenhouse gas (GHG) which according to a consensus opinion of scientific organizations is a contributor to global warming as it has been observed over the last 100 years. the International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates that fossil fuels will account for 85% of the energy market by 2030 Environmental Impact:Fossil fueled power stations are major emitters of CO2. and black coal emits about twice as much CO2 per unit of electric energy. but only a gradual decrease in density. 3200 MW for Peak Load conditions while for Base load condition generated power is less than the Peak load and is varied from plant to plant as different stations are operated on different heat cycles and efficiency. Super critical designs have efficiencies in the low to mid 40% range.  Efficiency. Brown coal emits about 3 times as much CO2 as natural gas. The fuel used in this power plant is always a fossil fuel which can be COAl. The generate power is measured in Megawatts and Gigawatt with the given standard time of an hour. with new "ultra critical" designs using pressures of 4400 psi (30. there is no phase transition from water to steam. Sub-critical fossil fuel power plants can achieve 36–40% efficiency.3 MPa) and multiple stage reheat reaching about 48% efficiency.000 and rising. Above the critical point for water of 705 °F (374 °C) and 3212 psi (22.The maximum capacity of a power plant may be approx. A recent study indicates that sulfur emissions from fossil fueled power stations in China have caused a 10-year lull in global warming (1998-2008). According to fuel used.  Type. . NATURAL GAS or Oil like DIESEL. gasoline etc. With the worldwide total of active coal plants over 50. Economy:. Carbon capture and storage of emissions is not expected to be available on a commercial economically viable basis until about 2025.Technical Description: Fuel.

1 3 Flue gas volume total (m /GJ) 360 444 279 276 272 Pollutant . and sulfur dioxide into the air. The combustion of coal contributes the most to acid rain and air pollution.58 Particulate matter (g/GJ) 1203 3254 16 1. These gases may be only mildly acidic themselves.7 15. and has been connected with global warming.5 Non methane organic compounds (g/GJ) 4..78 3.[10] Hard coal Brown coal Fuel oil Other oil Gas CO2 (g/GJ) 94600 101000 77400 74100 56100 SO2 (g/GJ) 765 1361 1350 228 0. Due to the chemical composition of coal there are difficulties in removing impurities from the solid fuel prior to its combustion. nitric acid and sulfuric acid which fall as rain. Modern day coal power plants pollute less than older designs due to new "scrubber" technologies that filter the exhaust air in smoke stacks. hence the term acid rain. In these modern designs. nitrogen oxides.70 3. yet when they react with the atmosphere. however emission levels of various pollutants are still on average several times greater than natural gas power plants. they create acidic compounds such as sulfurous acid. Acid rain is caused by the emission of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide.3 CO (g/GJ) 89.92 7.World organizations and international agencies.7 14.1 15. In Europe and the U. are concerned about the environmental impact of burning fossil fuels.24 1.91 0.A.68 NOx (g/GJ) 292 183 195 129 93. pollution from coal-fired power plants comes from the emission of gases such as carbon dioxide.S. European Environment Agency (EEA) gives fuel-dependent emission factors based on actual emissions from power plants in EU. like the IEA. stricter emission laws and decline in heavy industries have reduced the environmental hazards associated with this problem. leading to lower emissions after their peak in 1960s. and coal in particular.1 89.

tides. or from heat generated deep within the earth. solar. wind. tides.[1] The share of renewables in electricity generation is around 19%. modern biomass. Renewable energy flows involve natural phenomena such as sunlight. with 16% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewables Wind power. wind. Thorium. and biofuels) accounted for another 3% and are growing very rapidly. wind. ocean. plant growth. Magneto Hydrodynamic Generators (MHD) or by the help of Prime movers. rain. Ocean waves etc. which is mainly used for heating. geothermal resources. as in Hydro Power Plant and Wind Mills. as the International Energy Agency explains: Renewable energy is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly. energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight. wind. and geothermal heat. Technical Description: Fuel. and 3. In its various forms. it derives directly from the sun. About 16% of global final energy consumption comes from renewables. geo-springs. tides. solar energy. hydropower. Solar Power. wind. capacity worldwide is 67. are different fuels which are used as renewable energy sources. Basic Concept:Electricity in this plant is generated by either direct method like Solar Photovoltaic Cells. This is. with 10% coming from traditional biomass. geothermal.Non-Conventional Power Plant:Non-Conventional Power Plant is Renewable energy based Power Plant. Uranium.4% from hydroelectricity. and PV power stations are popular in Germany and Italy .000 megawatts (MW) at the end of 2011. which are renewable (naturally replenished). New renewables (small hydro. 238.  Power. water. and biofuels and hydrogen derived from renewable resources. which rotates by the energy source to convert its energy into mechanical energy and this mechanical energy is then transmitted to the generator (via Shaft and sometimes Reduction Gears) to produce electricity.000 MW. Included in the definition is electricity and heat generated from solar. and geothermal heat. biomass.

Germany. A Tidal Power Generation Unit  Efficiency. Efficiency of renewable energy sources varies from 43% to85% for different sources..5 . The top countries for investment in 2010 were China.Total investment in renewable energy reached $211 billion in 2010. Economy:. Water and then Wind which gives 16% of world’s energy consumption. Continued growth for the renewable energy sector is expected and promotional policies helped the industry weather the 2009 economic crisis better than many other sectors.3.5 MW 5-9 Offshore wind Turbine size: 1. and Brazil. the United States. Renewable power generation costs 2012 Typical electricity costs (U. up from $160 billion in 2009.S. cents/kWh) Large hydro Plant size: 10 . The most efficient source is Nuclear.000 MW 3-5 Small hydro Plant size: 1-10 MW 5-12 Onshore wind Turbine size: 1. renewable energy generally gets cheaper. Italy.18.5 . while fossil fuels generally get more expensive. .5 MW 10-14 Biomass power Plant size: 1-20 MW 5-12 Geothermal power Plant size: 1-100 MW 4-7 Rooftop solar PV Peak capacity: 2-5 kilowatts-peak 20-50 Utility-scale solar PV Peak capacity: 200 kW to 100MW 15-30 Concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) 50-500 MW trough 14-18 Power generator Typical characteristics As time progresses.

Free fuel availability. is an import or export tax placed on products being imported from. . An Environmental tariff. Simple recycling of used fuel.Environmental Impact:    Pollution free sustainable energy. also known as a green tariff or eco-tariff. They can be used as controls on global pollution and can also be considered as corrective measures against "environmental races to the bottom" and "eco-dumping". or also being sent to countries with substandard environmental pollution controls. Reduced ecological degradation.

Conventional Power Plant .Installation And Working Life:: 1.