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Ok, as promised, the HoA chart assignment for "The Left.

" I'll try to finish and post the right-wing leaders tomorrow evening. And feel free to paraphrase and pull what you want from all of this, cause it can be a bit long.

Origins and Development of Authoritarian and Single Party States- Left and Right Comparative Analysis The Left Joseph Stalin- Soviet Union 1924-1953 Culture and Religion: ▪ In art, music, and literature, Stalin established Socialist Realism, a style that glorified and romanticized the struggle of the proletariat and the poor. Almost all of this art was also propaganda designed to glorify various sectors of the Soviet economy or society. ▪ Religion was heavily suppressed, and atheism was actively promoted in schools and in propaganda. Most religions had been oppressed and discriminated against, and some, such as the Russian Orthodox Church, were on the verge of total dissolution. Role of women: ▪ Stalin placed a great emphasis on the family as an important unit of communist society, and made divorce and abortion more difficult for women. Minority groups: ▪ In order to break up ethnic separatists and because of Stalin’s paranoia towards ethnicities with a neighboring state of the same ethnicity, he deported millions of Germans, Poles, Chechens, Tatars, and others to Siberia and Central Asia. Vladimir Lenin- Soviet Union 1917-1924 Culture and Religion: ▪ Lenin believed that religion was a menace both to communism and to society in general and officially secularized the Soviet Union and made atheism its official religious stance. ▪ Established idea of gosateizm, or state atheism that supposedly pervaded all aspects of Soviet society and government. Role of women: ▪ Thousands of women joined the Red Army during the civil war, and the Bolsheviks enjoyed appreciable support from women in the cities. ▪ Lenin sought to liberate women from oppressive housework, made it easier for them to get a divorce, and gave full rights to illegitimate children. These changes were made with the hope that women would become strong supporters of the revolution and communism. Minority groups: ▪ Lenin initially granted the minorities in the Soviet Union equality with each other and the right to create their own Soviet national republic. This system of “national delineation” of different ethnic groups continued into Stalin’s era. Fidel Castro- Cuba 1959-2008 Government and Opposition: ▪ Came to power after the resignation of Fulgencia Batista in January 1959, with Manuel Urrutia as president and Castro as head of the revolutionary army. ▪ Castro became the prime minister in February, and the Fundamental Law of the Republic gave legislative power to the executive, making Castro de-facto

Press: ▪ In 1957. whose Casa de las Américas gave support to artists against regime censorship. ▪ Established Committees for the Defense of the Revolution to mobilize large numbers into a national militia (500.7 million) and to unify the population behind the revolutionary regime.dictator. Some of these were achieved under Castro. In March 1959. Foreign Policies: ▪ The revolution initially was recognized and supported by the United States while Urrutia was president. equality between all groups. promising in 1960 to do so within a year. the US responded with an embargo on almost all imports. the increased importance of the relation to the Soviet Union led to a union of Fidel’s regime and the communists. and later completely shut down the free press. Castro increased censorship pressures on the media. ▪ The economic and social goals of the revolution were economic independence from American domination. Over a million Cubans were taught to read. In 1979. but Cuba remained undemocratic and a virtual satellite of the Soviet Union. ▪ After 1961. and improved healthcare.000 out of a population of 6. education. artists supported the gains that had been made under the revolution but criticized the growing authoritarianism of Castro. where the Soviets tried to use Cuba as a stockpile for nuclear weapons aimed at the US. full employment and the obliteration of poverty. Domestic Policies: ▪ Castro’s initial policies focused mainly on reforming the economy and breaking free of the overreliance on the United States. Culture and Religion: ▪ In the early 1960s. ▪ Castro set up the Movimento Nacional de la Trova to regulate and train musicians to prevent overt criticism of the regime. Castro officially declared Cuba to be a communist state. This group was led by Silvio Rodríguez and Haydée Santamaria. . he nationalized the telephone company and forced the sale of vacant property to alleviate housing shortages. once Castro assumed full powers and began to break the US’ economic dominance over Cuba. such as in healthcare and farming skills. Education and Youth: ▪ Castro was interested in wiping out illiteracy. portraying them as noble rebels against the oppressive Batista regime. This increased support for Castro both internationally and in the United States. ▪ Cuba was forced to turn to the Soviet Union for oil and other products. A deal to trade Cuban sugar for Soviet equipment led to the conditions in the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. the American journalist Herbert Matthews interviewed Castro in eastern Cuba. Women also started attending universities. ▪ The point of these programs was to ensure the loyalty of the population to the revolution. Role of women: ▪ Great progress was made in securing equality for women through improved education schemes. However. and the number of teachers has tripled and schools had quadrupled by 1970. ▪ After the flight of middle-class Cubans from the revolution.

and infrastructure construction. 1951-1954 Government and Opposition: ▪ After losing to Julio Prestes in the 1930 election. Other cash crops were also limited to diversify the economy. . and educational and job opportunities for women mandatory. ▪ After the outbreak of war. The Afro-Cuban population had also been highly supportive of the Batista regime. but was popular with workers because of increases in wages and decreases in working hours. Vargas committed suicide. ▪ Set up the National Department of Coffee to limit Brazil’s dependence on cash coffee production. Brazil was the only South American nation to send forces to Europe. set up public/private National Steel Company and others for car. with the growth of this population. and Vargas declared war on Germany in 1942 after the sinking of ships by German Uboats. which legalized divorce. Brazil shifted more toward the Allied camp. and was friendly to Germany and Italy as trade partners in the 1930s because of their large imports of cotton and coffee. After the Carlos Lacerda affair in 1954 which tied the government to extensive corruption. After an alleged communist plot was revealed in 1938. which tried to realign the economy and Brazilian society around corporatist lines with cooperation between the state. Vargas became a full dictator and Brazil was declared to be in a “state of siege” ▪ Ended censorship. Minority groups: ▪ Castro did not make any radical move to end racial inequalities initially because of his refusal to make an issue of race or encourage divisions of society on cultural of ethnic lines.Brazil 1930-1945. plane. and made equality in marriage. Getúlio Vargas. and relegalized political parties in the lead up to the 1945 elections. business. Vargas appeared to by a fascist dictator. Vargas held a tight control on the size and organization of labor unions. the racial situation improved after the mandate of equality between races in Cuba. Domestic Policies: ▪ Estado Novo established in 1937. Encouraged commercial aviation to link parts of Brazil isolated by terrain. Instead. ▪ Vargas ran for president again in 1950 under the Social Democratic party. Foreign Policies: ▪ On the surface. Forced out of office by the military in 1945 and replaced by General Eurico Dutra. ▪ Established the Estado Novo (New State) in 1937. ▪ However. Vargas led revolts which led to his leading a military junta on 4 November as interim president after a coup d’état overthrew the former president Washington Luis. ▪ Vargas created a system of Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI) which replaced imported goods with locally produced ones to build up local industry. the military turned on him and told him to resign. which granted him authoritarian powers and the government the power to intervene in the economy. The department limited production to drive up prices and increased wages for poor farmers. home responsibility. and labor groups.▪ The Family Code was passed in 1975. released political prisoners. and was elected on a populist reform platform.

▪ In 1945. Vargas tried to suppress several of these expressions. ▪ Perón secured Argentina’s economic independence by taking over foreign-owned . and providing benefits such as health. The new government was proGerman and was heavily influenced by fascism. the military plotted in overthrow him in June 1954. and populist nationalism. better working conditions. Press: ▪ Under the Estado Novo and after the Communist plot of 1938. Ok here is the rest. Education and Youth: ▪ Culture and Religion: ▪ Vargas’ main cultural agenda was to unify Brazil under the semi-fascist corporatist system inspired by Mussolini’s policies in Italy. modernization. and collectivism in order to secure Argentina’s economic independence from Europe and America. feel free to paraphrase what you need. :D The Right Juan Perón. unification of the classes under the state authority. education. the Women’s Committee was established that argued for price controls on food other basic commodities and increased economic and social equality for women. ▪ After becoming vice president. capitalism. the press was limited and political opposition parties banned.000 to fight in Italy. ▪ After Perón’s popularity suffered because of a downturn in the economy and his fallout with the military. but released after a labor rally in his support. This failed. The GOU tried to emulate German tactics to increase its power in South America. It sought to end the dominance of São Paulo in the government and reduce the regional divisions in Brazil. he won on a platform of democracy. Black Brazilians used music and the theater to express their longsuppressed culture. Domestic Policies: ▪ Perón’s plan for Argentina was Justicialismo which called for a compromise between the ideas of socialism. Perón was thrown in jail. In the 1946 elections.Argentina 1946-1955. and higher wages to workers. but its neighbors were not intimidated. ▪ Women were given the right to vote under the Estado Novo. ▪ Perón’s political support was built on nationalist sentiment. ▪ In response. Vargas announced in response that political parties were legal again and released political prisoners. Role of women: ▪ In 1945. Minority groups: ▪ Vargas did little to directly improve the social conditions for non-European minorities in the country. the regime’s popularity suffered.sending 25. 1973-1974 Government and Opposition: ▪ Perón came to power when the GOU (Grupo de Oficiales Unidos) overthrew the democratic regime and established a junta. but he was forced to flee to Paraguay a few months later. As before. Hope you find it helpful lol. especially the Samba dance. as Vargas was using fascist-style media and social suppression while at the same time fighting fascists in Europe.

with Mussolini as Prime Minister to the king. ▪ Mussolini established the Grand Council of Fascism. ▪ The press was again heavily censored during Perón’s second term as an attempt to suppress political dissent and prevent opposition to his presidency. socialists. which between 1919-1922 was involved in riots and violence against leftist parties and groups in Northern Italy. ▪ Under the influence of Eva Perón. They also began attending universities in larger numbers. Foreign Policies: ▪ Most of Perón’s foreign policy was focused on his goal for economic independence. Victor Emmanuel III called on Mussolini to form a government coalition to end the violence in 1922. Minority groups: ▪ Nothing major Benito Mussolini. and the women Peronists.Italy 1922-1943. and other left groups. ostensibly to “liberate” Argentina from its conservative social stances. helping to secure a Peronist victory in 1951. Press: ▪ Under the GUO junta. ▪ Perón and his wife Eva became international celebrities after the 1946 election.the idea that the government could . Domestic Policies: ▪ Main tenant of fascist ideology was corporatism. and healthcare to the poor. education. Post-war economic depression in Europe and exports of beef and wheat helped fund industrialization. which created new schools for the poor. Education and Youth: ▪ Most progress in education was made by the Eva Perón Foundation. the press was suppressed with fascist tactics first employed in Italy and Germany. After the failure to suppress the fascists. who vastly increased the numbers of attendees in universities. and founding the IAPI (Instituto Argentino de Promoción del Intercambio) to promote the use and export of native-made goods. called the descamisados. ▪ Perón was also accused of being sympathetic to the former fascist regimes in Germany and Italy and with harboring escaped Nazis and war criminals from and services. a fusion of state and party authority that controlled the Italian government. leagalizing divorce and nationalizig religious schools. and Eva became the international face of the regime and was extremely popular both in Argentina and around the world. Although accused of financial embezzlement. Salò Republic 1943-1945 Government and Opposition: ▪ Led the fascio di combattimento. The women’s section of the Peronist party also helped Perón return to power in 1973. women were granted suffrage in 1947. It was also the only body which could legally remove Mussolini from power. he attacked the Roman Catholic Church. increasing benefits for the working class. ▪ Mussolini’s de-facto dictatorship was opposed by communists. Role of women: ▪ The Eva Perón Foundation was established in 1948 that provided housing. Culture and Religion: ▪ During Perón’s tenous second term. the foundation provided many of the lower classes with the first social relief they had experienced.

▪ Used the SA as paramilitary organization to support the NSDAP until its replacement with the SS in 1934. Minority groups: ▪ Unlike in fascist Germany. After the Reichstag Fire in March 1933. During World War II. racial and ethnic minorities were not oppressed. ▪ Roman Catholicism was granted official status by the Italian government. although he adopted anti-clerical stances towards the Church. In 1936. Adolf Hitler. Press: ▪ The media was suppressed heavily and replaced with fascist-slanted propaganda press.Germany 1933-1945 Government and Opposition: ▪ Hitler came to power in 1933 when he was appointed chancellor under Hindenburg. Italy tried to expand into French Corsica. Italy also intervened in the Spanish Civil War on the side of the nationalists. ▪ Italy fought in the war on the Axis side. and all political dissent and opposition was crushed. granting the Pope an independent Vatican and the recognition of the role of the Catholic Church in Italian society. Established the Gestapo in 1934 as the secret police of the Nazi regime. mainly to seize lands from the collapsing French Empire. ▪ Before the Abyssinian Crisis. ▪ Mussolini used the old Roman Empire as the cultural model on which Italy would reclaim her status as a Great Power. ▪ Mussolini believed in a rejection of idealism and liberal education and replacing it with moral and physical education to secure the loyalty of the youth to fascism. ▪ Mussolini negotiated the Lateran Treaties with the Papacy in 1929. Culture and Religion: ▪ Signed the Lateran Treaty with the Papacy. Italy shifted towards better relations with Germany. and were encouraged to stay at home and serve as housewives. Mussolini also sought to reform Italian society on these corporatist lines. French Tunisia. Italy invaded Ethiopia. the Social Democratic and Communist Parties were outlawed. The Enabling Act granted Hitler and the Nazi party near dictatorial powers under the claim of restoring Germany to her pre-war greatness. ▪ Once the Nazis had seized full control. and in particular Jews were not subjected to the same discrimination. Foreign Policies: ▪ Mussolini was interested in fully making Italy a Great Power by extending her colonial empire in Africa. Domestic Policies: ▪ Hitler worked to appease the populace by reducing unemployment through military . and took over Albania in 1939. and British-controlled Egypt and Sudan. the NSDAP control of the government increased. women were seen as vital to the continued health and strength of the nation. Italy had been aligned with Britain and France against Hitler in the Stresa Front. However after the crisis. Role of women: ▪ Like in Nazi Germany.mediate between labor and corporate demands to satisfy both groups. Education and Youth: ▪ The fascist paramilitary Blackshirts contained a youth section.

. and railways. real wages were lowered. the price of living increased. and big corporations and the industrial class benefited greatly from the close relation with the German state.rearmament and through large-scale public works projects such as dams. Jews. air force. the press was seized and converted into a massive propaganda machine for the Nazi Party under the Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels. and the Sudetenland. Austria. Culture and Religion: ▪ Nazism totally dominated popular culture. Foreign Policies: ▪ Hitler’s foreign policy revolved mainly around the modification of the Versailles settlement to one more favorable to Germany. loyalty to Germany and fascism.” ▪ Hitler almost immediately rejected the anti-rearmament agreements in the Treaty of Versailles. Hitler slowly increased his territorial demands in the hopes that Britain and France would not start a war over these claims. music. He also wanted to expand German territory to include German speaking areas not united with Germany such as Danzig. ▪ The Hitler Youth was established to train boys for the German military and indoctrinate them in anti-Semitism and the myths of Aryan superiority. and the inferiority of non-Aryan peoples. and Hitler thought they should be purged to create a purer and stronger German race. Minority groups: ▪ Ethnic and racial minorities such as Slavs. and army. autobahns. ▪ While unemployment virtually disappeared. and literature created by supposed inferior races with culture taken from German history or from romanticized myths about the Aryan race. Education and Youth: ▪ Liberal education was rejected and replaced with one that encouraged German superiority. Press: ▪ Like in Fascist Italy. and strikes were banned. ▪ The 1936 Summer Olympics were hosted in Berlin in a massive showcase of Nazi Germany and the progress that Germany had made from its defeat in 1918. and began building up the size and strength of the German navy. ▪ In order to avoid being blocked in by the Great Powers. Role of women: ▪ Women were seen as vital to the racial strength of Germany. ▪ Minorities were seen as racially corrupting the German nation. and were encouraged to be strong both mentally and physically in order to be good mothers. as well as to Eastern Europe in the creation of a “Greater Germany. Labor unions were abolished and unified under the German Labor Front under the control of the Nazi Party. and Roma were subjected to increasing oppression and discrimination. ▪ Hitler wanted to replace degenerate art. with propaganda film such as Olympia and Triumph of the Will by Leni Riefenstahl glorifying the German state and the superiority of German culture and civilization. culminating in the establishment of concentration and later extermination camps to deal with them.