ARTICLE IN PRESS

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 504–517 www.elsevier.com/locate/rser

Bio-fuels from thermochemical conversion of renewable resources: A review
H.B. Goyal, Diptendu Seal, R.C. SaxenaÃ
Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun 248005, India Received 15 June 2006; accepted 31 July 2006

Abstract Demand for energy and its resources, is increasing every day due to the rapid outgrowth of population and urbanization. As the major conventional energy resources like coal, petroleum and natural gas are at the verge of getting extinct, biomass can be considered as one of the promising environment friendly renewable energy options. Different thermo-chemical conversion processes that include combustion, gasification, liquefaction, hydrogenation and pyrolysis, have been used to convert the biomass into various energy products. Although pyrolysis is still under developing stage but during current energy scenario, pyrolysis has received special attention as it can convert biomass directly into solid, liquid and gaseous products by thermal decomposition of biomass in absence of oxygen. In this review article, the focus has been made on pyrolysis while other conventional processes have been discussed in brief. For having better insight, various types of pyrolysis processes have been discussed in detail including slow, fast, flash and catalytic pyrolysis processes. Besides biomass resources and constituents, the composition and uses of pyrolysis products have been discussed in detail. This review article aim to focus on various operational parameters, viz. temperature and particle size of biomass and product yields using various types of biomasses. r 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Biomass; Thermo-chemical; Pyrolysis

ÃCorresponding author. Tel.: +91 135 266 0045; fax: +91 135 266 0202.

E-mail address: rcsaxena@iip.res.in (R.C. Saxena). 1364-0321/$ - see front matter r 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2006.07.014

. . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Biomass . . . . . . water. . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . It was estimated that the oil sources might be depleted till 2050. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . Acknowledgements . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B. . . . . . . Liquefaction . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . Goyal et al. . . . . . . . . . Pyrolysis . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . Uses of char . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusions . . . . . . .1. . . . . . Uses of gas. . . . . . . . . . . . . Uses of bio-oil . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermo-chemical processes. . . . . . . . . World energy demand is expected to increase approximately 50% above 2002 level and will increase approximately two and half times the present level. . . . . . . . . . sunlight. . . . . . . . . Resources. . . . . . . . Since 1973 the energy resources have been doubled in developed countries but the demand is still higher. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . acid rain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Combustion . 4. . . . . . . . Pyrolysis products application . . . . Pyrolysis char composition . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . petroleum and natural gas. . . . . . . . . etc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .3. . . . . . . 4. . . . The process of obtaining energy from these sources causes atmospheric pollution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . 7. Definition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Biomass is available in abundance and is cheap and its better utilization is to convert it to energy rich products using suitable processes. . . . . . . . . Introduction Demand for energy and its resources. . . . . .5. . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pyrolysis product composition . . . . . . . . . is increasing continuously due to the rapid outgrowth of population and urbanization. . . . . . . . . 505 506 506 506 506 506 507 507 507 508 508 508 508 514 514 514 514 515 515 515 515 515 515 516 516 3. . / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 504–517 505 Contents 1. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Biomass conversion processes . . . . . . . . Hydrogenation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The major energy demand is fulfilled from the conventional energy resources like coal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . These sources are in the verge of getting extinct. Gasification . . . . . . .2. . . Pyrolysis gas composition . etc. . . . Biomass constituents . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . biomass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ARTICLE IN PRESS H. . . . . . . resulting in problems like global warming. . . . . . Viewing the increase in the energy demands and keeping in view of the pollution a shift over to non-conventional sources like wind. Present sources of energy are not sufficient to overcome the increasing needs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . is inevitable. . . . 4. . . . . . . 6. . . Pyrolysis oil composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . etc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pyrolysis process types . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . Pyrolysis reactors . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . .4. keeping warmth in houses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Biomass is being used from the ancient times as a combustion fuel for cooking. 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .

Cellulose is a polymer. Forest products: Wood.000.ARTICLE IN PRESS 506 H. in which the units are linked 1–4 in the alpha-configuration. hemi-cellulose and lignin. waste from food processing and aquatic plants and algae. and are often adjacent to cellulose fibers to form a ligno. etc. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 504–517 2. which consist of branched structures and vary with biomasses. mannose. Biomass resources include wood and wood wastes. Biomass conversion processes Biomass can be converted to useful products by two main processes: (a) Thermo-chemical processes (b) Bio-chemical processes . Hemi-celluloses are complex polysaccharides present in the cell wall. lignin.3. Definition Biomass is anything living matter on earth. wheat and barley). Plants produce biomass continuously by the process of photosynthesis [1–3]. In biomass. ash. cellulose is generally the largest fraction followed by hemi-cellulose. sugar crops (cane and beet).1.7]. high molecular weight. substituted. municipal solid waste.2. urban organic wastes. 2. Biomass 2. safflower). from forest clearings.. It is a mixture of polysaccharides. sunflower. Biomass constituents Utility of biomass as feedstock for conversion depends upon the chemical constituents and physical properties. The building blocks of lignin are believed to be a three-carbon chain attached to rings of six carbon atoms. urban wood-wastes. consisting of linear chains of 1. These are the substances in which solar energy is stored. Biomass contains varying amounts of cellulose. natural and derived materials. sawdust. agricultural crops and their waste by-products. grasses. i. shrubs and wood residues. [6. with an average molecular weight of around 100. 3. logging residues.e. mononuclear aromatic polymers in the cell walls of the certain biomass. crop residues. animal wastes. xylose and arabinose and methlyglucoronic and galaturonic acids. 2. Resources Biomass resources can be divided into two broad categories. Lignins are highly branched. oilseed crops (soyabean. called phenyl-propanes. Goyal et al. chemically related compounds. 4-D-glucopyranose units. etc. Biomass resource can be subdivided into three categories [2.4]: Wastes: Agricultural production wastes. trees. herbaceous woody crops. with an average molecular weight of o30. composed almost entirely of sugars such as glucose.B. agricultural processing wastes. bark. starch crops (corn..cellulosic complex [5]. mill wood wastes. Lignin is regarded as a group of amorphous. Energy crops: Short rotation woody crops.000. especially woody species.

Thermo-chemical processes The thermo-chemical conversion processes have two basic approaches. biomass is converted into a combustible gas mixture by the partial oxidation of biomass at high temperature. etc. Combustion process has got many disadvantages.10]: C þ O2 À CO2 . Gasification In this process. 4. environmental standards. liquefaction.2.9]. pyrolysis has received special attention as it can convert biomass directly into solid. end use requirements. or supercritical extraction. which in turn is associated with financial costs and energy expenditure [8. The second approach is to liquefy biomass directly by high-temperature pyrolysis. Biomass rarely arises naturally in an acceptable form of burning. Different thermo-chemical conversion processes include combustion. grinding. liquid and gaseous products by thermal decomposition of biomass in the absence of oxygen. hydrogenation and pyrolysis. Goyal et al. CO2 þ 4H2 À CH4 þ 2H2 O: ! . These processes convert the waste biomass into energy rich useful products.. the focus has been made on pyrolysis while other conventional processes have been discussed in brief as follows: 4. economic conditions and project specific factors. in the range 800–900 1C. It is possible to burn any type of biomass but in practice combustion is feasible only for biomass with moisture content of o50%. The reactions are as follows [2–4.ARTICLE IN PRESS H. In this article. The biomass is heated in insufficient supply of air. Choice of conversion process depends upon the type and quantity of biomass feedstock. ! 2 CO2 þ C $ 2CO: Methane and hydrogen are also formed simultaneously by thermal splitting of organic material. ultrapyrolysis. the desired form of the energy.1.e. Pyrolysis offers efficient utilization of particular importance for agriculture countries with vastly available biomass by-products.B. chopping. The first is the gasification of biomass and its conversion to hydrocarbons. In most of the cases it requires some pretreatment like drying. or electricity. Combustion The biomass is directly burnt in the presence of air to convert chemical energy stored in biomass into heat. i. Although pyrolysis is still under developing stage but during current energy scenario. etc. gasification.. high-pressure liquefaction. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 504–517 507 4. mechanical power. ! C þ 1O2 À CO. ! 2 CO þ 1O2 À CO2 .

Product yield was found to increase in all the three cases when the pyrolysis temperature was increased from 673 to 973 K. Char was found to be the least with the size of 0.6odpo0..1. Fixed bed slow pyrolysis experiments of safflower seed with heating rates of 5 1C/min were reported by Beis et al. (1999. Pyrolysis is thermal destruction of biomass in the absence of air/ oxygen. Biomass is pyrolysed at slow heating rates (5–7 K/min). Pyrolysis final temperature. Zendersons et al. Slow pyrolysis of cottonseed cake at heating rates of 7 1C/min in a tubular reactor was reported by Ozbay et al.B.11]. For particle size 0. Goyal et al. Onay and Kockar [14] conducted slow pyrolysis experiments of rapeseed in a Heinz retort and a tubular reactor with variable temperature. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 504–517 4.ARTICLE IN PRESS 508 H. This leads to the production of useful liquid oil. (2002. Turkey) conducted fixed bed pyrolysis of Euphorbia rigida. Japan. which is difficult to handle [2. liquid is obtained by thermo-chemical conversion at low temperature and high pressure using a catalyst in the presence of hydrogen. . Turkey). Putun et al.e. Results showed that oil yield was highest at 550 1C for all particle sizes and flow rates. Significant amount of work has been done on this process. sunflower presses bagasse and hazelnut shell. gases and solid products.85odpo1. Pyrolysis It is thermo-chemical conversion process and is found to be best suited for conversion of biomass to liquid fuel. Slow pyrolysis. In all the cases the char yield decreases with increase in the temperature. Pyrolysis process types 4. Results (Table 3) showed that the increase in temperature increased the oil yield up to 550 1C and later reduced beyond this temperature. This leads to less liquid and gaseous product and more of char production. Oil yield was maximum at N2 flow rate of 100 cm3/min [13]. ([12]. i. Turkey). first the syn-gas is formed and then CO is reacted with H2 to form methane [10]. sweep gas flow and particle size were the variable parameters during the study. Heinz retort and a well-swept tubular reactor. Liquefaction In this process. nitrogen flows and particle sizes. at different temperatures and heating rate of 7 K/min.5. From results (Table 2) it was seen that with the increase in the temperature the oil yield increased up to 600 1C but decreased at around 750 1C. Gas yield was also found highest at 700 1C.1. Char yield showed continuous decrease. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted in two reactors.4.25. ([13]. 4. 85 the oil yield was maximum. Different condition leads to formation of products in different proportions. 4. 4. The char yield decreased and gas yield increased with rising temperature. Similar results (Table 1) were obtained on increasing the N2 flow rate [12]. Pyrolysis of biomass starts at 350–550 1C and goes up to 700 1C.5. Hydrogenation This process is mainly for the production of methane by hydro-gasification.5. It is an expensive process and also the product is a tarry lump.3. Latvia) conducted slow pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse for char production and obtained 23–28% yield of charcoal.1.

0 22.0 Table 3 Product yield varying with temperature and particle size [14] Parameter Temp.8 23.0 27.) from various biomass at different temperatures [12] Temp. Goyal et al.6 0.5 23.25odpo1.8 Char Oil Gas 24 22 19 18 23 22 17 16 17 42 46 47 44 44 45 48 49 48 26 25 27 31 26 26 28 29 28 . / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 504–517 Table 1 Percent yields of products (approx.0 29.25 1.0 Water 26.0 21.5 Oil 21. (1C) Product yield (%) Char 1 2 3 4 5 300 350 450 550 650 31.0 24. (1C) 400 500 600 700 Particle size dpo0.0 28.0 24.6odpo0.ARTICLE IN PRESS H.1 23.9 26. No. 425 0.85odpo1.425odpo0. (K) Product yield (%) Char Euphorbia rigida 673 773 973 Sunflower 673 773 973 Hazelnut shell 673 773 973 Oil Water 509 44 28 21 35 27 26 47 41 36 24 32 26 36 44 38 20 23 21 13 17 13 12 12 12 14 14 14 Table 2 Variation of product with temperature for cottonseed cake [13] S. Temp.B.2 24.85 0.

Turkey) had reported fast pyrolysis of rapeseed in a well-swept fixed bed reactor. It is carried out at a pressure up to 20 Mpa [19]. wire mesh reactor. 150 and 200 ml/min) were the different variables during the studies. Many researchers have contributed in the field of fast pyrolysis of biomass using various reactors. ([15]. easy product collection. fast pyrolysis is used to obtain high-grade bio oil. Results indicated that for sugarcane bagasse. and sweep gas flow on the product yield.1. Goyal et al. In another experiment. vacuum furnace reactor. 4. particle size 0. temperature (400–600 1C) and N2 flow (50. rotating reactor. À8+12. Flash pyrolysis.2. were designated for performing fast pyrolysis. rapid de-volatilization. 100. heating rate. at a pyrolysis temperature of 550 1C and with a N2 purge gas flow of 100 ml/min. i. Onay et al. Cunninghania lanceolata and Franxinus manshurica and rice straw. Fast pyrolysis is successful with most of fluidized bed reactors as it offers high heating rates. Fast pyrolysis. Flash pyrolysis is the process in which the reaction time is of only several seconds or even less. It involves rapid heating of biomass but not as fast as flash pyrolysis. (b) Rapid thermal process: It is a particular heat transfer process with very short heat residence times (between 30 ms and 1. The heating rate is very high.ARTICLE IN PRESS 510 H. easy control. Jatropha curcas seed cake studies are in the progress. etc.B. This in turn produces more of char. vortex reactor. Flash pyrolysis is of following types: (a) Flash hydro-pyrolysis: Hydro-pyrolysis is flash pyrolysis done in hydrogen atmosphere.3. at a temperature of 460 1C and with a purge gas flow of 150 ml/min. Particle size (À6+8.1. In case of Calotropis Procera.7%) was found with mesh size of À16.5 s).6–0. indicus is highest and is lowest for rice straw [18]. produced bio-oils by fast pyrolysis of wood stock such as Pterocarpus indicus.6–1. Onay and Kockar [17] conducted experiments on fast pyrolysis of rapeseed to investigate the affect of temperature. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 504–517 Fixed bed pyrolysis studies of sugarcane bagasse. Luo et al. Flash pyrolysis of any kind of biomass requires rapid heating and therefore the particle size should be fairly small. Calotropis procera and Jatropha curcas seed cake (expelled and extracted) are being continued in the authors’ laboratory. approximately 105–250 mm (À60+140 mesh size) [19]. ([16]. From the data (Table 4) it was concluded that char yield decreased from 27% to 14. particle size.e. Two of appropriate designs are entrained flow reactor and the fluidized bed reactor. maximum oil yield (17. and sweep gas flow rate of 100 cm3/min. Results (Table 5) show that the yield with P. À12+16 and À16). This requires special reactor configuration in which biomass residence times are only of few seconds. Maximum oil yield of 73% was obtained at temperature of 550–600 1C. circulating fluidized bed reactor.85 mm. Various reactors like entrained flow reactor. Rapid de-polymerization and cracking of feed stocks takes place. Heating rate is somewhere about 300 1C/min. 4.6%) was with À8+12 size.. Oil yield was obtained as 68% with pyrolysis temperature of 550 1C. Generally.5. The higher yield of desirable liquid product can be obtained by fast pyrolysis. etc. Initially pyrolysis was done with slow heating rates. It is done at temperatures between 400 and 950 1C. particle size of +0. heating rate of 300 1C/min and N2 flow of 100 cm3/min. Rapid .5% with the increase in the temperature.5.25 mm. [15]. maximum oil yield (28. China).

dish connectors. and 550 1C.2 26. (d) Vacuum flash pyrolysis: In this process.B.000 Water 39. (1999. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 504–517 Table 4 Percent yield (approx. which in turn gives high oil yield and low gas yield.2 53. . Jaques Lede and Oliver Bouten (1999) reported solar flash pyrolysis of samples of cellulose [21].000 19.425 0.154 2.4 24.2 27. lanceolata P.4 27.154 74.25odpo1.85odpo1. Influence on product yield was also reported (Table 6).425odpo0.7 Heating value (kJ/kg) 22.54.0 17.6odpo0. 500.5 50.) with variable particle size and temperature [17] Parameter Particle size dpo0.2 o5 o5 o5 o5 o5 Table 5 Effect of biomass species on bio-oil production [18] Biomass F.5 38 60 62 60 59 22.7 33.ARTICLE IN PRESS H.8 Temp. (K) 823 773 773 773 Particle size (mm) 74.5 22.25 1. Goyal et al. The reactions were performed at temperature 400. UK) had reported flash pyrolysis of mixed wood waste in a fluidized bed reactor. (c) Solar flash pyrolysis: Concentrated solar radiation can be used to perform flash pyrolysis. solar furnaces.5 16. This prevents further cracking and further re-condensation reactions. The solar energy can be obtained through devices like solar towers. 450.8 dp41.2 29.2 27.50.9 55.5 20. It limits the secondary decomposition reactions.6 31. indicus Rice straw Temp. Canada) reported vacuum pyrolysis of carboniferous age oil shales [22].85 0.355 1.0 17. mandshurica C.5 28 20 19 18 18 26.6 0.6 53. Horne and Williams (1996.000 19.250 Yield 40. etc.0 47. Roy et al. Many researchers have used flash pyrolysis process to increase the liquid and the gaseous products.0 47.000 19. The vacuum facilitates the removal of the condensable products from the hot reaction zone.5 45. (1C) 400 500 550 600 700 Oil Char Gas 511 42.5 heating eliminates the side reactions whereby giving products with comparable viscosity to diesel oil [20]. pyrolysis is done under vacuum.5 47.

as the temperature is increased [23].ARTICLE IN PRESS 512 H.0 16.3 16. (1C) 4 800 545 6 600 547 9. Char quantity decreased.9 15 200 551 9. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 504–517 Table 6 Product yield with temperature from flash pyrolysis of wood [23] Temp.0 67.5 65. Bagasse. Experiments on Maple. Scott and Radlein (1985.1 50. This oil needs to be upgraded as they have high oxygen and water content.7 11.9 2 800 555 — 45. The data (Table 9) show that the oil yield increased whereas the char quantity decreased with the increase in the temperature [17]. Amount of char decreased in all the three cases [25]. .9 15. From literature it was seen that liquids obtained from biomass by slow. Aspen Poplar and Wheat straw were also conducted. Catalytic biomass pyrolysis is introduced to improve the quality of the oil produced.6 7 400 547 9.0 67. These oils are also found to be less stable and less miscible in conventional fuels.7 17.5 Gas 9.6 It was seen that liquid increased marginally where as significant increase in gas yield was observed. Onay and Kockar conducted (2003.1 51. (1C) 400 450 500 550 550 550 Char (wt%) 24.5.B. Peat. flash or fast pyrolysis process.1 Liquid (wt%) 65.4 18. Turkey) flash pyrolysis of rapeseed at 550–600 1C with particle sizes +0. 4.2 Table 7 Pyrolysis of Aspen Poplar under variable conditions [24] Poplar Aspen saw dust 105–250 mm Run# N2 flow rate (ml/min) Temp.2 11.2 Gases (wt%) 10. Results (Table 8) show that liquid and gas yield in all the cases with increase in temperature.6 14.1. 1984.1 Product yield (% of wood fed) Char 11.1 14.7 11.3 Tar 57. Goyal et al. Ontario) performed flash pyrolysis of different biomass samples like maple. Maggi and Delmon (1994.8 66. Corn Shover and Commercial Cellulose [26].9 14 400 548 9.7 51.7 66.6–1.4. Polar bark. Wheat Straw. could not be directly used as transportation fuel.7 15.9 17. Scott and Piskorz (1982. Results (Table 7) with different operating conditions were also reported [24].9 57.25 mm and N2 flow of 100 cm3/min.5 13.2 13. Ontario) had reported flash pyrolysis of Aspen Poplar wood. Belgium) have done the comparison study of oil obtained from slow and flash pyrolysis of different biomass species [27].1 21. Catalytic biomass pyrolysis.

/ Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 504–517 Table 8 Pilot plant results of Maple.0 67.1 71.B.8 3.59 18.6odpo0. (2000.61 20.66 3. (1C) 400 500 550 600 700 Oil Char Gas 55.98 47.07 21.63 23. Goyal et al.5 16.0 58.6 7.4 13. (1C) Product yield (%) Gas Maple 482 500 532 Poplar Aspen 425 465 500 541 Wheat straw 500 525 575 Liquid Char Water 513 8.3 16.0 17.25 1. 550 and 600 1C using ZSM-5 catalyst [29].0 56. aluminas (alpha.425odpo0.22 18.15 66.0 16.42 10.0 o10 o10 o10 o10 13.61 9.3 8.63 64. 450.3 16.22 8. gammaAl2O3) and transition metal catalysts (Fe/Cr).85odpo1.6 0.68 56. Catalytic pyrolysis of rice husk was reported by Williams and Nugranad (2000.0 68.88 67.05 5.2 7. From the replicate runs with different catalysts 80–99% wt% mass balances were obtained [28].04 44.3 70. .92 Table 9 Percent yield of pyrolysis product with temperature and particle size [17] Parameter Particle size dpo0.99 23.3 16.0 19.17 71.15 63. 500.2 8.25odpo1.425 0.0 17. Pyrolysis was done at temperature 400.0 15. Somaloda et al.92 8.0 15. UK). Aspen Poplar and Wheat straw [25] Temp.24 60.53 12. B: Re USY). FCC catalysts (FCC.8 Temp.90 12.25 55.95 8.8 dp41.27 12.88 11. Greece) performed catalytic biomass pyrolysis using catalysts like pure zeolite (A: HZSM-5).65 43.5 6.17 17.02 30.0 66.30 6.85 0.66 24.0 70.8 5. Various catalysts such as zeolites and basic materials were introduced with the biomass feed stock [28].0 65.31 20 20 15 16 16 17 33.3 The oil obtained by catalytic biomass pyrolysis does not require costly pre-upgradation techniques involving condensation and reevaporation.ARTICLE IN PRESS H.

Alcohols: Methanol.2. Ln. (ii) Connected to organic acids. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 504–517 4. Mn. furfural alcohol. etc. Pyrolysis product composition 5.. Goyal et al. Syringols: Methyl syringol. Furans: Furan. entrained feed solid reactor. rotating cone reactor. etc. ethyl guaiacol. [30–31]. Phenols: Phenol. butenes. etc. vacuum pyrolysis reactor. etc. etc. Pyrolysis reactors Pyrolysis reactor designs includes fixed beds. Guaiacols: 2-methoxy phenol. nphthalenes. Inorganics species are present in following forms in the bio-oil: (i) Associated with counter ions. acetal. methyl cyclopentenolone. wire mesh reactor. acetic. propylene. 2-butenal. Ba. butane. Aldehydes: Formaldehyde. fluoranthrene. eugenol. xylenes. furfural. dimethylcyclopentene. propyl syringol. propane. 5. etc. 2-butanone. ablative pyrolysis reactor. hexanoic. fructose. 2-pentanone. 2-furanone. methylpyridine. isobutanol. etc. ultra pyrolysis entrained flow reactor. 2-butanone. V. Some of the organic groups present in the bio-oil are mentioned below:              Acids: Formic. moving beds. alpha-pinene. Miscellaneous oxygenates: Hydroxyacetaldehyde. benzoic. 4-ethyl syringol. methyl substituted phenols. etc. Si. Alkenes: 2-methyl propene. P Mg.3 pentenedione. Some of the reactors used consists of circulating fluid bed reactor. etc. Li. phenanthrene. D-xylose.2. acetaldehyde. C5. bubbling fluid bed reactor. Ketones: Acetone. ethanol. etc. CO2 and CH4. 4-methyl guaiacol. propanoic.B. inclined rotating kilns. [30–31]. pyridine. Inorganics present in the bio oil comprises of Ca. D-arabinose. Ti. methyl n-butyrate. Sugars: Levoglucosan.5. velerolactone. hydroxyacetone. Na. 2-methyl furan. 2-propene-1-ol.1. 2-hexanone. Al. (iii) Related to various enzymatic compounds. butyrolactone. Esters: Methyl formate. Pyrolysis oil composition Oil obtained from the pyrolysis of biomass contains several organic as well as inorganic species. etc. Ni. Aromatics: Benzene. Pyrolysis gas composition Pyrolysis gas comprises of CO. Cl. ethane. 2-cyclopentanone. S. methyl propionate. methylamine. pentanal. cyclo-hexanone. suspended and fluidized beds. toluene. etc. chrysene.ARTICLE IN PRESS 514 H. etc. Fe. ethanedial. etc. K. etc. etc. 2. Nitrogen compounds: Ammonia. . dimethyl acetal. Cr. 5. Zn. etc. The other components present are H2. glucose.

Conclusions It is necessary to get a process which can convert biomass into useful energy products especially to liquids which can be a good substitute for the depleting fossil . used as binders for palletizing and briquetting of combustible organic waste materials. Uses of char The char can be utilized for various industrial usages which are discussed as follows [32]:     The char could be used as a solid fuel in boilers where bagasse or other biomass is presently burnt. It can be used futher for the gasification process to obtain hydrogen rich gas by thermal cracking. 6.2. 7. production of anhydro-sugars like levoglucosan. 6. wood preservative. Pyrolysis products application 6.3. Possibility of using this carbon feedstock for making carbon-nano-tubes may be explored.ARTICLE IN PRESS H.. char also comprises various inorganic species. This can be converted into brickets alone or mixed with biomass and can be used as high efficiency fuel in boilers. The char could be used for the production of activated carbon. production of chemicals and resins.3. In addition. might be used as a fuel for industrial combustion purposes. the oil may be stored and transported.1.B. Goyal et al. bio-oil can be used as preservatives. 6. and hence need not to be used at the production site. Uses of gas Pyrolysis gas containing significant amount of carbon dioxide along with methane. bio-oils can be used in making adhesives. can be used as liquid smoke. e. used for power generation.g. the oil obtained from sewage sludge pyrolysis can be used directly in diesel fuelled engines. can be used as a transportation fuel and could be a good substitute for fossil fuels. Pyrolysis char composition Char contains elemental carbon along with hydrogen. Uses of bio-oil The bio-oil obtained from pyrolysis can have the following industrial uses:             combustion fuel. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12 (2008) 504–517 515 5. a suitable blend of a pyrolysis liquid with the diesel oil may be used as diesel engine fuels.

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