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Kawanishi Aircraft Co.
(Kawanishi Kokuki Kabusbiki Kaisha)
THE UNITED STATES STRATEGIC BOMBING SURVEY
Kawanishi Aircraft Co.
(Kawanishi Kokuki Kabushiki Kaisha)
Dates of Survey:
Date of Publication:
This report was written priinaiily for the use of the United States Strategic in the preparation of further reports of a more compreliensive nature. Any conclusions or opinions expressed in this report must be considered as limited to the specific mateiial covered and as subject to fin-thei' interpretation in the light of further studies conducted by the Survey.
Tlic United SLatcs Strategic Bombing Survey was estahlished by the Secretary of War on 3 November 1944, pursuant to a directive from the Its mission was to late President Roosevelt. conduct an impartial and expert study of theeffects of our aerial attack on Germany, to be used in connection with air attacks on Japan and to establish a basis for evaluating the importance and potentialities of air power as an instrument of
military segment of the oi-ganization
military strategy for planning th^ future develop-
of the United States armed forces and for determining future economic policies with respect
A summary report and to the national defense. some 200 supporting reports containing the fimlings of the Survey in Germany have been published. On 15 August 1945, President Truman requested that the Survey conduct a similar study of the effects of all types of air attack in the war against
Japan, submitting reports in duplicate to the Secretary of War and to the Secretary of the
from tiie Ai-my to the extent of GO percent and from the Navy to the extent of 40 peieenl. Both the Army and the Navy gave the Survey all possibles assistance in furnishing men, supplies, ti-ansport, and information. The Survey operated from headquarters established in Tokyo early in September 1945, with subheadtjuarters in Nagoya, Osaka, Hiroshima, and Nagasaki, and with mobile teams operating in other parts of Japan, the islands of the Pacific, and the Asiatic mainland. It was possible to reconstruct much of wartime Japanese military planning and execution, engage-
ment l)y engagement, and campaign by campaign, and to secure reasonably accurate statistics on Japan's economy and war production, plant by plant, and industry liy industry. In addition,
studies were conducted on Japan's over-all strategic plans
and the l)ackground
of her entry into
the war, the internal discussions anil negotiations
Japanese phase were:
Franklin D'Olier, Chairman. Paid H. Nitze, Henry C. Alexander, Vice Chairmen.
leading to her acceptance of unconditional surrender, the course of health
and morale among
the civilian population, the effectiveness of the
Harry L. Bowman, Kenneth Galbraith,
be issued covering each phase of the study.
more than 700 Jap-
Frank A. McNamee,
anese military, Goverimaent, and industrial ofIt also recovered and translated many documents which not only have been useful to the Survey but also will furnish data valuable for other studies. Arrangements have been made to
Fred Searls, Jr., Monroe' E. Spaght, Dr. Lewis R. Thompson, Theodore P. Wright, Directors. Walter Wilds, Secretary.
turn over the Survey's
to the Central Intelli-
The Survey's complement provided for 300 civilians, 350 officers, and 500 enlisted men. The
gence Group, through which they will be available
examination and distribution.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
The Corporation and
Importance in the Aircraft Industry.
Air Attacks Production Statistics Evaluation of Pre- attack Intelligence Appendix A Chart of employment Appendix B Dispersal Map B-1 Dispersal of aircraft manufacture Appendix C Production of combat-type aircraft Appendix D Aircraft production by type and years Appendix E Actual airplane protluction Appendix F MIS estimate of production, 1941-45
— — — — — — —
Naruo Plant KoxAN Plant
(Plant report No. III-l)
(Plant report No. III-2)
HiMEji Plant (Plant report No. III-3) Takarazuka Plant (Plant report No. III-4)
45 63 75
THE CORPORATION AND
THE AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY
Kawazoe Iron Works
Till' Kawauislii Aircraft Co. (Ivawaiiishi Kokiiki Knbushiki Kaisha) was the tenth hirgest producer of all typos of aircraft in the Japanese aircraft During the period 1941-45 it acindustry. counted for 3 percent of all the aircraft produced by the industry, increasing from 1.1 percent in 1942 to 4 percent in 1944 and 5 percent in 1945. The company protluced' 5 percent of all fighters built by the Japanese aircraft industry. Kawanishi produced air frames only and its The entire output went to the Japanese Navy. products were used for George (NlKl-J principal and N1K2-J), a single-engine fighter, and Frances (P1Y2-S), a twin-engine fighter. Other important types of air frames were for Mavis and Emily, four-engine flying boats, and various types of naval observation planes and trainers (USSBS, Aircraft Division reports Nos. III-l and III-2). In November 1928 the Kawanishi Aircraft Co. was established with a capital of 5,000,000 yen,
In Decend)er 1939 the
was purchased. This company produced machine tools and was later a branch of the Takarazuka plant. At the request of the -Japanese Naval Ministry, the aircraft-engine department was dissolved in November 1940 and the engine-accessories department and machinegun parts department were established. The capital was increased by 15,000,000 yen in October 1941. Thus the total authorized capital became 30,000,000 yen, which was paid up in full in April 1943. At the request of the Japanese Navy, the Takarazuka plant was established in December 1941 and started production of machined parts for aircraft, engme accessories, and power-driven, machine-gun turrets. In February 1942 the Konan plant was established to produce large flying boats, and in July of the same year the Himeji plant was established to produce
the city of Fuse
assumed the assets and operations of the Kawanishi Engineering Works at Kobe and continued Kawanishi Engineeringproducing airplanes.
In September 1943 the capital was increased by
Works started producing seaplanes in 1921 for the Nippon Airplane Co. (Nippon Hikoki K K),
air transportation firm.
making the total authorized The Government-owned Naruo airport was first utilized by the company in October 1943. In January 1944 the firm was designated a munitions company by the Munitions
capital 60,000,000 yen.
the founding of the Nipi)on Aircraft Transportation Co. (Nippon Koku Yuso K), the Nippon Airplane Co., which monopolized all civilian air transportation throughout Japan, had to
Production of large flying boats
March 1945 by
order of the Naval
In April 1945 the company started
In December 1928, since Kawanishi Aircraft Co. had no market for its products, it started to manufacture observation seaplanes and trainers for the Navy, as a naval-designated plant. In December 1930 the company moved to Naruo
to establish new facilities at Fukuchiyama, in Kyoto prefecture, Honshu, and in Oe County, in Tokushima prefecture, Shikoku, as dispersal units of the Naruo plant.
order of the Minister of Munitions in the entire firm became the Second
and established a new plant. In cooperation with Short Bros. Co. of England,
the Kawanishi Co., in January, started to build
all-metal, trimotor flying boats.
1934 an aircraft-engine department was established
Munitions Arsenal. The company remained as a mei'e holding company. At the end of the war, in August 1945, all production stopped and the Minister of Munitions ordered the munitions arsenals to be dissolved and all assets and personnel
returned to the original companies. Sis members of the Kawanishi family owned 731,780 shares, or 61 percent, of the total 1,200,000 shares of capital stock of the Kawanishi Aircraft
which experimented with liut produced only two engines and then dropped the experiment. The capitalization was increased by 10,000,000 yen in September 1938, and, fully paid, to 15,000,000 yen by November 1939.
There were four principal plants
Osaka-Kobe area and
•within a 40-niiIe area of each other.
Three of them, the Nanio, Konan, and Himeji plants, were aircraft-assembly units, antl the remaining one, the Takarazuka plant, produced air frame machined parts, gun turrets, and aircraft accessories
Himeji plant produced only George (NlKl-J) and N1K2-J, a shigle-engine fighter (USSBS, Aircraft Division Reports Nos. III-2 and III-3). From December 1928 through the end of the war, the Kawanishi Aircraft Co.'s entire production went to the Japanese Na\^.
financial aid to the
under three categories.
plant produced George
(NlKl-J) N1K2-J, a smgle-engine,
land-i)ased Navy fighter, Emily (H8K 1-2-3), a four-engine flying boat, ami various trainers and seaplanes (USSBS. Aircraft Division Report No.
loans of U)0, 000,000 yen from August 1941 to July 1943; 40,000,000 yen from August 1943 to December 1944, and 71,000,000 yen from May 1944 to May 1945. The second was a loan of
(P1Y2-S), a and P]mily
and equipment, valued at Government-furnished buildings and establishments valued at 81,000,000 yen, including an airport and
Th(> third consisted of
maintenance shops valued at 25,300,000 yen.
MAP OF PRINCIPAL PLANT LOCATIONS
• HIMEJI PLANT
• TAKARAZUKA PLANT
KONAN PLANT NARUO PLANT
US-STRATEGIC BOMBING SUWFi
.luly 1945, l)y
of Uic Minister oT
Munitions, employees eanie luulei
the slocU (tal)le
the Goveniniciit iuul
Second Mnnitions Arsenal.
Kawanishi Aircraft Co.
Organization and Operation
corporation were as
Manager Manager Manager Manager
of Nariio plant
of Talvaraznlca plant
Meishin Sailo. Sakae Haniada. Mitsuo Snehisa.
of Hinieji plant
four plants were directly under the admin-
istrative section of the
Organizational Chart- of Kawanishi
Kenji Maehara. Shiro Takahashi. Yoshio Hashignchi.
Administrative department. De.signing department. Material and supply department.
Personnel department. Finance department. Medical department,
Administrative department. Production department. Inspection department. Personnel department.
Machining, forging, and casting department. Dispersed plants.
Gun turrets department. Administrative department. A/C machined parts department. Personnel depart ment. Aircraft accessories department. Machine tool department.
Administrative department. Production department. Inspection department.
Personnel department. Material section.
Administrative department. Production department. Inspection department.
Personnel department. Dispersed plants (Uzurano plant).
Each of the three aircraft assembly plants of company made wing, tail, and fuselage sul)(USSBS,
asseml)lies in addition to complete aircraft assemblies
The Kawanishi Aircraft Co. had five subsidiary companies which it owned outright, three companies in which it held over a quarter interest,
(USSBS. Aircraft Division Report No. III-2), the Himeji plant (USSBS, Aircraft Division Report No. III-3). and the Takarazuiva plant (USSBS, Aircraft Division Report No. III-4) was invesEvery type of plant was dispersing its same time, overloading the transportation system and hindering each other's production. For example, when component parts could not be provided by the plant's own shop, due to the fact that the shop was moving to
activity at the
Dispersal of aircraft production began in Oc-
another location, such accessories could not, in many cases, be provided by a subcontractor, as
the latter also was dispersing at the
tober 1944 in the
Naruo plant and
in the early
part of 194.5 for the other plants of the Kawanishi
perse production of each plant inider the various
plant sustained one direct and two
departments in the plant. The Naval Construction Corps assisted in building up dispersed plant sites and in many cases supplied all the labor and material necessary in digging underground plants and constructing buildings. Every type of contunnels, semiundergrounil struction was utilized schools, basements of department stores, buildings, space under elevated railroads, converted woolen mills, tile shops, and space in various factories.
The direct attack occurred 9 durmg which 328 high-explosive bombs struck, causing heavy damage. The first indirect attack occurred on 19 July 1945, when
110 high-explosive bombs, part of those aimed at
principal bottleneck in dispersion
Nippon oil refinery, struck the plant and caused moderately heavy damage. On 6 August 1945, 385 incendiary bombs dropped in the Nishinomiya urlian area attack struck the experimental section of the final assembly and
were overburdened because all types of plants were dispersmg at the same time and there were not sufficient facilities to handle the tremendous Due to the magnitude of the undertaking, load. there were not enough automotive trucks to compensate for the deficiency in rail transpoi'tation.
caused medium damage to the plant. In addition to these two indirect attacks, two other area attacks afl:"ected the plant. During
one, a few
bombs fell on the nearby dormitories, and during the other, a few fell on the Naruo airfield, near the plant. The plant itself was not
Provision of living quarters,
plant suft'ered one direct attack,
areas, for the workei-s
probh'm which in some cases retarded production. At the end of the war, Kawanishi had dispersed, or planned to disperse, the facilities of its 4 major
high-explosive bonds hit and caused the greatest amount of damage to the There were two area attacks the Kobe plant. url>an area attack of 5 June and the Nishinomiya
main sites. Tlie Naruo plant had eight dispersal areas, all but one of which were located on Honshu Island six in the Osaka-Kobe area and one at Fukuchiyama, in Kyoto prefecture. The eighth, the Shikoku final-assembly plant, was in Oe County, a few miles west of Tokushima, on Shikoku
plants to 32
fi August, a few incendiary bombs dropon the plant and dormitories. Damage was negligible in each of these cases.
direct attack, on 22 June, leveled
the Himeji plant.
struck the plant area.
on 24 and 30 July, caused some
There were 5 Konan plant dispersals, all in the Himeji plant dispersals, Osaka-Kobe area, and while Takarazuka had a total of 13, most of which were inland from Kobe and Himeji (appendix B). It wa6 estimated l)y company officials that dispersals accounted for an over-all loss of 20 ])ercent in production, although the f)rogram was only
and fragmentation bombs. During the 23 July du'ect attack on the Takarazuka ])lant, the 458 high-explosive bombs which
struck destroyed 80 percent of the plant.
area attack on 15 June 1945 burned 30 percent
of tlie dormitories
13,221,747 square feet of floor
the four plants, 4,765,476
about 50 percent completed.
types of Japanese industiy contributed greatly to the failure of the aircraft builders to meet production
square feet were severely damaged or destroyed
as a result of
air attacks (table 2).
Air nlUick lUuiiagc
EVALUATION OF PREATTACK
cstiiiiatcs of f()inbat-tyi)o aircraft
(G-2) production for 1944 aiul 1945 were 27 percent over the actual (appendix F). In estimating total aircraft proDcpartiiu'iit
duction from 1941 to 1945, Intelligence exceeded the actual output by 18 percent. Intelligence infornmtion was correct concerning the type of
produced by the company and the location
and type of operation at the four largest plants Kawanishi Aircraft Co.
PRODUCTION OF COMBAT TYPE AIRCRAFT
KAWANISHI AIRCRAFT CO. FIGURE 3
— Kawanishi Aircraft Co, — Dispersal of aircraft
Distance rrom plant
of iiroduclion [jlaruicd
.\rea (square feet)
Kukucliiyama-sliikoku (Oi' roiinly)
October 1944... do
On'tce. engineering ;ind
Fuselage assemblySheet metal
Machine shop ...do
\'acinns locations near
material and maebini' tools
Tatotsii Airport (Osaka)
Sheet metal parts
Osaka. Yania Ashiya
K ishiro -IIojo
(Taka village)-. Fuknzaki Unit:
Final assembly ..Engine run and flight Wing assembly Fuselage assembly Machine shop
ion of building.
-Takarazuka plant: Kobayashi
-_— .....do February
Gun-turret parts Gun-turret hydraulic parts Gun-turret parts
Sheet-metal parts and
Sasayama Sakasegawa Nakatakamatsu NikawaFebruary June 1945
for fuel pumps Pumps assembly
and tools Machine shop
Umeda branch department
Okadayama (school) Okadayama (underground)
— Kawanishi Aircraft Co. — Production of cotnbat-type
August September. October
September. October Xovember.,
29 48 63
40 05 93
145 140 150 166 178 188
145 155 165 !7S
115 135 140 145
217 220 85
128 97 590
— Kawanishi Aircraft Co. — MIS estimate of production,
NARUO PLANT REPORT
Dates of Survey: 19 October 1945-3
TABLE OF CONTENTS
The Plant and Attack Data
Function in the Aircraft Industry
Effects of Bombing Intelligence Check Vulnerability
Data Relevant to Other Division Studies General Impression of Plant Inspection and Interrogation, Reference Item_.
Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix
B — Planned and actual expansion program C — Schematic flow chart E — Number of man-hours worked F —Airplane production by types before
29 29 29 Facing page 30
D —Employment chart
G — Planned
Facing page 32 Facing page 32 Facing page 32
Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix damage Appendix
—Aircraft repairs Facing page 36 J— Bomb plots Facing page 3G K-1 — Damage plots —raid 9 June 1945 K-2 —^Damage plots —raid 19 July 1945 Facing page 36 L— Number man-hours because of raid M— Number man-hours required to repair because of N — Number of man-hours raids —
Facing page 34 and actual production Monthly production and acceptances of propelFacing page 34
Appendix O—-Monthly consumption Appendix P Dispersion plan
KAWANISHI AIRCRAFT COMPANY— NARUO PLANT
THE PLANT AND ITS FUNCTION IN THE AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY
Kawanishi Aircraft Co. (Kawanishi Kokuki Kabushiki Kaisha). Subassembly and final assemblies of air frames were conducted in 90 buildings
comprising a total floor area of 6,350,760 square ^^^^ ^ combination of steel, concrete, brick, and ^qq,, buildings were constructed, over a continuqus period of time, to meet the firm's expanding Extensive facilities operations (appendix A). were available to conduct the complete assembly
/XT o . s plant (^aruo Seisakusho) was lo1
Naruo (Daito, Naruo-mura, Mukogun, Hyogo-ken), 8 miles west of Osaka.
cated in the village of
These properties were constructed
represented the largest of four major plants of the
the plant propoities.
expansion programs were generally the 1944 year end (appendix B).
into service to assist in the manufacturing opera-
was an outgrow the Kawanishi Engineering Works, formed
1921 for the production of commercial aircraft.
The company commenced
the Na\-y in 1930 at the
prothicing airplanes for
started in late 1942 and peak at the 1943 year end. Tliis group of employees was very small in relation to the plant's total number of workers and evidently liad no appreciable eft'ect on production.
Under the Naruo
plant's schedule of ])laniicd
and 1934, experiments with 500-horsepower waterOnly two engines cooled engines were attempted. were completed and a few others repaired. Mass
production was never inaugurated. The company confined its activities to the production of uii'
(>mployment, a total of 36,000 workers were proThis goal was almost jected by March 1944.
1944 wlien 35,100 people were on foiu'th employment plan con-
Government aid to the Kawanishi Aircraft Co. trom August 1941 to May 1944 amounted to 211,000,000 yen for eciuipment and airport facilities. The funds received by the Naruo plant were allocated as follows:
templated a total force of 37,000 by March 1945,' but was never attained. In fact, employment declined steadily from May 1944 until rapid deterioration set in toward the close of the war.
Man-hours reached a peak in May 1944. Inauguration of the dispersal program, shortly thereafter, was i-esponsiljle for the gradual decline that
set in (appendbc E).
Maintenance -shop at airportsMachine tools at Xarno plant __
000 300, 000 400, 000
Plant Organization and Operation
Excepting for the months of July and August which period two shifts were conducted, operations were conducted on a one-shift During the one-shift operation, employees basis. worked (excluding overtime) the following sched1944, during
the following key
Masauori Konishi Shigeru Furukawa
General manager. Chief, planning departnienl. C'liief, i)rodnction department.
Chief, inspection. Chief,
Direct labor (male) Direct labor (female)
0730 0730 0800 0730 0800
to ISOi to 1701
sttidents did not
processes were conducted on a
The two shifts, during Government and later
1944, were ordered l)y
sively until the first attack
which job-shop jiractices were adopted. Material was processed through the plant on an established schematic production-flow basis. Manufacturing space appears to Inivc liceii utilized with liltlc
worked the night shift, and tluy were very few in number: only 2 percent of the total direct-laboi workers, or 400 men. Compulsory service in the war industrv started August 11, 1941.
involved system of compensation was in and carried with it many variations. Tiic elTect employees of the plant were paid on an average of 180 to 200 yen per month, working almost 300 hours per month. The base pay after the beginning of the war was 2 yen 80 sen for a 10-hour day. For the 2-hour compulsory overtime period, Id-percent increase for each hour was allowed.
from 7,850 in December 1939 to 35,100 employees From June 1944, as an at the peak in May 1944. increasing number of workers were called into tiie military service, and es])(>cially after February 1945, when the dispersal i)rogram got under way, employment at Naruo dropped rapidly iititii tlicic were only 17,900 employees in August 1945
For the next
3 to 6 hours, 15 percent of base pay,
and after 6 hours, 20 percent of base
was given. In addition to base and overtime pay, each employee was allotted an additiomil bonus,
based tipon age, as follows:
20 years of age.
21 to 25 years...
but had not
(o 30 years
20 30 40
icceived e.\tensi\'e utilization.
constructed a total of 903
60 pcic'ont of base ])ay lor dircct-liil^or employees, and 50 percent of base pay for indirect-labor employees were paid.
interceptor fighters, George (NlKl-.I an<l
during the last year and a half of the war. From January 1939 to August 1945, Ifi different types of flying boats and land-based planes wei'c
Supply of Material and Components
produced, as follows:
major ])arts, engines, metal, instrnments, radios, and other accessories. The smaller parts used in air-frame construction were contracted for ])y the individual companies. A committee in Tokyo, called the Shizai liiikai, composed of members from the major aircraft companies, helped the Government to allocate major parts to the
Technical supervision of production and inspecof the products were carried out by the
of Aviation, and the First Naval Air Arsenal at Yokosuka. Supervision of pro-
duction in general was a function of the Ministry
N avy inspectors were stationed at the plant, one serving as munitions officer. Wings, fuselage, tails, and ailerons were subassembled at the Naruo plant, for its owii use as well as for production in the Konan and Himeji
Subassembly operations were conducted plant and its dispersed units. The same was true at the Himeji plant, from 1942
Substitution of certain critical materials started
in the fall of 1943.
because of the acute
shortage of nickel.
nese steel was substituted for nickel chrome steel.
was substituted for the manganese steels. During 1945, a lower grade carbon steel was substituted for nickel chrome steel. Steel was used for engine mountmgs, wmg joints, spar fittings, wing fittuigs on fuselages and in their applicaIn
Plastics were substituted for light alloys pulleys,
were never used in structural parts. Light alloys were employed as a substitute for brass or other copper alloys in fitthigs. Wood
alloys in fittmgs
ments were made with substitutes
Government was ainvortliy by the
to accept all planes stated to be
company. The KawanAircraft Co.'s policy was to test fly the airaircraft
planes before delivery.
figures prior to
53 type interceptor fighter .Jimpu interceptor fighter (J 6 1).
Shiden Shiden Shiden Shiden Shiden
21 type interceptor fighter 31 type interceptor fighter
32 type interceptor fighter 42 type interceptor fighter
(N (N (N (N
K K K
K 4-A). (NIK .5~J).
February 1944 represent actual production delivered to the Government. After February 1944, due to poor engine and air-frame workmanship, the Government's policy was to accept aircraft only after they had been test-flown and accepted by Navy registered pilots. For this i-eason, figures of production after Februrry 1944 are bioken tlown to show both production and acceptance by the Government. Monthly orders by the Government, as distinct from yearly orders, began in April 1944. Six types of wooden propellers were made at the Naruo plant in addition to engine test clubs from January 1939 to April 1945. A few were used l)y Kawanishi Aircraft Co., but most were sold to the Government. From 1939 to the end of 1944,
Solvu transport flying l)oat (a modification of
Oeorge) (H 11
N1K2-J On 31 December 1943, the initial experimental plane N 1 K 2-J made its first flight at Nai'uo Airport. The second to eighth experimental planes
were completed between January and June 1944.
this period, test flights
resulting from the test flights were carried out.
These numerous modifications were applied
production of successive types of aircraft.
In order to overcome the backward tendency of
the center of gravity in the
propeller production ended, 3,133
planned to move the engine and pi'opeller forward approximately 150 millimi^ters. This type was called N 1 K 3-J but was never constructed.
planes were produced (appendix H). Actual production exceetled planned output as
set l)y the
This was a modification of
of engine elianged:
Rebuilding and Repair of Airplanes
instead of carburetors.)
13-millimeter machine guns added in
total of 393
.\rrangcment of armament in wings modified.
were repaired at the Naruo plant.
first to third
experimental planes were com-
1939, 21 aircraft were repaired, increasing to 95
98 in 1941, chopping to but 17 in 1942, and reaching a peak of 137 in 1943. This work tapered ofl" in 1944, during which year only 25 we're repaired, and came to a stop by the end of
after test flights
and applied to
as well as to the above three experim(>ntal planes.
fourth plane was 95 percent completed at the
of the war.
airplanes were repaired in
Repairs of diverse character were made for various contractors, including the Government and private builders (appendix I).
This was a modification of N1K4-J, for use on
model were reconstructed
of this experiment.
in 1944 for the
purpose experimental plane
Early in 1939, only one experimental threeseatcr observation seaplane, Jake, was produced. In 1940, one large experimental flying boat was produced which never got into production. Also in 1940, 12 primary training seaplanes were produced and from October 1942 to February 1944, only 15 observation seaplanes, Noi-m 11, were subject to experiment. The following experimental airplanes were produced in 1944 and 1945, chiefly in the design department and final-assembly shop of the Naruo
was completed on 20 September 1944, and the second plane about half a month later.
This was also a modification of N1K2-J for performance improvement. The type of engine was elianged from the Homare to the Kasei and the
airframe strengthened. Plans were started at the beginning of 1945, ami design drawings were nearly completed. Just
before the construction
work was started
Himeji plant, everything was destroyed by the air attack on the Naruo plant.
plant area, 385. 6
of liuildiug hits, final assembly. of
i:XH, Uuildiiig No.
When the desi<;n tlie end of 1944. drawings were nearly completed, all the plans had to he ahandoned at the retpiest of the (iovernment.
Direct Air Attacks
There were three attacks on the Xaruo
June 1945 August 1945
This represented a new type of transport flying wooden construction members. This aircraft was planned in conjunction with J()Kl, and was stopped at the same time. Design drawings were nearly completed and preparation
19 July 1945
1120 to 1200.
0050 to 0202.
production was started.
percent of a half-size model plane, for structuial tests, was completed at the end of the war.
NlKl-J George From the end
11, to carry
of 1944 to
January 1945, four George ll's were reconstructed, employing 200 employees, including the designing department. These employees, worked exclusively on the modification of George 11. Experiments in wind tunnel and experimental tanks, flight tests, structural tests and experiments in production methods were carried out at
Experimental planes were assembled in the final assembly shop, utilizing from 250 to 300 employees. Upon completion of the final assembh' of the plane, officers in charge of the First Aviation Arsenal inspected, the aircraft. Test flights were carried out in cooperation with officers in charge of the test-flight section. First Aviation Arsenal, and the company's test pilots.
In addition to the above three attacks, tlierc were two area attacks which affected the Naruo plant. On 15 June 1945, from 0850 to 1050, the plant area was not struck, but dormitories some distance away were damaged. On 10 July 1945, from 1030 to 1040, 31 bombs struck the Naruo Bomb plots (apairfield, 29 hitting the runway. I)endix J) show the three attacks on the plant. Damage caused by the first 2 attacks are revealed During the attack in appendi.xes K-1 and K-2. of 6 August 1945, only incendiaries were dropped. All fell on one part of the final assembly buUding, building number 101, causing very little structural damage and burning seven assembled airplanes. A number of the least essential buildmgs were dismantled before the attacks, as precaution against fire. During the first attack, the subassembly shops for wings and tail units were severely damaged, therefore, the subassembly of these parts were subcontracted. Final assembly was consolidated from three different buildings to
total floor area before air attacks
to 6,350,760 square feet.
amounted damage to
5,000,000 square feet w'as sustained and 600,000 square feet of floor space was entirely destroyed
The attack data may be summarized
Date and hour of attack, 9 June 194.5, 19 August 1945. Duration, 0832 to 0905, 1120 to 1200. 0050 Attacking unit. Twentieth Air Force.
of aircraft over target, 44.
HE— Number, weight, and type, 263.5 tons HE— Fuzing, 1/1000 nose, N. D.
attempt was made to repair its damaged the damage; everything was left state to give the appearance of inactivity and Temporary wooden roofs mider severe damage. the damaged original roof were erected over sections of the wing and tail assembly line to protect the material and workers from the weather and to camouflage their activity. The air attacks caused extensive physical damJiluch of the age. (See photographs 1 to 10.) debris shown in the photographs was caused by A copy of the tidal wave of 17 September 1945.
plant area, 328, 9 June 1945; 110, 6
a report of the
attributed to the air attack
of building hits, 213, 9
6 August 1945.
Jime 1945, as made to the Japanese Government by Naruo plant officials, is incorporated in
the reference material.
9 June 1945.
No. 602, lay-out shop. showing damage of a direct hit.
2. Building No. 601, sheet metal works. View northeast. Because of marshy ground, the floor was concrete reinforced with steel. Bombs exploded on strong floor and did not cause too much struc-
Photo No. 3. Buildings 701,704,716, machine shops and sheet metal works. View northeast, showing
to concrete buildings.
Photo No. 4.— Buildings 701, 704, 7X6, machine shops and sheet metal works. View north, showing bomb damage of direct hits and near-misses to a steelreinforced concrete building.
assembly. — Building 401, — roof damage over assembly
Photo No. 6.— Building 201, final assembly. View east, showing four bomb hits on the roof.
Photo No. 7.— Building 101,
8. Buildings 201 and 202, wing assembly. View northeast superficial damage.
Photo No. 9.— Building 201, wing
View north— superNote temporary
roof over wing assembly
ing 703, assembly of wings and spars. View northwest
Icr tlic first attiu'k,
Casualties for each raid
tlie plants and dispersed to Only the heaviest maeliinery
icfaft renniined in the plant.
few machine tools essential to the assembly Before the air
ks, there were a total of 4 Hi
amount, 69 machine
machine tools. were superfi-
damaf^ed but repairable and 65 were dam-
2 list the e.xtent
amag'e suffered by jment facilities.
reveals the casualties for each raid.
be seen that the 9 June 1945 attack was the
one with major
Fire defense part v. Relief party. Antigas party. Engineering party. Transport party. Office defense party. Shop defense party.
average of 2 or 3 hours were lost duiiug each The employees would run to their shelters outside the plant, hut were very slow in returning to their work.
Interruptions to Production
Direct air attacks cm the plant caused a great George, the only type uf aircraft heing produced in 1945. The accom(ho]) in the ])roduetion of
panying tahle 4 presents actual production and Government-plamied production for 1945.
Production of George
was the principal
DATA RELEVANT TO OTHER DIVISION
Railway transportation didiculties started in June 1944, and continually becanu' worse. The Naruo plant hud diniculty getting raw materials and component parts to its works, ;iiul in sending material to subcontractors and receiving linisiied The greatest difficulty was exparts in return. perienced with the Hokuiiku Railroad Line.
Starting in the latter part of 1944, deliveiT of airplanes was held up due to a shortage of hydrauparts. Instruments, and electrical equipmejit which were for the main part manufactured in Tokyo and were not arriving at the aircraft comlic
the ilispersioii of
types of iiuiustry took
Kai)i(l dispersion of ein|)loyees
was delayed by
shortage of l)illets, food, etc., anil especially )ecause of the difficulties involved in transferring aniilies and household goods of (he employees to he disj)ersed locations. The Naruo plant estimated that from 30 to 40 :lj)ercent of production was lost during May 1945
«lue solely to dispersion.
At the Naruo plant proper, production droppetl
a planned total of 190 to 120.
In the type
panies because of ti-ansportation difficulties
of certain planes pro-
information was accurate, information on the production George, was inf the most important plane, ccurate in that it was estimated that 1,280 Ijxeorges were produced while only 903 planes
various aircraft companies used special couriers to carry the vital parts from Tokyo to the aircraft
companies on regular passenger trains-. Durmg September and October of 1944, the Japanese Government ordered the railroad companies to
produced over the same period, 'his was 377 planes or 30 percent less than had een estimated. In the production of Mavis, he estimated production was 156 planes while ctual production amounted to 186 planes from 940 to 1943. This amounted to an underestiere
between Tokyo and Kobe,
the shortage of necessary parts and assist in the
delivery of completed aircraft.
GENERAL IMPRESSIONS OF PLANT INSPECTION AND INTERROGATION
late of 30 large 4-engine patrol
bombers or 16
ercent less than were produced at this plant.
The Naruo plant was well constructed and the The plant all of modern design.
utilization of its productive capacity
lay-out was suitable for mass production
plant was vulnerable to air attack
the activities of the plant were centered
Subasseml)ly of component parts assembly of air frames were caiTied on bordering each other in much the 1 buildings ame way as they are in the United States. The let that the plant was situated on the shore at he mouth of a river, which coukl be used as a
a small area.
have produced more aircraft than it actually did. With its two wind tunnels and one water basin, a greater e.xperimental program could have been undertaken. The plant site was not too well chosen ui that tidal waves flooded the entire plant each year, and no precautionaiy measures were undertaken to remedy (i. e., flood walls)
mdmark, increased its vulnerability. N^o empt was made to camouflage the plant.
he buildings were concentrated in a small area. i.fter the first 6 months of the war, the labor
The following reference item is filed with the records of the Aircraft Division, United States Strategic Bombing Survey, in the office of The
Adjutant General, D. C.
was not very enthusiastic about war proluction. During the last few years of the war,
bsenteeism always increased during the spring summer months, because many of the emiloyees worked in their gardens and on their arms. From the beginning of 1945, ever in,nd
War Department, Washington,
Sample of Report
numbers of employees stayed away from work to evacuate their families and homes
Report on Damages due
in order to safeguard their lives
June 9th 1945.
STOAT I ftRCHITECTS OFFICE STORT WOOD 3 UNKNOWN
4 APPRENTICE SCHOOL Z BTORT MOOD STORY WOOD STORkOE sTonv wood a UNKNOWN T WMEHOUSCS ISTOHYW/MEIZ PLOOH WOOD STORV WOOD • riMEKCCPCR STOtTY WOOO 9 CASTINO a FORfllNS STORASC eiUNASIUM STORT WOOO 10 STORT WOOCi II OARAOE OATEHOUSE Z STORV WOOO IE
I » 3
STORT STEEL C0MPRES5CRS WATER PLANT STONY W/aASE WOOO 4 STORT WOOO PNESS ft MEAT TREAT. STORT STEEL KITCHEN EXPERIMENT SHOP Z STORT WOOO OFFICE Z STORT WOOO SHEET METAL SHOP STORT W/BaSC STECL LAYOUT SHOf STORY W/MEI2 « BASE STEEL QARASE STORT WOOO OSS i STORY WOOO
I I I
I I I
STORT WOOD STOUT WOOO APPRENTICE SHOPS 9T0«T WOOD IB PLTWOOO STORES STORT BRICK l« BASOLrHE a OIL STORES T TEMP. MACH SHOP TRANSPORT OFFICE STORT WOOD |T« UNKNOWN Z STORT WOOD
13 14 Jie
PLASTIC SHAPIHS 2 STORT WOOD • WOOO STORASE t STORY WOOO STorr irick to GARDioE sTORaec STORY WOOD ei UNKNOWN EZ STORE STORY WOOO STORY WOOO 3 3 CARPENDER SHOP (4 aiCTCLE/^ACKS
Z STORY WOOD STORT WOOO STORY BRICK STORY STEEL STom CONCRETE STOR' W/MEZ7 STEEL kR ASSEMBLY WATER PLANT STORY WOOD LOCKER STORY STEEL STORASE OOV'T FURNISHED PART8 STORV STEEL MODEL SHOPS Z STORY WOOD SMALL WIND TUNNEL STORY WATER TEST BASIN STORY STEEL INO TUNNEL CONCRETE e STORY STRUCTURE LAB. STORY STEEL WIND TUNNEL Z STORY CONCRETE PRODUCTION OFFICE Z STORY WOOO :N0WN STORT WOOD WAIN OFFICE 3 STORT CONCRETE FINAL ASSEMBLY STORY STEEL EXPERIMENTAL SHOP UNKNOWN STORY BRICK PRODUCTION OFFICE Z STORT CONCRETE FOUNORT STORT STEEL STORT CONCRETE OIL sroRAQE a STOUT concrete ENGINE TEST CELL Z STORY STEEL FOHOINa ft STEEL HEAT TREAT STORf STEEL MATERIAL TCSTINS SHOP STORT WOOO TAIL UNIT ASSEWBLT STON/ STEEL CRATINQ ft PACKINa STORT STEEL UNKNOWN STORT CONCRETE SHOP STONV STEEL STORT STEEL PAINT SHOP PROPELLER SHOP Z STORT STEEL STORY STEEL FINAL ASSEUBLY WIND ASSEMBLY STORT STEEL UNKNOWN 2 STORT STEEL ANODIC TREATMENT SHOP STORY STEEL FUSELAGE ASSEHBLT STORY STEEL EXPERMENTAL SHOP UNKNOWN STORY BRICK
THREE WOOOEN BUILDINGS INTENDED FOR SHEET METAL SHOPS Dismantled in aprilHAT 1943 operations mostly within TNIE PLANT balance to dispersed plants
NARUO PLANT LAYOUT
AS OF MAY 1945
us STRATEGIC BOMB SURVEY
AIRCRAFT COMPANY NARUO PLANT
SCHEMATIC FLOW CHART MAY 1945
RAILWAY SIDING FROM
TRU CKS FROM OUT SIDE
WARE HOUSE SHEET METAL SHOP
NUMBER OF MANHOURS WORKED
FROM APRIL 1939 TO AUGUST 1949
o o o
o X z < z
KAWANISHI AIRCRAFT CO.
33} No. 3
— Airplane production by types before 1939,
PLANNED AND ACTUAL PRODUCTION
TYPE INTERCEPTER FIGHTER -
-DEC- 194 3 DROP
PROOUCTION DUE TO DEL AYS
FIGS (ESPICALLY ASSEMBLING FIGS)
IN PRODUCTION DUE TO UODIFICATIONB BY WAR EXPERIENCES ETC SEP 1944- DECREASE OF PLANNED PRODUCTION BY CHANBE IN TYPE OF PRODUCTS FROM
TO NIKE J
GOVERNMENT PLANNED PROOUCTION
< Z <
Kdiriniishi Airniifl Co.
ber of air[ilnnos to 1)1
Naval Air Arsenal.
H6KI H6K1 KllKl
Hull and Hull .
H6K1.. H6K1.. E13K1.
Hull and equipment
Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do.
H6K1. H6K1. H6K1.
Modification to transporting flying boat.
Hull... Repainting Hull do
Naval .\ir Do. Do.
Do. Do. Do. Naval Aviation Bureau.
H6K2. E7K2. H6K2. H5Y1. H6K2. H6K2. H6K2. H6K2.
Tail-plane and elevator
Naval .\ir Do. Do.
Nippon Air-Ways Co. Hiro Naval Arsenal.
Naval Air .\rsenal. Do. Do. Nippon .\ir-Ways Co. Naval .\viation Bureau. Naval .^ir .\rsenal. Do. Nippon .\ir-Ways Co.
H6K2. H6K2H6K2. H6K2.
Modification of hull Modification...
Naval .\viation Bureau. Do. Naval Air Arsenal. Naval .Aviation Bureau.
H6K2. H6K2. H6K2.
Modification of hull and repairing..
Do. Do. Naval Air
H6K2. H8K1. H8K1.
Repairing of hull
Naval Aviation Bureau. Naval Air Arsenal. Do.
Repairing of huU.
Repairing of hull.
— Naruo plant— Continued
TKBEt WOODCN •UILCNOSINTINOEI ^H[(r HETAL SHlD«S (HSMINTLEO M»T 1949 OPER*tiON8 MOSnt PlIKT B«i.*NCE TO Oi&PtKlEO
E 3 gNKNOwra i 4 «PPBENrice
STORT WOOD MtREHOUIES STORT MOOD tnCMIIECTS OFFICf
> • I
. SHED •OILERS t STORT
stodi wood SCHOJL 2 STORY WOOO STORT WOOD STORAGE STORT WOOD 5 UNKNOWN WARENOUStS 'STORY W/MCZZ FLOOH WOOD T STORY WOOD TIMCKEEPER • STORY WOOO 9 CASTING • FOR8IN0 5T0UW STORT WOOO SVMNASIUM 10 STORY WOOt M GADAQE STORY WOOD GATEHOUSE Z li STORY WOOO 13 JIG STORES SHOPS STORT WOOD 14 APPRENTICE STOP! WOOO 15 PLYWOOD STORES
CONPRESSCRS WATER PLANT STORT W/BA9E KITCHEN STORT WOOO PRESS S HEAT TREAT. STORY STEEL KITCHEN EX.'ERIMENT SHOP 2 STORY WOOO OFFICE STORY WOOD Z SHEET METAL SHOP STORT W/BASE STEEL LAYOUT SHOT STORY W/MEIZ S BASE STEEL GARAGE STORT WOOD RED CROSS 2 STORT WOOO
QASOLtHE A OIL IT TEMP UACH SHOP STORY
STORY aRICN TRANSPORT OPFICC
SHAPING 1 STORY WOOO WOOO STORASE t STORY WOOD STORY BRICK CARIIOE STORASe UNKNOWN STORT WOOD STORE STORY WOOO SHOP CARPEHOER STORY WOOO aiCYCLE RACKS STORI WOOD STORE 2 STORY WOOO
Z STORY WOOD STORT WOOO STORY BRICK STORY STEEL JIO SHOP 3 STORY CONCRETE STORY WfMEZZ SPAR ASSEMBLY WATER PLANT 9T0RY WOOO PAINT LOCKER STORY STEEL
STORAOE GOV'T FURNISHED PARTS
J S T
STORY WOOD STORY WOOO Z7 UNKNOWN tt »NERAL WAREHOUSE S STORY CONCRETE SHOP 3 STORY CONCRETE E
MODEL SHOPS Z STORT WOOD STORY WOOD SVALL WIND TUNNEL STORY STEEL WATER TEST BASIN WIND TUNNEL t STORY CONCRETE STORY STEEL STRUCTURE LAB STORT CONCRETE TUNNEL WIND t lUCTION OFFICE 2 STORY WOOO STORY WOOD IKNOWN OFFICE J STORY CONCRETE L ASSEUBLT STORT STEEL
RIMEHTAL SHOP STORY BRICK OFFICE 1 STORY CONCRETE STORY STEEL 5 FOUNDRY e WAREHOUSES 2 STORT CONCRETE STORY CONCRETE 2 STORT STEEL STORT STEEL > FOROINO B STEEL HUT TREAT STORY WOOD 9 MATERIAL TESTING SHOP STORT STEEL TAIL UNIT ASSEMBLY STORY STEIL t CRATING B PACKINB STORY CONCRETE 3 UNKNOWN STORY STEEL D BLASTiNO SHOP PAINT SHOP STORT STEEL PROPELLER SHOP 1 STORT BTEEL FIHAL ASSEMBLY STORT STEEL STORY STEEL WING ASSEMBLY Z STORY STEEL TREATMENT SHOP STORT STEEL FUSELAGE ASSEMBLY STORT STEEL Z EXPERMENTAL SHOP STORT BRICK • 3 UNKNOWN
FUNC Tl OM
STORV MOOO WAREHOUSES STOUT MOOD OfFICE t «»CMIICCTS STOR'r WOOD 3 UNKNOWN a APPRENTICE SCHOOL Z 9T0RT WOOO storv wooo s (CHAP SToRAoe wOOO STORV e UNaNOMN STWn W/MEZZ FLOOR WOOD T WiREMOUSES STORY WOOD TINeHEEPCR STORY WOOO 3 CASTina • FOReiRtt STORAU STORY WOOD 0VWfUSIUM lO STORY WOOl. n OANACE
COAL SHED iOILERS 1 STORY STCCL
COMPRESS CRS WATER PLANT STORY KITCHEN STORY
PRESS • HEAT TREAT. STORY STCCL KITCHEN EXPERIMENT SHOP I STORY WOOD OFFICE I STORY « STEEL STOUT W/UlSE i SHEET MCTAL SHOP STEEL » LAYOUT SMOr STORY W/MCtZ • tASI
I I 1
STORY WOOD STORES STORY WOOD ARMEMTICE SHOPS STORY WOOD PLYWOOD STORES
OARAGE STORY WOOO RED CROSS Z STORY WOOO UNKNOWN WOOO DORMITORY i STORY WOOO UNKNOWN STORY WOOO
STORY SRICK 15 OASOLIME K OIL STORES TRANSPORT OFFICC IT TEMP. lUCH SHOF
II la tt
STORY WOOD UHKHOWH E STORY WOOD
STEEL t STORY SHOP 3 STORY CONCRETE STORY WfMEZZ SPAR ASSCMRLY
STORY WOOD STORY WOOD STORY BRICK
WATER PLANT PAINT LOCKER
STORY WOOO STORY STEEL
UHKNOMM STORY STORY WOOD tt STORE STORY t) CARPENOER SNO<'
tTORAM aOV'T FURNISHED MRTt MODEL SHOPS I STORY WOOD STORY WOOD SMALL WIND TUNNEL
tt iS MACHINE SHOP
WOOD STORY WOOD tlCYCLE RACKS STORE Z STORY WOOD UNKNOWN I STORY WOOD STORY WOOD UHRNOWN SCHERAL WAREHOUSE SSTORY CONCIICTC
S S T I
TEST BASIN STORY STEEL TUNNEL t STORY COHCRCTE STORY STEEL STRUCTURE LAB WIND TUNNEL t STORY CONCRETE PRODUCTION OFFICE t STORY WOOO STORY WOOD MAIN OFFICE 1 STORY CONCRETE FINAL ASSEMBLY STORY STEEL
STORY BRICK UNKNOWN 4 PRODUCTION OFFICE Z STORY STORY STtCL 9 FOUNDRY
S r ) )
STORY CONCRETE STORY CONCRETC EN6INC TEST CELL Z STORY STtEL STORY STE FORBINQ B STEEL NEAT TREATSTORY MATERIAL TESTING SHOP STORY STEEL TAIL UNIT ASSEMBLY CRATINS B PACKINB I STORY STCCL STORY CONCRETE INOWN STORY STEEL SAND BLASTING SHOP STElL PROPELLER SHOP E STORY STEEL STORY STEEL FINAL ASSEMBLY STORY STEEL WING ASSEMBLY UNKNOWN 2 STORY STEEL ANODIC TRCATMCNT SHOP STORY STEEL FUSELAGE ASSEMBLY STORY STCCL
CXPERWENTAL SHOP UNKNOWN STORY BRICK
us STRATEGIC BOMB SURVEY
AIRCRAFT COMPANY NARUO PLANT
m 2 z
o X <
Dispersion Plan, Kawanishi Aircraft Co.
Heinoval of small wooden
October 1944 in the following order, but had to
with precautionary measures against fire then against small bombs, and finally complete dispersion of production to other lostarted
out wooden Ijuildint^s. Dispersion of machines, tools and shop equipment. Dispersion of main components for (jeortje 21
(N1K2J). Complete removal
-Design Department, Kansai-Gakuin, grounds and buildings (planned)
Niinie of shop
Ground and Buildings (planned)
Principal machines (planned)
KONAN PLANT REPORT
Dates of Survey, 22-24 October 1945
TABLE OF CONTENTS
The Plant and Attack Data
Function in the Aircraft Industry
Effects of Bombing 47 Intelligence Check 51 Appendix A Organization chart 52 Appendix B Plant layout Facing page 52 Appendix C Number of employees 53 Appendix D Number of man-hours worked _ _ , 54 Appendix E Planned and actual production 55 Appendix F Bomb plot, 11 May 1945 Facing page 56 (1) Appendix G Bomb damage, 11 May 1945 Facing page 56 (2) Appendix H Bomb damage, 5 June and 6 August 1945. Facing page 56 (3) Appendix I Man-hours lost because of damage caused by air
— — — — — — — — — attack Appendix J— Man-hours lost from raid alerts Appendix K—^Number of man-hours lost by air raids
Appendix Appendix Appendix
M —Dispersion of factories and warehouses
N — Dispersal of production
THE PLANT AND
FUNCTION IN THE AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY
The Konan or Fukae plant (Konan Seisakua),
one of the four largest plants of the Kawani(Kawanishi Kokuki Kal)ushiki
Osaka. The plant consisted of 40 build;s and over 30 dormitories. Total l)uilding 'a of the Konan plant was 1,994,785 square t, of which 1,070,000 square feet was devoted direct production and 924,785 square feet was
This plant was one of three, belonging to the Kawanishi Aircraft Co., which assembled planes. The Kawanishi Au'craft Co. was founded in 1928 as a producer of seaplanes. The company grew and moved to Naruo village in 1930 to build air
frames for various types of seaplanes, including four-engine transport planes. (For detailed history, see Aircraft Division Corporation
structural steel design.
Report No. Ill of the Kawanishi Ah-craft Co.) In February 1942, at the request of the Japanese Navy, the Konan plant was established to build large seaplanes. In June 1944 the Konan plant
prod Uft ion
This was never a
plant took the
tained as actual man-hours worked totaled oa Planned scheduli 1,425,000 for that month.
were never approached from August (appendix D).
231 presses, furnaces, transformers, sheetmetal machine, etc
000 229, 000
Plant Organization and Operation.
Kenji Maeliara Shiro Takahashi Yoshio Hashiguchi
was managed by
a four-engine flying bo started in February 1943 when 03 air f ram were produced. Durhig 1944, 77 air frames we built, and in 1945, when production of this ty ceased, only 10 air frames were manufactured.
the following officers:
Chief engineer. Plant manager
Plant responsibilities weie delegated key persotmel (appendix A).
Production of H8K2-L, Emily 32, a four-engi flymg boat which was a modification of Emily started in November 1943 diu'ing which year fi air frames were manufactured. During 1944 were produced. Smce production of this type aircraft was discontinued, only five airfran were built during 1945. Manufactm'e of both the above types of a
in favor of
plant, designed for production of
large four-engine seaplanes,
a twin-cngme bomber, which started into p duction in June 1944. The Government plan
edge of a bay, and had two large slipways, but no All lantl-basetl planes were ferried airfield nearliy.
production for 1944 was 162 aircraft, but the ph protluced only 28 because of the difficidty
bargi' 3 miles across the
to the airfield at
the Naruo plant of the Kawanishi Aircraft Co. The Konan plant was ideally orgaiuzed for mass
production (appendix B). The general arrangement of the plant made for efficient use of floor
Total employment showed a consistent rising At the end of 1942 it was 2,000, growing trend. At the peak, in to 5,050 at the 1943 year end.
creasing to 7,500 as the
employment totaled 7,900, dewar ended (appendix C).
changing over from one- type to another. 1 Ciovernment plan for 1944 to the end of the \ called for 605; the total aircraft produced v only 94. During 1945, only 66 aircraft were p duced while the Government plan was 4 Production was gradually increasing until the attack of 11 May 1945, which arrested manuf luring. It continued to drop after the 5 Ji 1945 attack imtil onl}' one aircraft was produi during August. The following is a list of planes produced si
men engaged in direct labor bulk of the employees. Men accounted for the workers aggregated 2,000 at the 1942 year end, increasing to 4,000 a year later, and remainmg
above the 4,500
level until the end.
H8K3.-. H8K2.-. H8K2L..
began working at the Konan when 232 were employed. plant in volunteer workers first were employed in Girl February 1944, when 354 were hired. Very few militaiy i)ersomiel were employed at Konan, the first few bemg employed in June 1945. One 10-hour shift worked until February 1944, when a second 8-hour shift was added. In December 1944 the plant went back to one lO-hoiafirst
Emily Emily Emily
4-engine flying boat.
Go\(innicnt-planned production was net reached for the PlY2 or Frances 11. A totaH 77 ])lanes was projected for March 1945 but of
were projected at
were produced (appendix E).
-Building 4, wing assembly shop.
looking west in
3. Building 3, wing and fuselage assembly building. north end looking west, showing slight superficial damage.
assembly building. ficial damage.
\'it\v interior, looking northwebt, building. slight roof and glass damage.
the Osaka naval garrison,
Electric-power consumption was close to capa^
station, military police, fire station, public-address
from August 1943, when 1,040 Idlowatts we:
and radio room was constantly manned. A total of 266 eniplo.yees was used in the air attack precaution and defense system.
used, with a capacity of 1,300 kilowatts, to
dropped (appendi.x L).
total of 370,902
of air-raid alerts of the
man-hours was lost because from Xoveniber 1944 to the end
In the production of Emily, a shortage of rubbi
sheeting for bulletproof fuel tanks, supplied
(Fujinnna Kogj^o), was
pcrienced in the middle of 1943.
There were 10.3, 300 man-lmuis lost because of air raids from November 1944 to August 1945 (appendix K). The greatest loss was in May
1945 as a result of the direct attack on the
there was a shortage of waterproof paint from tl Toa refinery (Toa Seiren). During 1944 a shortage existed in springs su] plietl by Taisei Spring Co. (Taisei Hatsujyo), ruhlicr parts from Nichirin Rubber Co. (Nichir:
Ciomu), and in small aircraft parts supplied
in ordr'r to find
ptoduct ion of Kmily,
Kulaiic existed in l)ond)-l)ay doors suiJ[)lied by
by the. Ini])eriai ().\yi;('n Co. (Teikokn anso), and many small uir-franie parts sui>plied
was divided into raw mateiials, machine tools, and ji<;s to various schools and shojjs; final assembly to buildinii-s of the Matsushita Aircraft Co. near the Tatetsu Airport; machine sh(»p to part of the second floor and basement of the Haiikyu Building, Osaka; sheet-metal shop to Yama Ashiya; fittin<i: shop to buildinirs and tundispersal of production
nels in the hills near
Dispersion was started in
December 1944 by
raw material and com])onent parts to and other l)iiildin<;s near the Konaii plant, he dispersion of component parts assembly and
was estimated that a production loss of 20 percent was caused by dispersion alone. Table 1 presents the productiou-dispeisal program
of the Koiian ])lanl.
Dinfirrsnl of airnnft iiKiiiiifactiirr
o to z 5
NAME O F
FINAL ASSEMBLY SHOP
HANGAR FUSELAGE ASSEMBLY SHOP WING ASSEMBLY SHOP PAINT SHOP STORE(GOVERNMENT FURNISHED
NAME OF BUILDING APPRENTICE SHOP APPRENTICE SHOP APPRENTICE SCHOOL
COMPRESSOR ROOM COMPRESSOR ROOM
TOOL SHOP WAREHOUSE WAREHOUSE WAREHOUSE WAREHOUSE WAREHOUSE WAREHOUSE WEIGHING ROOM PAINT a MEDICINE STORE GARAGE FOR TRACTOR OIL HEATING ROOM AIRPORT CONTROLLING ROOM
JETTY JETTY GARAGE FOR TRUCK GARAGE FOR FIRE ENGINE HEAT TREATMENT SHOP INFIRMARY TELEPHONE EXCHANGE ROOM TIME KEEPER CARPENTER SHOP SCRAP STORAGE
PROVISION STORE PROVISION STORE KITCHEN a BOILER ROOM
KITCHEN BOILER ROOM
SLIP WAY SLIP WAY
TEMPORARY BOILER ROOM sue STATION
MESS ROOM MESS ROOM FIRST DORMITORY SECOND DORMITORY
THIRD DORMITORY FOURTH DORMITORY
FIFTH DORMITORY SIXTH DOlMITORY
WATER PLANT MESS ROOM MESS ROOM MESS ROOM
MAIN OFFICE ELECTRIC SHOP
SEVENTH DORMITORY EIGHTH DORMITORY
NINTH DORMITORY TENTH DORMITORY ELEVENTH DORMITORY
PROPELLER ASSEMBLY SHOP GARAGE GUARD OFFICE GATE HOUSE GATE HOUSE APPRENTICE SHOP
PULLED DOWN FOR DISPERSION
STRATEGIC BOMBING SURVEY
APPENDIX719033 O-*"! (Fice
NUMBER OF MAN-HOURS WORKED
" o. o o X g ,
C 2 ° < <
3 X a «
JS 8. ii 1=
370,902 MAN HOURS
KAWANISHI AIRCRAFT 00
MAXIMUM ELECTRIC POWER CONSUMED
PEAK LOAD BY CONTRACT
ST»>TE6IC BONSrwG SUR,
KAWANISHI AIRCRAFT C
A. JFMAMJ JASOND JFMAMJJA50N0
i I i
DISPERSAL OF PRODUCTION
DispiM'sion staitcil in DccenilHT 1944 Vjy
and i)urclias('d parts to scliools and other buildmgs near the Konan ])hint, whicli dispersal was finished by May 1945. Dis])ersi()n of assembly and of component shops was dela_vi'd in order to find suitable locations, but by May 1945 dispersion was carried out as shown
PLANT REPORT NO
Dates of survey, 27-29 October 1945
TABLE OF CONTENTS
The Plant and
the Aircraft Ixdcstrv
Attack Data.. Effects of Bombing
Intelligence Check Appendix A Chart of new ciniiloymcMit first Appendix B Chart of cmplovinciit Appendix C Number of man-liouis worked
— — — Appendix D — Production charts Appendix E — Boml) and <huiiage plots
63 65 65 66 67 68 69 70
Appendix Appendix Appendix
F— Man-hours lost due to air-raid alerts G — Electric-power consumption chart H — Plan of dispersal
THE PLANT AND
FUNCTION IN THE AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY
and wood buiklings, which comprised the nucleus of th." plant, were originally a woolen
The Hinieji plant (Himeji Seisakusho) of the wanishi Aircraft Co. (Kawanishi Kokuki Kabuki Kaisha) was located about 45 miles west of 'be and about 15 miles from the Inland Sea.
city of Himeji,
thereafter, w-ere used as a final-assembly shop, a sheet-metal shop, and the third for storage of
dium-sized, semi-industrial city.
was 1,431,722 square
ich consisted of 572,690 square feet of produc-
totaled 168.000 square feet in area. branch plant of this organization was established It was adjacent to the April 1945 at Uzurano.
and 859,032 s((uai'e feet of wai-eThere uses, service facilities, and office space. re 32 buildings, 29 of brick and wood construcn, and 3 modein steel-frame structures. The Hinieji plant was one of three final-assembly iits of the Kawanishi Aircraft Co., and funce floor area,
airport, 10 miles northeast of the
This i)ranch plant consisted of 104,680 square feet and was originally intended as a flight-preparation
ned in that category until 9 July 1945, when Kawanishi properties were taken over by the Janese Navy. At that time it became the irth plant of the Second Munitions Arsenal. -U'ing the naval regime no change was made in plant's management. At the end of the war properties were returned to the company.
Himeji produced only George fighters (NlKl-J and N1K2-J), with the Homare model 20 and model 21 engine, rated at 1,970 horsepower takeoft'. All work at the plant w-as done on this Navy
Organization and Operation
Mitsuo Suehisa. reporting directly
dout of the company, who was located at Nanio. The almost complete destniction of the plant
the indirect-labor workers were 1,400 girl volu
teers and students. The students divided a 9-h4 day about e(|ually between academic stud' and apprentice work in the plant. Although tl
it to judge methods. However, with converted facilities and only 9,000 workers, it was able to attain an aveiage production of 25 air frames per month. Conventional organization methods prevailed in the production of aircraft (fig. 1).
seasonal surges of absenteeism throu
3-year history, the worst occiu'red in May 19 when there was an almost wholesale desertion
the retinii to
tlie farms. Throughout the war worked one 10-hour shift (appendix B).
Himeji plant, iissemhly of aircraft; plant manager Mitsuo
worked at the Himeji sented by 930,000 during
32,050,000 man-hoi This was rep
started operations; 5,820,000 in
Material supply, Utsumi.
and only 7,770,000 in 1945 up bombing attack (appendix C).
Scrap utilizini;, Utsumi. Labor, Aoyama. Financial, Umetani. Medical, Ota.
Private school, Saito.
Rigging shop, Kakiuchi. Final-assembly shop, Tak ahashi. Jig shop,
Matsumoto. Carpenter shop, Katsumura. Heat-treatment shop, Nakajima.
stoclv, as well
Shortages of ahuninuin extrusions and sh as shortages of forgings and ca
were experienced throughout 1944 and 19 were also in short supply.
Paint and sewing shop,
Machine shop, Matsumoto.
Apprentice school, Nakata.
Employment The Himeji
During May 1944 a shortage of Momare engi from the Eleventh Naval Arsenal at Hiro cause temporary sag in deliveries for the month. She ages of magnetos, fuel pumps, and piston hei
w(M'e, in turn, responsible for the
plant, although located in a
dium-sized, semi-.industrial city,
mewas largely de-
During the early months of 1945, the Kayi
labor on the rural population.
deliveries of la
Absenteeism reached 30 percent during the spring and fall months of 1944. Discharges and sickness
1944, when the plant was reaching its production peak, averaged about 10 percent. Plant officials said that their organization started with only 5 percent trained labor, taken from the Naruo plant. They stated that it took
ing-gear assemblies, accentuating the product
drop during this period. There is no record of the use of substitute rials at this plant. In August 1945, however a dispersion measure, the Himeji organizat
was in the process company.
of acquiring a large piywi
year to recruit a minimum labor force, and train them into even a semblance of a production or1
was engaged in May In January 1944, 1,090 additional persons hired. were employed in expectation of a mass producThe peak of new emtion of George XlKl-J. April 1944, when 1,290 ployment was reached in new apprentices were engaged. The last large
new employ1943 when 1,000 were
During the war the plant produced 510 fighi Georges NlKl-J and N1K2-J. Government-planned production from the beg
ning of operations at the Himeji plant to the This of the war was projected at 683 planes.
173 planes, or 25 percent,
(hiction (appenchx D).
more than actual
group of new employees entered the Himeji plant in January 1945, when 1,180 persons were cmployed in anticipation of mass production of the improved George X1K2-J (appendix A). Women constituted one-third of the plant's total employment, a slight majority being used in direct-labor
reached in April 1944 with the delivery of This was followed by a d: Georges, NiKl-J. Tl in May, due to modification of the plane.
production started to climb again, and by Aug same year protluction iiad been boosted Production continued 51 planes per month.
employment broke down
workers over indirect.
In January' 1945 p chiction dropped to 24 aircraft, recovered sligh
until the entl of that year.
iiiicnift for Fp})rii!irv Jind
cliiiniicovcr lo nil iiupi'oxod
duo model NlKl-.l,
itself, which Recuperation of
)pppd stcjidily until
this iiiodci slopj)cd.
1945 wlicn pioductinti
persed sites to 65 percent of liie [)eak might liavo been p()ssil)li' within 6 to 9 months.
Casualties included 72 persons killed and 150 the 22 June 1945 <laylight raid on
tiie wing which re[ed production to 24 planes for the month, e new model got into production in FVbruary March and reached its ])eak in May when 20 craft were produced. In June, however, the nt went into its final i)roduction tailspin, due, previously mentioned, to labor difliculties.
the 30 July 1945 raid on the
and one Uzurano
liour of attack
acking unit tude
22 June 1945. 0930 to 1030. Twentieth Air Force. 15,200 feet.
of aircraft over target-
(number, weight and type). 1403, 500-pound GP.
mber in plant area mber of Ijuilding hits (number of UXB)
The 22 June 1945 precision bombing attack on s plant carried out during daylight, and lasting
No buildings had been placed undei'ground noihad any attempt lieen made to camouflage existing structures. The air-raid warning system consisted of a control station eciuipped with radio and telephone communication .systems, located in a bombproof dugout near the main office. The control station was notified by radio or telephone of approaching aircraft and the entire plant was alerted by siren, loud speaker system, telephone, and flags. One observation post was situated on the roof of the plant. The plant manager, acting as head of the air-defense system, ordered the evacuation of the plant when an air attack was threatened. The order in which the employees left the plant was students first, women ne.xt, and men emj)loyees who were not members of the air-defense system last. The fire-defense system consisted of 60 regular firemen assisted by a group of auxiliary firemen and 3 fire engines. In addition to fire hydrants, water casks and static water tanks were situated
at various locations throughout the plant.
wood buildings the plant and seriously damaged the 3 steel dern-type structures. Bombs were of the 500ind HE type. There were 229 bombs dropped
lour, leveled the
29 brick and
There were air-raid shelters (dugouts) for 1,800 employees within the plant and shelters for 8,000 employees outside the plant.
the plant enclosure, only 3 of which were
LB's (appcndi.x E).
to air-raid alerts
The 22 June 1945 raid on the Himeji plant
maged 100 percent
occurred in the latter part of
5,000 man-hours were
November 1944 when
of 1944, only
damaged and 26 percent
raids, which consisted of and rocket attacks, started against the urano Airport plant, an aircraft final-assembly it of the Himeji plant. Subsequently, this lilt was harrassecl by strafing raids which did tie damage, but discouraged procUiction. On 30 ly, however, considerable damage was done to B facilities and completed aircraft by a strafing d fragmentation bomb raid. Plant officials planned no recuperation at the
10,300 man-hours were lost because of air-raid alerts. The loss increased very greatly in 1945,
with 32.200 man-hours lost in January and 35,100 in February. At the height of air alerts, June The total for 1945, 62,100 man-hours were lost. 1945 amounted to 164,000, making a total in both years of 174,700 man-hoin-s lost because of air-raid
Interruptions I>ue to Area Attacks
The area air attacks did not aft'ect electric-power production in this district and there was no inter-
In ruption of the plant's electric ])o\ver supply. 1943, when the plant started production of air
frames, the electric-power consumption increased steadily. The rate of increase continued until the
The Himeji ])lant |)lanned six dispersed l)ut none of them had l)een in pi'oduction.
construction of the plants in the dispersal progr
peak of power consumption in December 1944, when 310,000 kilowatt hours were consumed. Then, in the early part of 1945, due to the dispersal program, the rate of power consumption decreased shai-ply and stopped completely at the time of the air attack on the plant in June 1945 (appendix G).
was under the direction of the Naval ConstructI Corps, which furnished labor and material. B
on the Himeji plant, 2i had been dispersed to the Ho
unit (a|)pen(lix I).
program assumed the foUowi:
feet) or of buildings
Percent of completl
100, of building; 8C
Engine run and flight. Wing assembly Fuselage assembly
Hojn (Taka village). Fukuzaki unit:
Tawara village. Tatsumo
There was no ])roduction loss because of disall work on dis])ersed locations was performed \>y the \avid Construction Cor])s and the Himeji i)laiit did i\n[ fui'iiish any men or
However, the estimated production
for 1944 v
period was 354 aircraft, or 35 i)ereent over
The War Department, Military
tion at the
mated production. In 1945 the estimated p duction was 300 aircraft, while only 156 W" Thus, for 1945 it was es actually produced. mated that 48 pcrc(>nt more aircraft were pi duced than were actually made. The estimal total production for both years was 529 aircra
while 510 were actually produced, or a 4-perc(
Service (Ci-2), estimate of total aircraft produc-
Himeji plant was essentially correct.
saaAOidNj io dsannN
1 X i
TAKARAZUKA PLANT REPORT NO.
Dates of Survey, 23-25 October 1945
TABLE OF CONTENTS
The Plant and Attack Data
Its Function in the Aiucraft Industry^.
Effects of BbMBiNG 79 Intelligence Check 83 Vulnerability 83 Facing page 84 Appendix A General arrangement of plant Appendix B. Organization chart 85 Appendix C Number of man-hours worked 86 Appendix D Employment chart 87 Appendix E Critical shortages 88 Appendix F Bomb plots Facing page 88 (1) Facing page 88 (2) Appendix G Bomb damage plan Appendix H Man-hours expended in repair of air-raid damage. 89 Appendix I Production man-hours lost as a result of air attack 89 90 Appendix J Man-hours lost because of air-raid alerts Appendix K Man-hours lost due to air-raid attack 91 Appendix L Chart of electric-power consumption 92 93 Appendix Dispersal map
— — — — — — — — — — — — M—
THE PLANT AND
FUNCTION IN THE AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY
There were foiu- production departments in the Takarazuka jjlant. The first one, the aircraftmachine-parts department, was constructed in June 1942. The material-treating department (casting, forging, heat treating, and galvanizing) was constructed in August 1942; the aero-engineaccessories department in September 1942; and the machine-gun-mounting department in February 1943.
he Takarazuka plant (Takarazuka Seisakusho)
Kawanishi Aircraft Co. (Kawanishi Kokuki was located 20 miles northwest saka, near the village of Takarazuka. It was blished in the fall of 1942 to machine aircraft s for the various Kawanishi assembly plants, r to this it was a machine shop producing gun ets and various types of pumps; it also did e machining of aircraft parts. The total floor
was 3,392,000 scpiare feet, hich 1,802,000 square feet was productive area. The general arrangement plan of the
before air attack,
On 1 November 1943, the Takarazuka plant acquired the Teikoku Electric Co. as its only subThis unit built electric parts, mainly for sidiary. the gun-mounting department.
The Japanese Government loaned
Aircraft Co. a total of 211,000.000
(Appendix A) gives the area of each building, type of work performed, date and type of
the Kawanishi yen for equipTakarazuka plant
about one-fourth of
when two 10-hour
2,896 machine tools
1, 181, 000 33,300,000
422 presses, furnaces, transformers, sheetmetal machines
were quite low in 1942 4,000 per month but in creased very sharply, reaching 45,500 in Maicl 1945 and finally 125,000 in August 1945. The increased absenteeism was caused by ai attacks on the cities and towns. After suci attacks many employees did not work reguhulj evacuating their families and personal belonging
to safer places.
Organization and Operation
The names and
functions of key persomiel
1942 as an
munber of employees were tran from the Naruo plant of the Kawanis
Kenji Maebara, Vice president. Shiro Takahashi, Managing director. Yoshio Hashiguchi, Chief engineer. Meishin Saito, .Manager of Takarazuka plant.
Aircraft Co. Another large group of employe was transferred from Naruo in November 194
and yet another
in April 1944.
employees reached a peak
Organization of the Takarazuka plant followed
the general pattern for the industry (appendix B).
16,600 in August 1944, declining steadily thci
Plant officials furnished an outline of the plant
by departments, date the sections began operation, the type of aircraft for which the parts were made, where the products were shipped, and the percent of production sent to the various com-
noted that there was a vc workers in the plant Veiy few military person) 1,100 at the peak. were employed at the plant only 150 duri 1945 (appendix D).
It shoidd be
pumps originally were made at the Naruo and gun turrets plant of the Kawanishi Aircraft Co. (USSBS Airpanies
be noted that
Components The Takarazuka plant
macliine guns, various types of pumps, macliin.
Report No. III-l), but prowas transferred to the Takarazuka plant duction
craft Division Plant
1943 to facilitate more efficient utilization of the separate plant properties.
parts for aircraft, castings, and forgiii Of the above products, 80 percent of the § turrets were produced for other plants and on 20 percent were used by the Kawanishi Airci
Co.; 90 percent of the
pumps were produced
1944 to the termination of the war, plant had two shifts, working 10 hours each the day. Approximately two-thirds of the employees
outside plants; and
of the machined airci and forgings were produced
the various aircraft-assembly plants of the
nishi Aircraft Co.
worked the day
unteers worked 9-hour
Due to the difficulties in assembling mach guns until December 1943, there were no sh«
ages of raw materials for this activity.
employees increased gradually its maxinuim in August 1944 when a total of 16,600 workers were employed. As the war situation changed, students (boys and girls), whether they had graduated or
dining the war, reaching
The most important
tcrial that existed in
1944 and 1945 were oxy) for welding, small electric motors, and ammo used in metal plating (appendix E).
not, entered the plant as a patriotic-service corps,
by labor-mobilization ortlers of the Boy students worked 10-hour shifts and younger school boys worked 8-hour shifts. The greatest number of man-hours worked was
The Takarazuka ])lant first started protluci March 1941 witii the manufacture of
recorded (appendix C).
October 1944, when 183,000 man-liours were The great increase began
by April 1942 the manufact
of air frames macliined parts began.
of products inamifactiired at
the Takarazuka pkint follows:
Tlio Takaraziika plant
was struck twice. The lOOn hoiir-s on 15 Juno 1945, was attack, at iuoa attack. Tlic danmf^c was confined almost lusively to the destruction of about 30 percent
Tlu' day following the attack, only production. about 40 percent of he usuid niiin-liours were
repairs were underlnken following the second
iittack of 24 July.
the iiouses in the workinen's
he second attack, which was directed at the nt, occurred at 0930 hours on 24 July 1945. I this, 458 tons of 1- and 2- thousand pound imbs were dropped. Two hundred two tons 3 uck the plant area, 88 tons striking buildings. The few ^lne of the buildings was repaired.
man-hours alri-ady were divc^rted towards disl)crsal and this attack stopped production; oidy 7,300 man-hours out of the normal 29,000 manhoui-s was worked the day aftei' the attack.
air attacks, 95 percent of the were either dispersed or lented to
ings were dismantled as a precaution against
dtnage (photos 1-5).
system at the plant
attack, 181,094 square feet, or
[icrcent, of the
dormitories and kitchens wer(!
the destruction of ])ower
lined in addition to
The chief of the organization sounded the alarm by loudspeaker system throughout the plant. Alarm in the plant was given by loud-
speaker system or siren.
second attack, 100 percent of the i-turret department, 99 percent of the aircraft(ssories department, 78 percent of machinedIs department, 30 percent of the heat-treating, "ling, and forging department, boiler and airpressor room, 67 percent of the office, and percent of the dormitory and mess room were Utroyed. The damaged shops were not repaired.
not function, messengers stationed at each princi-
shop gave the alarm by
flag or siren diu'ing
the daytime, and
siren or light signal at night.
various departments ordered
the workers to go to the air-raid shelters in the
following order: students of the primary schools,
other students, apprentices and regular workmen, and finally members of the air-raid-precaution
ring the second air attack, 108
:ed and 51 wounded.
the outset of 1945, before the attacks, 95
machines were dispersed to various i-Ditions within a few miles of the Takarazuka nt. Some were loaned to subcontractors and ers were installed in dispersed plants. After dispersal, there were 47 machine tools at the
total of 795,581 man-liours
of air-raid alerts.
alerts started in
36,800 man-hours were
1944 and during the remainder of the year In 1945, 758,781 lost.
the attack of 24 July 1945, were damaged superficially but tairable and 39 were destroyed beyond repair. J machine tools were replaced at the plant.
of the area attack
with June 1945, the month on the plant, having the greatest number of lost man-hours (181,200) due to airI'aid alerts (appendix J)
total of 585,500
were damaged and destroyed.
started in February
attack of 15 June, 14,200 n-hours were e.xpended to repair damage (ap^dix H). A total of 126,140 productive manifter
1945, the greatest occurring in
182,000 man-hours were
the area (appendix
June 1945, when due to air attacks in
addition to the loss
were lost as a direct result, rerpiiring approx1 week to recuperate to normalcy (appen-
The peak loatl of electric i)ower under contract was 2,500 kilowatts. Throughout the productive
n-hours per day, or a total of 189,000 manrs, were lost due to dispersal factors, indicating
period at the plant, from 1942 to 1945, the maxiconsumption was from February 1944 to
was a great factor
when 2,170 kilowatts were consumed. 79
Photo 1.— Building
View southwest, showing
59, sheet-metal shop.
View, southwest, showing structural damage.
159, sheet-metal shop view
— interior looking west.
Heavy bomb damage.
159, sheet-metal shop.
crater at base of column.
the l)oginiuag of
to dispersion, to
by June 1945,
(h-opped to zero in August 1945 (ap-
to the follow
100 100 100
Sheet-metal parts and assembly
chief bottleneck in
Capacity after disperal was 150
the machine-gun-mounting department was transportation. The cni)acity of llie plant to piwluce
iiiacliiiii'-gun indiiiit iiigs, tiefore dispersal,
17 pei'cent loss.
persed to the following locations:
June 1945_ Tune 1945
I, 50() 1, 21 Kl
and tools.Machine shop
Transportation was the chief bottleneck, but a
ortage of labor and electrical parts hindered the
and installation of mnchinory at (he
loss of pro-
earth-covered buildings): This unit of 154 machines and 500 workmen was under the direction of the Naruo plant, and was planned (o produce
The engine-accessories department and potential due
estimated as follows:
machined parts for George. Transportation of machines was finished on 10 July 1945 but operation did not begin because of lack of power.
Hojo district (underground unit): This unit planned to produce machined ptiits for Frances and George, with 309 machines, and 1,200
However, to the termination of the war, only 261 machines were transported to this unit, which was never in operation.
Dispersal stopped operation of the aircraftmachine-parts department and all of the machined parts for CJeorge and Frances had to be supi)lied
pump (complete set)pump
750 1,200 400 700
motor for variable-piteh propelleriium pump -_
valve for flap
000 900 350
by subcontractors. The casting, forging,
was planned that the aircraft-parts machining partment be dispersed in four districts under the |ntrol of each plant in each district. Only two •nits, Osaka and Okadayama, were already dis]Tsed and in operation at the end of the war. In her dispersed units, machines were all on hand
vanizing department of the Takarazuka plant was to be dispersed near the plant in (lie hills of the
Koyoen Park, but
was never done
The prc-attack-intelligcnce information as to the type of manufacture engaged in at the Takarazuka plant and the photo interpretation after the air attack reporting the damage sustained were
Plant dispersal assumed the following pattern:
(Hankyu department store in meda bombproof building) This unit belonged the Konan plant and produced machined parts
Frances with 139 machine tools and 350 worken. It began to operate on the 15th of June
able to air attacks in that
was particularly vulnerall the buildings were
unit (in the
completely of wooden construction, except four
large shops, which were of structural steel and
lielonged to the
loduced machined parts for
Xaruo plant and George with 54 maThis unit
70 school-girl workers. gan production on 10 April 1945.
Koyoen unit (underground and
wooden roof and walls. This light construction was particularly vulnerable to incendiaries. No attempt was made to camouflage the plant. The morale of the employees was none too high,
Planned to produce parts for George th 123 machine tools and 500 workers. All the ichine tools were transported to this unit by 30 ne 1945, but were not in operation, due to lack power and homes for employees.
the end of 1944 and continuing through 1945, during whicli time air attacks on nearby cities, as well as on the plant itself, made many of them homeless and caused others to evacuate tlieii' personal belongings and families.
OF SHORTAGES OF
RAW MATERIALS AND PARTS FOR THE ENGINE-ACCESSORIES DEPARTMENT
JULY 24 Ih. ATTACK
ROUGH MACHINE SHOP
SHEET METAL SHOP JIG SHOP CARPENTER SHOP 18 19 GALVANIZING SHOP 20 HEAT TREATMENT SHOP CASTING SHOP 21 22 FORGING SHOP 23! 24 26 SCRAP PRESSING SHOP 26 AIR COMPRESSOR 27
' ; ! I !
37 38 39
STORE GARAGE ___ _^
US STRATEGIC BOMBING SURVEY
O- 47 <Face
88) No. 1
O O D
Q O q:
MAN-HOURS LOST DUE TO
PLANT RAIoeO a WORKMEN HOMES IN OSAKA BURNED
PART OF THE PLANT RAIDED a AMAGASAKI DISTRICT
STRATEGIC BOMBING SURVE Y
KAWANISHI AIRCRAFT CO.
MACHINE PARTS DEPT
UNIT NAMAZE UNIT SANDA UNIT KOSHIEN UNIT KASHO UNIT
OKADAYAMA UNIT KOYOEN UNIT FUKUCHIYAMA UNIT
HOJO UNIT UMEDA UNIT
AERO ENGINE ACCESSORIES DEPT. SASAYAMA UNIT SAKASEGAWA UNIT
NAKATAKAMATSU UNIT NIGAWA UNIT
STRATEGIC BOMBING SURVEY
KAWANISHI AIRCRAFT COMPANY
UNITED STATES STRATEGIC BOMBING SURVEY
The following is a bibliography of reports resulting from the Survey's studies of the European and Pacific wars. Those reports marked with an asterislc (*) may be purchased from lie Superintendent of Documents at the Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C.
Vereinigte Deutsche Mctallwerke, Hildesheim, G(
22 23 24 25
G m b H, Leipzig, Germai m b H, Plant No. 2, Bitterfe Germany Gebrueder Giulini G m b H, Ludwigshafen. Germa Luftschiffbau, Zepellin G m b H, Friedrichshaf
OFFICE OF THE CHAIRMAN
26 27 28
on Bodensee, Germany Wieland Werke A G, I'lm, Germany Rudolph Rautenbach Leichmctallgiessercien, Sol
The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Sumniarv Report (European War) The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Overall
Lippewerke Vereinigte Aluminiumwerke
Report (European War)
Effects of Strategic
Duerener Kletallwerke & Waren, Germany
G, Duren Wittenau-Bei
AREA STUDIES DIVISION
(By Division and Branch)
Aircraft Division Industry Report Inspection Visits to Various Targets (Special Rejjort)
Junkers Aircraft and Aero Elngine Works, Dessau,
8 9 10
G m b H, Heiterblick, German A T G Maschinenbau, G m b H, Leipzig (Mockau),
36 37 38 39
Gothaer Waggonfabrik, A G, Gotha, Germany Focke Wulf Aircraft Plant, Bremen, Germany
Mcsserschmitt A G, Augsburg, Germany
Area Studies Division A Detailed Study of on Hamburg A Detailed Study of on Wuppertal A Detailed Study of on Dusseldorf A Detailed Study of on Solingen A Detailed Study of on Remscheid A Detailed Study of on Darmstadt A Detailed Study of on Lubeck
the Effects of Area
the Effects of Area
the Effects of Area the Effects of Area the Effects of Area
the Effects of Area
the Effects of Area
Over-all Rejjort Part A Part B
Brief Stiidy of the Effects of Area Bombing,] Berlin. Augsburg, Bochum. Leipzig, Hagen,
mund, Oberhausen, Schweinfurt. and Bremen
12 13 14
(Appendices I, II, 111 Dornier Works, Friedrichshafen & Munich, (lerniany
Kassel, Germany Gerhard Fieseler Werke Wiener Neustaedter Flugzeugwerke, Wiener Xcustadt, Austria
CIVILIAN DEFENSE DIVISION
Final Report Civilian Defense Division Cologne Field Report Bonn Field Re|)ort Hanover Field Report Hamburg Field Report Vol. I, Text; Vol. II, Exhi Bad Oldesloe Field Report Augsburg Field Report
Aero Engines Branch
wick, Germany Mittel-Deutsche" .Motorcnwerke
42 43 44 45 46 47
Bavarian Motor Works
A G (BMW)
Hcnscliel Flugmoloren werke, Kassel,
German Electrical I^quipment Industry Report Brown Boveri et Cie, Mannheim Kafertal, GerniiJ
Light Metal Branch
and Precision Instrument Branch
Light Metals Industry (Part
.Muminum II, Magnesium
Optical and Precision Instrument Industry Rejri
The KTinaii Abrasive Indus! ry Mayer aiui Sehiniflt, Offeiibacli
Sidiujarine Industry Report Maschinenfal)rik Augsburg-Xurnberg
A G, Augs-
Blohm and Voss Shipyards, Hamburg, Germany Deutschewerke A. G. 'Kiel, Germany Deutsche Schiff und Maschinenbau', Bremen Ger-
Macliine Tools Branch
Machine Tools & Maeliiuery as Capital I';c|uii)iiieiil Maeliiiie Tool Industry in Germany Herman Kolb Co., Colof^ne, Oermany ( ollet and Kngelliard, OfTeidjach, (ierniany
Xaxos Union, Frankfort on Main, (Germany
98 99 UJO
Hiiwaldtswerke \. G, Hamburg, Germany Submarine Assembly Shelter, Farge, (iermany Bremer ^'\lIkan, Vegesack, Germany
103 104 105 106 107 108
MILITARY ANALYSIS DIVISION
of the lierman Air P'orce \'-\\'eapons (Crossbow) Campaign Air Force Rate of Operation
Ordnance Industry Report Krupp Grusonwerke A G, Magdeburg
Weather Factors in Combat Bombardment Operations in the European Theatre
Germany Bochumer Verein fuer Gusstahlfabrikation A Bochum, Germany
USAAF Heavv ETO RAF Bombing
Sohn, Kassel, German\Rheinmetall-Borsig, Dusseidorf, (iermany Hermann Goering Werke, Braunscliweig, Hallendorf, (iermany Hannoyerische Maschinenbau, Hanover, Germany Ciusstahlfabrik Friedrich Krupp, Essen, Germany
of the Allied Air Effort
on German lo-
Effects of Strategic (Vol. I and Vol. ID
Bombing on German Morale
Oil Division, Final Report Oil Division, Final Report,
Bombing on Health and Medical Care Germany
Appendix Powder, Explosives, Special Rockets and Jet Propellants. War Gases and Smoke .Acid (Ministerial Report $1)
Heavy Industry Branch The Coking Industry Report on Germany
Coking Plant Report No. 1, Sections A,"B, C, & D Gutehoffiningshuette, Oberhausen, Germany Friedrich-Alfred Huette, Rheinhausen, CJermany Neunkirchen Eisenwerke A G, Neunkirchen, Ger1
Underground and Dispersal Plants
Oil Industry, Ministerial
Ministerial Report on Chemicals
Hamborn, Germany Krupp A G, Borbeck Plant, E.ssen, Germany Dortmund Hoerder Iluettenverein, A (!, Dortmund, Germany Hoesch A G, Dortmund, Germany Bochumer Verein fuer Gusstah'lfabrikation A C!, Bochum, Germany
August Thyssen Huette
G m b H, Leuna, Germany 2 Appendices Braimkohle Benzin A G, Zeitz and Bohlen, Germany
Farbenindustrie (1, Ludwigshafen, Germany Ruhroel Hydrogenaf ion Plant," Bottrop-Boy, Ger-
many, Vol. I, \'ol. II Rhenania Ossag Mineraloelwerke A G, Harburg
Motor Vehicles and Tanks Branch German Motor \'ehicies Industry Report Tank Industry Report Daimler Benz A G, Unterturkheim, Germany Renault Motor Vehicles Plant, Billancourt, Paris
A G, Grasbrook Hamburg, Germany Rhenania Ossag M ineraloelwerke AG, Wilhelmsburg Refinery, Hamburg, (iermany
Rlienania Ossag Mineraloelwerke
Victor, Vol. II
Europaeische Tanklager und Transport
Opel, Russelheim, (iermany
Daimler Benz-Gaggenan Works, Gaggenau, Germany Maschinenfabrik .\ugsburg-Nurnberg, Nurnberg,
Auto Union A G, Chemnitz and Zwickau, Germany Henschel & Sohn, Kas.sel, Germany Maybach Motor Works, Friedriclishafen, Germany Voigtlander, Maschinenfabrik A G, Plaiien, Germany Volkswagenwerke, Fallersleben, Germany Bussing XA(j, Brunswick, Germany Muehlenbau Industrie A G (.Miag)" Brunswick, Ger-
burg, Germany Ebano Asphalt Werke .A G, Harljurg Refinery. Hamburg, Germany Meerbeck Rheinpreu.s.sen Synthetic Oil Plant
126 127 128 129
Hanau on Main,
Krupp Grusonwerke, Magdeburg, Germany
Continental Gummiwerke, Hanover, Germany Huels Synthetic Rubber Plant Ministerial Report on German Rubber Industry
Elektrochoiuisehewerkc, Munich, Germany SchoenebecR Explosive Plant, Lignose Sprengstoff Werke G m b H, Bad Salzemen, Germany Plants of Dvnamit A G, Vormal. Alfred Xobel & Co., Troisdorf, Clausthal. Drummel and Duneberg,
182 183 184 185 186 187 188
Ship Yards Howaldtswerkc, Hamburg, Germany Blohm and Voss Shipyards, Hamburg, Germany
A G, Mannheim, Ciermany Synthetic Oil Plant, Meerbeck-Hamburg, Cierman Ciewerkschaft Victor, Castrop-Rauxel, Germany Klockner Humboldt Deutz, Ulm, Ciermany Ruhroel Hydrogenation Plant, Bottrop-Boy, Ge
tr. H, Kraiburg. Ger,,
191 192 193
OVER-ALL ECONOMIC EFFECTS DIVISION
[Special papers which together comprise the Hermann Goering Works above report I Food and Agriculture 134a Industrial Sales Output and Productivity
Gross National Product
Effects Division Report
Xeukirchen Eisenwerke A Ci, Xeukirchen, German Railwav Viaduct at Altenbecken, Germany RailwaV Viaduct at Arnsburg, Ciermany Deurag-Xerag Refineries, Misburg, Germany Fire Raids on German Cities Germany, V' I G Farbenindustrie, Ludwigshafen,
PHYSICAL DAMAGE DIVISION
134b Phvsical Damage Division Report (ETO) 135 Villacoublav Airdrome, Paris, France Railroad Repair Yards, Malines, Belgium 13fj Railroad Repair Yards, Louvain, Belgium 137 138 Railroad Repair Yards, Hasselt, Belgium 139 Railroad Repair Yards, Xamur, Belgium 140 Submarine Pens, Brest, France Powder Plant, Angouleme, France 141 142 Powder Plant, Bergerac, France 143 Coking Plants, Montigny & Liege, Belgium 144 Fort St. Blaise Verdun Group, Metz, France 145 Gnome et Rhone, Limoges, France 146 Michelin Tire Factorv, Clermont-Ferrand, France 147 Gnome et Rhone Aero Engine Factory, Le Mans,
196 197 198 199
in Marshalling Yard, Llm, German Farbenindustrie, Leverkusen, Germany Chemische-Werke. Huels, Ciermany Ciremberg Marshalling Yard, Ciremberg, Germai Locomotive shops and Bridges at Hamm, Germai
Effects of Strategic
Bombing on Cierman
portation Rail Operations Over the Brenner Pass Effects of Bombing on Railroad Installations Regensburg, Xurnberg and Munich Divisions Cierman Locomotive Industry During the War Cierman Military Railroad Traffic
*205 206 207 208
to 10 in Vol. I "Utilities Division Plant Repor Division Plant Repor I I to 20 in Vol. II "Utilities .^ 21 Rheinische-Westfalische Elektrizitaetswerk
Kugelfischer Bearing Ball Plant, Ebelsbach, Ger-
151 152 153 154
Louis Breguet Aircraft Plant, Toulouse, France
S N. C. A. S. E. Aircraft Plant, Toulou.se, France A. I. A. Aircraft Plant, Toulouse, France
War OFFICE OF THE CHAIRMAN
Citv Area of Krefeld Public .\ir Raid Shelters
157 158 159 160
Goklenberg Thermal Electric Power Station, Knap-
.Japan's Struggle To End The War The Effects of Atomic Bombs on
Switching Station, Brau-
Storage Depot, Xahbollenbach,
Railway and Road
Bridge, Bad Munster, RaihvaV Bridge, EUer, Germany
162 163 164 165 166
Gust loff- Werke Weimar, Weimar, Germany Henschell & Sohn G m b H, Kassel, Germany Area Survey at Pirmasens, Germany Hanomag, Hanover, Germany M A X Werke Augsburg, Augsburg, Germany Friedrich Krupp A G, Essen, Ciermany
b H, Heiterblick, Ger-
167 168 169 170
A T G'Maschincnbau G m Erla Maschinenwerke G m
H, Mockau, Germany b H, Mockau, Ciermany Baverische Motorenwerke, Durrerhof, Germany Taucha. .Miiicl-Deutsche Motorenwerke
Field Report Covering Air Raid Protection Allied Subjects, Tokyo, Japan Field Report Covering Air Raid Protection Allied Subjects, Nagasaki, Japan Field Report Covering Air Raid Protection Allied Subjects. Kyoto, Japan Field Report Covering Air Raid Protection Allied Subjects, Kobe, Japan Field Report Covering Air Raid Protection Allied Subjects, Osaka, Japan Field Report Covering Air Raid Protection Xo. 1 \llied Subjects, Hiroshima, Japan Suminarv Report Covering Air Raid Protection
,x r. Submarine Pens Deutsche- Werft, Hamburg, Ger-
172 173 174 175 176
177 178 179
Germany Gummiwerke, Hanover, Germany Kassel Marshalling Yards, Kassel, Germany Ammoniawerke, Mcrseburg-Leuna, Germany Brown Boveri et Cie, Mannheim, Kafertal, GerMulti-Storied Structures, Hamburg,
Allied "Subjects in Japan Rejjort Covering Air .Mlied Subjects in Japan
Effects of Bombing on Health Services in Japan
F^tfects of Atomic Bombs on cal Services in Hiroshima and
inanv Adam Opel
Health and A Xagasaki
Daimler-Benz A G, Unterturkheim, Germany Valentin Submarine Assembly, Farge, Germany Volkswaggonwerke, Fallersleben, Germany Railway Viaduct at Bielefeld, Germany
Nissan Automobile Company Corporation Report No. Will (Nissan Jidoslia KK)
(Engines) Air Arsenal <fe Navy Air Depots Corporation Report No. XIX (Airframes and Engines) Underground I'ruduction of Japanese Report No.
Japanese AircrafI Itidustry
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. Corporation Rc/iorl No. I (Mitubislii Juliogyo KK) (Airframes it Engines) Nakajima Aircraft ("nnii)any, Ltd. Corporolioii Report No. II
KK) & Engines) Company
Basic Materials Division
Corporation Report No. I/I
Coal and Metals
(Kawanishi Kokuki Kabiisliiki Kaislui)
(Airframes) Aircraft Lidustries Company, Inc. Corporation Report No. IV
Equipment and Construction Division
(Kawasaki Kokuki Kogyo Kabushiki
& Engines) Aichi Aircraft Company Corporation Report No. (Aichi Kokuki KK) (Airframes &. Engines) .Sumitomo Metal Industries, Propeller Division Corporation Report No. VI
*37 *38 *39
The Japanese Construction Industrv Japanese Electrical Equipment The Japanese Machine Building Industry
Electric Electric ports)
Power Industrv of .Japan Power Industry of Japan (Plant He-
(Sumitomo Kinzoku Kogyo KK, Puropera
Manpower, Food and
Civilian Supplies Division
Hitachi Aircraft C^ompany Corporation Report A^o. VII (Hitachi Kokuki KK) (Airframes & Engines) Japan International Air Indu.stries, Ltd. Corporation Report No. VIII
The Japanese Wartime Standard
Military Supplies Division
(Nippon Kokusai Koku Kogyo
Japan Musical Instrument pany
Corporation Report No. IX (Nippon Gakki Seizo KK)
*43 *44 45 *46 *47 *48
Japanese Japanese Japanese Japanese Japanese
Naval Ordnance Army Ordnance Naval Shipbuilding
Motor Vehicle Industry Merchant Shipbuilding
Tachikawa Aircraft Company
Corporation Report No.
(Airframes) Fuji Airplane Company
and Chemical Division
Corporation Report No.
Chemicals in Japan's War Chemicals in Japan's War Appendix Oil in Japan's War Oil in Japan's War Appendi.x
(Airframes) Showa Airplane Company Corporation Report No.
Over-all Economic Effects Division
XII (Showa Hikoki Kogyo KK)
(Airframes) Ishikawajima Aircraft Industries Corporation Report No. XIII
The Effects od Strategic Bombing on Japan's War Economy (Including Appendix A: IT. S. Economic
Japan Analysis and Comparison: Appendix B: Gross National Product on Japan and Its Components; Appendix C: Statistical
(Engines) Nippon Airplane Company Corporation Report A'o. XI^^
The War Against Japanese
Kyushu Airplane Company
Corporation Report No.
Urban Areas Division
Effects of Air Attack on Japane.se L^rban
(Kyushu Hikoki KK)
Shoda Engineering Company Corporation Report A'o. A'T/
(Shoda Seisakujo) (Components)
*57 *58 59 60
Mitaka Aircraft Industries
Corporation Report No.
(Mitaka Koku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha) (Components)
L^ban Complex TokyoKawasaki- Yokohama Effects of Air Attack on the City of Nagoya Effects of Air .\ttack on Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto Effects of Air Attack on the City of Nagasaki Effects of Air Attack on the City of Hiroshima
Effects of Air Attack on
Military Analysis Division
Report of Ships Bombardment Survey Party (Enclosure I), Comments and Data on Effectiveness
Air Forces Allied with the United States in the
Ammunition of Ships Bombardment Survey Party (Enclosure J), Comments and Data on Accuracy of
62 63 64
Against Japan Japanese Air Power Japanese Air Weapons and Tactics The Effect of Air Action on Japanese Ground
closure K), Effects of Surface Japanese War Potential
Bombardment Survey Party (EnBombardments on
-c Under the Southwest Pacihc
67 68 69 70
Strategic Air Operations of Very Heavy Bombardment in the War Against Japan (Twentieth \ir Force) World War Air Operations in China, Burma, India—
Effect of the Incendiary
Attacks on Japan
Report on Eight
the Ten Thousand Pound Bomli
The Thirteenth Air Force m the \\ ar Agamst Japan The Seventh and Eleventh Air Forces in the War
92 93 94
Effects of the Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima. Japan Effects of the Atomic Bomb on Nagasaki, Japan Effects of the Four Thousand Pound Bomb on Japa nese Targets (a Report on Five Incidents)
Report on Nine Incidents)
Two Thousand, One Thousand, and Fiv Hundred Pound Bombs on Japanese Target.s
Report on Eight Incidents) Report on Physical Damage
The "Fifth Air Force
Naval Analysis Division
*73 *74 *75 76
The Interrogations of Japanese Officials (Vols, and II) Campaigns of the Pacific War The Reduction of Wake Island The Allied Campaign Against Rabaul The American Campaign Against \\ otje, Maloelaj Mille, and Jaluit (Vols. I, II, and III) The Reduction of Trulv The Offensive Mine Laying Campaign Against
of Ships Bombardment Sur Foreword, Introduction, Conclu.sio-
Japanese Military and Naval
Evaluation of Photographic Japanese Homeland, Part
Evaluation Japanese Evaluation Japanese
Homeland, Part Homeland, Fart
Evaluation of Photographic IiUelhgeiice m t Japanese Homeland, Part IV, Urban Ai
102 103 104
Report of Ships
82 83 84
closure A), Kamaishi Area Report of Ships Bombardment Sui >ey I arty closure B). Hamamatsu Area Report of Ships Bombardment ,_„i. ,ey 1 arty closure C), Hitachi Area
Report of Ships Bombardment S'.rvey 1 arty (Enclosure D), Hakodate Area ey Party (EnReport of Ships Bombardment
closure E). Muroran Area Report of Ships Bomlmrdment closure F). Shimiz.u Area
Evaluation Japanese Evaluation Japanese Evaluation Japanese Evaluation Japanese
of of of
Photographic Photographic Photographic
Homeland, Part IV, Shipping Homeland, Part VII,
Intelligence in Electronirs Intelligence in
Homeland, Part VIII, Beach
Survey Party (En-
Evaluation of Photographic Intelligence ni Japanese Homeland, Part IX, Artillery Evaluation of Photographic Intelhgence m .fapanese Homeland, Part X, Roads and R
Bombardment Survey Party (EnH), Shionomi-Saki and Nojima108
Evaluation of Photographic Intelligence in Japanese Homeland, Part XI, Industrial Anal
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE;
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