MIS Security Check-list

Introduction
Consider your entire organization
When considering security, the best way to avoid obvious breaches of security is to capture the big picture of your installation. Practically, this means that you should work from the outside in, ie. consider security of the building and area, then the actual offices, followed by the network infrastructure, and end with hosts themselves. It's a bit pointless to spend a lot of time securing hosts if anyone can walk into the server room and walk out with a host under each arm. Those things do happen. This is all the more important since most of computer crime is perpetrated by insiders, for obvious ease of action and lack of interest to hackers about the average corporate data. Because it is more exciting to most system administrators, computer books usually concentrate on securing hosts, but sound computer security doesn't deal with just individual computers. You must consider your entire organization.

Prepare for disaster
Generally speaking, check for any single point of failures in your environment, and provide backup solutions. Perform dry runs regularly to make sure everyone knows what to do in case of a breakdown. Post-incident plans must be updated whenever any change is made to your site, and as much as possible, everyone, especially MIS personnel, must be capable of performing the procedures. Plans should also include procedures to solve day-to-day MIS activities, like installing a new host, welcoming a new employee, etc. Also, whenever possible, use fail-safe tools, ie. should the device fail, they should refuse access instead of letting people in. A firewall is not the magic bullet to securing a site. Generally speaking, try to place as many barriers as possible between valued asset and a potential adversary, without this security being too invasive to employees. Remember that an effective security policy requires that every single employee abide by it, and not just the rank-and-files. The more prepared you are to handle break-ins and disasters, the better for the image of the company and the MIS team. In addition, your company may be held responsible legally if your network was used by hackers to launch attacks on other sites. You might want to hire an outside company to test your security at random times.

Usage policy
A usage policy is an important user-oriented document, not just to cover your ass in case someone in your organization steals information that is off-limit for them, but also because it forces you to think about how your organization works from an MIS point of view.

Security policy
A security policy is more MIS-oriented than the user policy, and its goal is to offer a big picture view of security of your organization.

Buildings
Keep in touch with local police authorities about robberies in your area, as thieves are likely to keep using a tactic if it proved successful in a location (eg. burglars pretending to be couriers and stealing unattended portable PCs.) Update this list accordingly, and warn users about those new risks. Also, check with authorities what the regulations are about setting up an alarm system at your site, and whether it can be set up to call up the police automatically when the alarm goes off.

Doors and windows

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All entrances must be equipped with secure locking devices that cannot be circumvented (key locks, dead bolts, cipher locks, etc.), and hinge pings that are spotwelded or otherwise protected Doors must be constructed of sturdy material (steel, solid core wood), must not exceed the number for safe and efficient operation, and must always be secured when not in active use All ventilators or other possible means of entrance must be covered with steel bars or wire mesh grill All windows must be securely fastened from the inside. Windows accessible from the ground or located on roofs must come with window/glass tamper or breakage protection features, and be protected by steel bars or grill Check that blinds and shades are available to hide valued items from the outside

Locks and keys
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Set up security patrols at random hours during the day, and end-of-workday security checks Check with local police authorities if day- and night-time patrols are scheduled in the neighborhood Access control cards must be clearly different for company personnel and visitors Provide escort for visitors If multiple corporate sites, inter-connect security systems to increase monitoring of sites located in different time zones, and to make travel easier by providing only one electronic badge to each employee Only MIS personnel should have access to the server room Grant users access with the least amount of privilege required to accomplish their job, using user profiles to manage accounts more securily Check the log files created by the application running the electronic locks Set up a procedure to monitor use of all locks and keys. Update when necessary Keep tracks of keys issued, with their number and identification, for both master keys and duplicate keys Keep records of use and turn-in of keys, and check locks quarterly Change locks immediately upon loss or theft of keys If used, master keys must be devoid of marking identifying them as such Only issue keys to authorized employees. Other must use an electronic badge. Keys not in use must be secured in a locked, fireproof safe that is secured to prevent removal

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When making duplicates of master keys, mark them "Do Not Duplicate" and obliterate manufacturer's serial numbers Any visitor, either a corporate employee from another site or an outside guest, must warn MIS of his/her visit as early as possible, so as to provide adequate security (ie. some guest might need to be allowed in areas that are off-limit to standard guests.) Employees from other sites and guests must provide the following information: Name, Location, Visit Start and End Dates, Arrival Time, Access Needs Greater than Week Day (7 AM - 7 PM), Buildings to be Visited (if known), Employee e-mail address, Name of manager, Point of Contact at local site MIS must be informed of loss of access control card ASAP so as to disable access and provide a new, safe badge Guests must return their visitor access control card upon leaving the premises MIS must conduct periodical security inspections, and report any problem so as to implement corrective action

Alarm System
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Set up either television recording, burglar alarm, or intrusion alarm systems linked to off-site security team. Test them regularly Make sure the television system can record a minimum of four days Check that the alarm systems are backed up automatically, and have an alternate or independent source of power available to cut in and operate automatically

Emergencies
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Provide adequate protective lighting for all areas Mark emergency routes clearly Write procedures for emergency evacuations (fire, bomb threats, etc.), and exercise plans regularly Train users in fire fighting Provide response to medical emergency (phone numbers to local medical facilities; first aid supplies) Provide electronic-friendly sprinklers in or over the data center/server rooms No possible leaks over computers, especially server room (water pipes, sprinklers, AC units) Alarm systems must be tamper- , and weather resistant Provide security personnel trained in physical security Set up procedure to respond to alarms, including night-time and week-ends The monitoring system must provide sufficient information to investigate any breakin, and remedy Check that fake floors and ceilings cannot be used for break-ins Check that fire extinguishers and other fire fighting equipment are in sufficient number, that they match the type of fire they would be used to put off, and that they're properly secured on walls (no extinguisher lying around)

Offices
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Install air conditioning to keep hosts (and users :-) cool, at least in the server room Have someone come in at least once a year to maintain AC units

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Set up thermometers linked to monitoring software to check the temperature in the server room, and have it page/call or send e-mail if temperature rises In a large site, use a naming convention for rooms (eg. country names, etc.) and a cabling management software to make sure everyone understands which room and which plugs you mean Use asset management software to assure strict accountability of all company assets In highly-sensitive locations, make sure guests are either restricted to safe areas, escorted at all times, and that their bags are checked when they depart (Welcome to Intel :-) Consider printing sensitive information on easily identifiable paper (eg. yellow, orange, or red paper, depending on its importance), and forbid employees to go offsite with top sensitive documents Guests must sign a log when they visit, and register their laptop computers and camera (manufacturer and serial #.) Make sure there's always personnel available to watch entrances, and that they can call security and send an immediate message to everyone in the building should someone try to walk into the office unauthorized (especially important during lunchhour and late at night) Make sure video cameras connected to VCRs are pointing at all exits to help police authorities investigate break-ins

Network
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Monitor your WAN links through MRTG, and your LAN through netstat -i (watch for the collision/outpackets, outerrs/outpackets, and inerrs/inpackets ratio) Use proxy servers to control use of bandwidth and to hide information about your private network Set up an alternate, anonymous connection to the Net to let users find information for yet-unannounced products, as the competition could use this information to tell what your company is working on Run monitoring software like Linux-based Netwatch to keep a eye on the use of network bandwitdth, especially on what servers on the Internet users are connecting. Install an intrusion detection server on all servers, both in the DMZ and in the internal network, and do not ignore traffic coming from your internal network. Consider putting a sensor both on your public routers and firewalls so as to be warned of any suspicious traffic (Unix) Do not run NIS if you can avoid it, or consider NIS+. Consider centralized authentication systems like Kerberos, or Samba Have agents run on all servers, so as to keep an eye on log files, disk space, etc. They could consist in Perl or Python scripts, as those have been ported to different environments and offer a rich amount of modules that avoid your reinventing the wheel If you discover that some hosts have been hacked, and you'd like to get in contact with people on remote sites (eg. a host from which the hacker seems to have connected, or MIS personnel at other corporate sites, etc.) to try to catch him redhanded, either use the phone, set up a brand new mail server, or use encrypted e-mails through PGP/GnuPG, as the hacker may have set up tools to snoop on your network, and be warned of your plans.

or have a courier pick them up at night. Test it regularly. SSH. S/MIME. or foreign sites on the Internet. a flood. either provide a fully-equiped temporary location. Add an IDB (ISDN Dial Backup) unit to your routers that goes up should your permanent connection go down. S-HTTP/HTTPS. APOP. as you'll need them after a fire or flood.) and safes that are not meant to protect magnetic media If resorting to a courier solution. Unplug any unused . PGP/GnuPG. should be scheduled at night to make the most of the corporate link to the Net. or. If not. unused network plug. WinPopup or ICQ) to reduce work disruption while allowing for broadcasts when needed (ie. or check how long it would take to be provided with new or temporary equipment by a commercial supplier or other corporate sites If your site is connected to remote sites through alternative links besides the Internet. This can be done at different network levels (magic words are SSL/SSLey. especially the one flowing on public LANs. a suspicious individual is in the building. proxy servers. security is only as strong as its weakest link. etc. L2TP/PPTP/PoPToP. as breaches of security there could easily end up jeopardizing your own site Remember that any unsecure host on your network can be used to launch an attack on other resources. In case your site is ruined by a fire. or the mail server just crashed). monitors. Abacus/Port Sentry) Backup/restore        Keep a current backup of all data files that your company cannot afford losing after a computer goes south Keep an ad hoc step-by-step restore procedure current. Either take them home every night. whether they are located on your LAN. Watch out for magnets (heated car seats. Make sure you can decrypt tapes on a bare-metal system after your site has been damaged Perform frequent restores of a few files to check that the backups actually work Remember to clean drive heads regularly.         Remind users that downloading binaries is either forbidden by corporate policy. As the Melissa and ILOVEYOU viruses have shown. and perform regular restores on bare-metal systems at a remote site to prepare to see your location ruined by a fire or flood Do not keep the latest backup tapes in the location. Some PBXs lets you use the loudspeaker of digital phones as a PA system. washing machines. Could be used to set up a host to sniff passwords. or physical break-in. no rogue. leave them in a magnetic media-friendly safe at a nearby bank. Set up some hosts loaded with anti-virus software and that can be easily removed from the network to test software downloaded from the Net. consider setting up a SAN instead LAN  Check if you really need walk-up network connections. VPN.) Run a live messaging application on all hosts (eg. unprotected by firewalls. make sure those sites also keep an eye on security. if possible. Used a dynamic firewall (eg. update it every time you change the configuration of a host. consider encrypting data. and stop using tapes that show too many access errors As backup jobs use a lot of bandwidth. on other corporate sites connected through WAN. Encourage users to p Encrypt all network traffic. STelnet. IPSec/CIPE. etc.

Especially remember to disable telnet access from the Net. take a look at Samba. aim at using SSO (Single Sign-On) architecture to reduce the number of login/passwords used. 192. Generally speaking. Consider buying a stand-alone. and are less likely to run other software besides the firewall part.to hub-mode).x.ca. 174. letting a host listen to all traffic by setting up the port it's connected to from switch. hardware tokens. Cisco PIX) ) As IPChains is not stateful. ie. A context-based firewall is much more secure. stateful firewall instead. if only one host is connected to a given port) Assign descriptive host names in the DNS to make logs more meaningful (eg. Besides Radius and Tacac. and circuit-level firewalls (eg. especially for UDP-based applications (Three basic types of firewalls: network-level (screening routers). so present less risk of breaking down. hence less security risk. application-level (proxy servers). consider limiting it to a restricted local LAN connected to the rest of the network through a firewall + bastion host to limit access only to limited services. LDAP. They have fewer moving parts (cooling fans are just about the only mechanical part).x) Set up routers and firewalls to log infos to the same central host running syslogd that other hosts are using Do not just rely on ACLs on routers. and PAM. digital certificates. or even biometric devices . time-limited tickets (Kerberos). NDS. Assign a MAC address to each port (ie. crashing when receiving severely mangled packets) Check out reverse path filtering to prevent IP spoofing Set up hubs to forbid hub-mode on ports (ie.dial-access. 172-16/31. smart cards. NIS. one-time passwords (PAP/CHAP. S/Key. Use SNMP-capable switches to monitor network use Use bandwidth control tools like Packeteer to prevent denial of service by programs gone haywire Prefer stand-alone firewalls like Cisco PIX over PCs. network connection on the patch panel. If you do need such access.). keep an up-to-date list of unused network plugs.Switches                Run Antisniff to try to see if a host is sniffing the network Run tools like Nessus to check what your firewall and routers can withstand (eg. smart card or finger-print based systems Routers . If possible.Firewalls . etc. filtering routers. Consider using a Radius or Tacac authentication server to centralize the task of authentication users. and only open those you really need and understand. Kerberos.168.los-angeles-63-64rs. Ban any packet coming from the Internet whose source address pertains to the private ranges (10. and set up DHCP server to not give out IP addresses to unauthorized hosts.x.att. and have a monitoring program warn you immediately when a connection goes up Check out authentication systems like challenge/response. your network can be endangered by UDP or ICMP packets. Start by closing all services.net) All incoming connections from on-the-road employees through the Internet must use SSH and related tools to ensure encryption Check ACLs on routers and firewalls.

Don't tell the user whether the username. Implement both proxies or packet filters. and make sure modems cannot be reprogrammed remotely. especially regarding outgoing calls (hackers using corporate phone system as relay) Set up security codes on all voice mailboxes. use Permanent Virtual Circuits or Closed User Groups whenever possible.. unbeknownst to MIS. and call-back if available Log Caller ID information if available Maintain an up-to-date register of all your modem lines and conduct regular site checks for unauthorized modems (eg. to force users to use proxying With switched technologies. test it regularly from the Internet: o HackerWacker o Shields-UP! http://grc.com/default. Do not allow dial-out from an unauthenticated dial-in call If possible. and Sygate's Personal Firewall. Modems should be reset to a standard configuration after each call Check that calls terminate cleanly. modems still connected to the POTS that everyone forgot about.. Hosts   Install a firewall on all hosts. Once the firewall is set up on your network. change default password/code Check daily logs if available.jtan. You'd be surprised at the number of spyware applications sending out information to the Net without telling you. etc. including client hosts: Free solutions for Windows are Tiny Software's Tiny Personal Firewall. transparent proxying and Fast NAT. the password.   Evaluate different methods to hide your private network: masquerading. Fight IP spoofing coming from your by not letting out any packet whose source address does not belong to your network PBX    If your PBX can be configured remotely through a modem.htm o WinNuke Test Page http://www. packet filtering. Zone Labs' ZoneAlarm. if available RAS          Add authentication for dial-out users. or both.) All RAS access must require login/password. modems inside PBX to allow for remote administration. and that the server forces logout from all active sessions Check that no useless RAS access is available (users setting up a modem on their computer. were incorrect.html . and force a disconnect after the thirdto slow down automated password attacks. run separate dial-in and dial-out modem spools Disable the use of the escape sequence +++ to switch to command mode. automated connection on all the phone lines available at your site to check for rogue modems installed by users without noticing MIS) Set a short delay after the first and second failed logins.com/resources/winnuke.

html o Hochschule Rapperswil.pl o The Apostols http://apostols. Germany http://www.itsec.com/SecurityTest/ o WebTrends http://www.whitehats. On Unix.Ingenieurbuero Holger Heimann.com/content/security/cybercop. Swizerland.hsr.com/smysecure/index.) o o o .de/cgibin/index.html o Secure Design http://www.-) http://server142.com http://www.netfarmers.com/pub/scan/ o Whitehats Free DDOS Testing Service http://dev.webtrends.mycgiserver.asp o Virtual Suicide http://suicide.dslreports.ita.com http://www. Set up hosts to limit use of resources (eg.com/products/prescan1.com/ E-SOFT/SecuritySpace.net/ Sygate http://scan.htm o Sandbox Security Test Suite http://www. and allow for backup in case of short interruptions Mount as many partitions in read-only as possible.mycio.com/securitytest/index.          Secure-Me/DSLreports http://www.html o QuickInspector for the Web by Shavlik Technologies http://security.com/~kalish/ o Security-Port-Scanvon by NetScreen Technologies http://www2.de. Germany http://www.net.netscreen. use the noatime attribute in /etc/fstab.de/SecurityCheck/default.com/scan/ddos/ddos.heise.net/ o Personal Security Scanner .sandboxsecurity.net/ o Quick-Test by sicher-surfen.shavlik. games.sybergen.com/ o Browser-Check bei heise online (Germany) http://www.com/ o Sybergen Online-Security-Check http://www.secure-me.asp o Anti-Trojan. only root should be able to run echo "1" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward) Require a password when booting in single-user mode Disable or restrict email relaying on your MTAs Run a cache DNS.net/camera/ o Security Space https://secure1.securityspace. patch the Linux kernel.com/smysecure/index.sicher-surfen.html o Online Trojan Port Scanner (Lockdown?) http://onlinescanner. use the LIBSAFE set of libraries to protect binaries) Limit what kernel options can be changed while the server is up (eg. so as to reduce the need for sending queries to a remote DNS. Germany http://www.com/secureme_go Protect against buffer overflows (StackGuard.ch/cgibin/datenschutz/DSZ_test_start.sygatetech.exchangeantivirus.net/tools/security/scan.sdesign.de/ct/browsercheck/ o DLS Reports http://www. especially on your MTA.html o myCIO.asp o Remote Security Tester by Ken Kalish http://www.anti-trojan.conf) Keep compilers and packagers on a removable device to make it difficult for someone to compile and/or install packages (Unix) Consider using xinetd to replace inetd + TCPWrapper (Unix) Remove all unneeded aliases in /etc/aliases (eg.org/tools.pl o Adiscon QuickCheck for Clients.smartbotpro.securityspace. im Auftrag des Datenschutzbeauftragten des Kantons Zuerich http://www.html o ibh . Germany http://www.de/vulchk. /etc/limits. etc.

if available on your system. or by changing the leading letter from S to s.d.deny feature.d/su) Create locked /root/. and hide which OS and version number is running.) and NOT through the pseudo-terminals over the network (eg. and have an e-mail sent to MIS so that you know who your reckless users are Disable command-line history log by adding HISTFILESIZE=0 in your local . Make sure this tool does not run applications with shell escape. and limit this function for console connections (Unix) Disable host reboot through CTRL-ALT-DEL by commenting out the "ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown.d/rcX.rhosts. ICQ) and e-mail Set up hosts to log users out or lock their screen after X minutes of no activity. Use the wheel group to specify who is allowed to su to root.. ttyp2.allow and hosts. and only allow specific access in hosts.d/* to keep users from checking out boot-time scripts Any failed attempt to connect should trigger an instant message (eg.deny. etc. for added security Do not run unneeded binaries that run as administrator (eg. etc. disable the use of EXPN and VRFY commands Considering disabling remote reboot/shutdown. although tools like nmap can determine the platform you are running in different ways Take advantage of TCP Wrapper's /etc/hosts.equiv files to avoid hackers from creating them (use touch followed by chmod 0) When creating a new user account.bash_profile configuration file.netrc /etc/hosts. the DMZ in front of a firewall).rhosts /root/.. chattr +i /etc/inetd. and su to root. and even then. SUID/SGID in Unix). create locked ~/. consider using tools that let you perform only limited tasks as administrator (eg. No rogue hosts: Decommission any host that is no longer being used Do NOT connect a new host to the network until it has been thoroughly secured. tty2. names should not give away information on their platform or OS version. ~/. and change the group ownership to su accordingly (eg. especially if that host is connected to the public part of your network (ie. It doesn't take long for hackers to locate such unsecure hosts. eg. especially system configuration files Implement the undelete or chattr feature. to make it easier for users to recover files deleted by mistake.allow . etc. as this switch is logged. ttyp1. Use /etc/securetty to make sure that root can only log on through the console (eg. Start by denying all access in hosts. /etc/pam.conf) Only use an administrator account when absolutely needed. Disable services started up at boot-time by either deleting the symlink in /etc/rc.d/init. or avoid messing with them in the first place Take advantage of the extended attributes offered by the ext2fs to forbid changed to configuration files (eg. Add legalese to /etc/issue to warn users.forward. sudo).). " line in /etc/inittab (Unix) Chmod 0700 /etc/rc. and have your monitoring tool check for such files every night Check for all world-writable/everyone files and directories. It's much safer that users who telnet into a host first log on as a regular user. tty1. Use safe names for hosts. thus granting a regular user admin rights .                       Remove all unneeded user and group accounts On your mailer.

check the nifty utilities from Winternals. /usr/bin/su instead of simply su) New files should be created with safe. etc. be prepared to drive to the office in the middle of the night if power goes off at this inconvenient time. and which version Once the host has all the packages you need. no root access. one to send mail. unbeknownst to you Restrict physical access (BIOS password. or check its configuration so that it does not return important information to remote sites Mail server: For added security. etc. no ".                 Check that your PATH is secure. consider 077 for system configuration files) Check that access to devices is secure (eg. booting with linux single in LILO. Otherwise. take advantage of package managers like RPM to make it easier to know what packages are installed. consider removing sensitive tools that could be taken advantage of by hackers (compilers. set up program so run in chroot() to enhance security OS-permitting. umask of 022. the other to receive mail Hard disk     Use file quotas in user home directories Check that the default file permissions are safe (eg. Boot loaders like LILO can also be set to prompt users for a password before booting an OS.) When running as root. under Linux. get the habit of always using absolute pathnames to executables (eg.) When setting a password in the BIOS and using auto-shutdown UPS units (with autoreboot set in the BIOS when power returns). no boot from floppy drive.) On Unix hosts. etc. consider using two hosts. and prohibit users from running applications from there Set limits to how much RAM and processes are available to average users When installing a new closed-source software program. For NT. run a tool that monitors sockets to check whether it's trying to upload information to the Internet. especially root's (ie. /dev/*) Keep /tmp in its own partition Authentication . default rights (eg. and 077 for root) If available.". umask of 027 under Unix. build a host with different partitions on different hard disks. no writable directories to avoid running bogus binaries upload by hackers. tamper-proof cable to secure host physically to server room. check whether the UPS application can send the password over a wire.) Files exported through either NFS or Samba should be read-only as often as possible. learn how to boot as administrator to reset the password (eg. secure cases to unable access to jumper to reset passord. either remove identd. to enhance performance and security (so a rogue program or hacker filling up a hard disk and crashing this host) To install and upgrade programs. thus preventing the host to reboot automatically after power resumes. Users might want to affix a tamper-proof picture of themselves on their laptop computer to reduce risk of theft In case you either lose the administrator password or it was changed by hackers.

and is a plain-text file. and change the default to their own. including law enforcement. do not use the same password for all newly-created accounts). use shadow passwords instead of relying on /etc/password. Individuals using this system without authority or in excess of their authority are subject to having all their activities on this system monitored and recorded or examined by any authorized person. make sure you do not delete the leading + sign in /etc/password. On *nix systems. enter a password to prove this)  Check if your system supports the use of ACLs such as SubDomain instead of the basic Unix owner-group-world system of authorization . NT: Do not set up unneeded trust relationships with other domains Remove all login information (eg. for one. If they don't. and unique password as default to make them safe (ie. Sample seen on rootprompt: This computer system is for authorized users only. Any material so recorded may be disclosed as appropriate. After a waiting period. without choosing one that they used in the past (Linux and NT. and use MD5 hashes instead of the crypt() function Consider password/account blocking after a predefined number of failed attempts to authenticate Do not create "Joe accounts". or do not get back to you. remove those of employees who have definitely left. and implement password aging to force them to change their password regularly Change all default passwords on applications you install. disable their account. test accounts whose password is easy to crack. Remind employees to never write down their password. All users should use a personal account. check for all unused accounts. put users in a group instead All accounts should have a password If using NIS. Utmp is not fool-proof: it will not be updated if a user's shell crashes (hence the user will appear to be still logged on). do not use group accounts. Take advantage of password aging to force users to change their password regularly. Make sure this banner does not give out any information on the host platform and version #. Display login banner with some legalese to warn hackers that those are not public resources. secure. ie. the activities of authorized users may also be monitored and recorded. use a difficult. In the course of monitoring individuals improperly using the system or in the course of system maintenance. to make logging easier. When creating new user accounts. safe password (see appendix for how to choose a safe password) Disable all unused accounts. leaving your Unix system wide-open              Authorization Authorization deals with controlling access to resources. Anyone using this system consents to these terms. while authentication means checking that the user is indeed who he means he is (ie. as system personnel deem appropriate. offer this feature) Each month. Remove guest accounts. a connection to the SMTP port of a mail server should not tell you which MTA is running and its version) Run password cracking software regularly to check that users do not choose unsafe passwords. ie. and contact their owner to check if they still need it. if applicable.

rsh. pay special attention to any attempt to achieve a different security level by any user or process. In log files. Make sure passwords are not logged Check history log Monitor connections and log files Consider logging to different files. etc.  Check for unowned files regularly Use sudo or equivalent to allow restricted use of root access. the other to the regular log file. Do the same for FTP and e-mail Run host monitoring tools like WhatsUp to check services running on remote hosts.accounting discrepancies. unexplained. especially if one of your hosts turns out to have been used by hackers as relay to launch attacks on other sites Check with lawyers how much data must be logged by auditing software. preferably one that doesn't use a data buffer. or rotation followed by periodic moving of old log files to permanent storage like CD-Rs in case you need to investigate a break-in in the future. attempts to write to system.) and fingerd. Another server in the private part. data modification or deletion. Disable any unneeded services running hosts (Unix: /etc/inettab. Access should be limited to what a user could need to be doing on a host but not more Logging         Things to watch for: system crashes and reboots. poor system performance. Even safer is sending logs to a printer directly attached to each host to avoid sniffing. or that give out information on your hosts and network . hence the need for a lot of monitoring tools Choose the "that which is not explicitly permitted is denied" philosophy. anomalies. ie. corporate resources (Search engines on the web can list all files on a weakly protected public web server). etc. suspicious probes. tools that either do not require authentication to access resources. should know before users if something is wrong on the network. and what the legal restrictions are about logging user personal information Services        Keep two web servers: One in the public part of the LAN to contain files meant for the outside world. as they are more secure distributions Unless absolutely necessary. new files with novel or strange file names. suspicious browsing. and work from there. do not run the r-services (rlogin. denial of service. new user accounts or high activity on a previously low usage account.conf. changes in file lengths or dates (use Tripwire). Generally speaking. especially from anonymous/guest accounts. and furnished with enough paper. do not simply disable them by removing entries in start-up scripts and inet. NT : Control Panel | Services). and check that passwords are not actually logged for anyone to read To avoid log files from using too much disk space. to host private. on a central host: one for critical information to be sent to you by e-mail and/or printed. Remember to use a shredder before throwing out useless logs. /etc/inetd.conf Check for process table attack and related types of denial of service attacks Take a look at Bastille Linux or Debian. Uninstall any service/software that you do not need. inability of a user to log in due to modifications of his/her account. Maintain a skeptical attitude to determine if a service is truly needed or just a user's whim. consider either compression.

) Have spare hosts and spare parts ready (hard disks. each service should be running on a different machine whose only duty is to provide a specific service. Telnet session. Security is only as strong as the weakest link in the chain. eg. Ideally. IP-directed broadcast (pinq x. web server). to check for open ports and other possible insecurities Famous attacks: TCP/IP sequence-number prediction.) All access to resources should be authorized Scan for . Check that the BIOS of each host handles automatic reboot when power resumes. and delete them. RAM. early desynchronization. power supplies. DDoS. TCP session hijacking. SYN flooding (solutions are Random Early Drop.equiv. and to back up their files at night . and document this as part of the security policy If possible. install important services on secure hosts. Do the same thing for . etc. SACK (Selective Acknowledgement). services should be placed on hosts according to their security level (ie. and set the sticky bit of user home directories to 1 to forbid users from deleting this file. to minimize down time Run scanners like Satan.) with a step-by-step procedure on replacing them Use BIOS system monitoring feature (temperature in case. Beowulf Linux. considering using Samba instead of NFS for ease of deployment and increased security Consider installing a bastion host to be the point of access of all connections to the Internet (the router should only allow outgoing connections originating from that host) Take a look at outgoing filters to control which sites users can access on the Internet. and SYN Cookies). either stand-alone hosts. etc. create an empty . TCP ACK storms. hard disk status. If this translates into too many servers. active desynchronization. A free solution for Windows hosts is AVG.                 Do not rely on a trusted-hosts architecture (/etc/hosts. As a better solution. but leave their host running to minimize wear due to frequent power-offs. monitors.rhosts file owned by root and read-only to forbid users from creating one of their own. Monitor use of hard disk space to watch for warez Try to protect from human error. stealth scanning (through the FIN packet).255 with source address is a local address) Run anti-virus software on all hosts.) Provide guest FTP access instead of anonymous access. Provide backup hosts for major applications (e-mail. and trivial services on trivial hosts. etc. with automatic updates for a local.) Have users turn their monitor off to save power when leaving the office. Nessus. Use a spare hard disk as home to FTP users to prevent hackers from crashing the host by uploading huge files. fans. high-availability systems (RAID 5 with hot-pluggable hard disks. equiped with auto-shutdown and reboot.rhosts files in user home directories regularly. the main UPS sends an SNMP trap that can trigger all other hosts to shutdown. Cops. a misconfigured host offering temporary degraded service Use UPS on all hosts that require them. sniffing. and making sure that all hosts are regularly updated. motherboards. TCP spoofing. This helps to isolate intruders and limit potential harm. central host to avoid every user downloading the same update from the Net. passive attacks.forward files in case a hacker tried to reroute e-mail Use secure terminals (/etc/securetty) to force admins to first log in with their personal account and su to root To share directories and files from an Unix host. Trinux.

clone its hard disk. Check for suspicious changes made to zone files. The best way is to stop the host to be updated. take it off the network and boot off a fresh kernel (usually a read-only boot floppy is good for this) and then run Tripwire to check your files. internal numbers. tapes. help desk application.) DHCP: If applicable. or destroy them. Check that DST works and has no impact on applications (source control. do not reveal the name of MIS personnel. Provide classes for all new employees on software used internally . Remember to run eg. Monitor use of DHCP leases. or through applications that do this automatically (Lotus Notes. When you want to check your machine. Norton utilities to make sure a hard disk really is blank and its contents unreadable. Have it look up addresses from DNS and assign static addresses to known hosts. as this can be used by hackers to learn about your network Information given in your NIC record for the domains you own: Make them as generic and minimal as possible (eg. do not allow anonymous hosts from getting an IP address. either manually through PGP/GnuPG. Either keep those for possible use later. unsecure hosts themselves Users/MIS Personnel    Instruct marketing and sales people to check with MIS before publishing any information on company resources.     Use secure time server to keep all hosts in sync (especially important for timedependent applications like build machines.) The more users can do themselves.) This is especially important for theft-prone portables If confidentiality is not an issue but integrity is. source control applications. use MD5 or PGP to check that no hacker has tampered with it. CDs can still contain confidential data. teach users how to sign files through PGP/GnuPG Add corporate banner to all e-mails Do not just throw away outdated or broken equipments. Use toll-free phone numbers instead of actual. New or temporary hosts could use anonymous addresses from a DHCP pool DNS: Do not run dynamic DNS until a secure version is available. Provide easy-to-use procedure to set up new hosts from secure images to avoid having users install new. Test upgrade on a test host to check that no application is broken in the process. the more time you have to take care of tasks that only you can do as administrator. Run Tripwire or equivalent to monitor changes to system files. floppies. and perform upgrade tests on the copy. Hard disks. The goal should be to reduce synchronous calls to emergencies that require an immediate response from MIS. or groupware servers). and run dnswalk to check for errors Keep that all software up to date. groupware. through a filesystem that supports automatic file encryption. through initial training and online knowledge databases (groupware. etc. Never install binaries for which you don't have the source code and didn't check that they come from a reliable source Data       Consider encrypting data files. so as to have the exact same setup Before applying an update. Educate users as much as possible. along with phone and fax numbers).

and Out-Processing . or in trash cans. pay attention not to give out confidential information on either the company or its computer infrastucture.) Do not leave sensitive documentation on desks. etc. Have them use passphrases instead.) Remind users not to write down their password. Use shredders for sensitive data Provide a computer use policy so that users know what they can and cannot do with their computer (eg.) Consider setting up a bogus domain name to hide connections from your site (eg. This is especially important when posting to newsgroups or inquiring about competitors Watch out for hackers resorting to social engineering to find information (pretending to be with MIS and calling someone in the company to have them change their password. such and such employee answers calls only at certain hours or certains days.                   All interventions should be logged in the help desk application. masquerading. Check password aging. etc. etc.) Check that acronym-based passphrases are used instead of passwords (eg. as they're easy to remember and much more secure than regular passwords. printers.) When traveling in groups. etc. and that you have all the required equipment (PC Card and cable. adding support for virtual domains in sendmail. etc. tips. contacts. w45hatgtg "where 45 have all the good times gone" instead of an actual word. transformers. Walls have ears Check appendices in this document on steps for hiring and firing personnel Appendix A . Keep on. posting corporate information in newsgroups. Remind MIS personnel to take advantage of groupware application to document procedures. organize a balanced work schedule (eg. checking trivial web sites or newsgroups. etc. online dictionaries abound on the Internet. employees should not all fly on the same plane When off-site. so you know how to reach them at any time Check purchase requests from employees for any unsafe choices Tell users not to share accounts. phone adapters. use a private ISP account for this to hide the origin of the article (eg. and feedback to management on MIS activity and the type of problems that occur most often As answering synchronous calls is stressful and boring. which makes it all the easier for hackers to crack passwords. check how safe the political and economic situation is. Dejanews. Make sure all MIS personnel is able to take over someone else's job at short notice. Require users to change their password regularly. fax machines. or on-site if visitors are around. installing softwares downloaded from the Net or found in magazines. along with heads of departments. and keeps MIS personnel from working on longer-term projects. or downloading offensive JPGs.and off-line list of MIS employees. access control card to the premises if applicable. so as to provide history to users and MIS.Employee In. and ask for a personal account if they need one Check with management if users should be allowed to post to newsgroups from their corporate account If MIS personnel need to ask technical questions to newsgroups that could be used by hackers to break into their site. and works on system-oriented tasks the rest of the time) Reduce inter-dependencies and specialization to a minimum.). Check that they do not re-use an older password Before leaving for any trip.

explaining that the employee has left and can be reached at such and such phone # or e-mail address 6. Tell user to change passwords immediately. Check with manager or co-workers whether some files should be backed up from employee's workstations. except corporate and known mailing lists (eg. Take picture. and remember to delete them after a given period of time in case the employee is not to return 2.). FDDI.Employee In-Processing 1. a bridge. Remove employee picture from mug-sheet. Do NOT forward e-mails to a new address. Remove user from all mailing lists and backup jobs 3.Add account to list. What are private IP addresses . NIS. SMB/CIFS RAS . provide access control card Employee Out-Processing 1. update mug-sheet and organization chart. NT computer. and Caller ID 8. E-mail: Set up automated answer for incoming mails. etc. Make sure security knows that this employee is no longer with the company. What is sub-netting Your ISP grants your site class C IP network address 207. Remove hosts from backup selection list 9. How would you use it to set up 2 networks of your own ? Differences between TCP/IP and Netbeui Explain what the following terms mean: ATM.130. backup. personal or ex-customers). phone directory.) 6. ISDN. cable modem. Different standards of routing protocols TCP/IP : What form does an IP address take . Frame-relay. in case the employee can be expected to return in a short while. VPN. and burn CDs or save to tapes before reconditioning hosts 4. Disabling is better than deleting. xDSL. Unix e-mail.0/24. FTP. Update caller ID and SPID in PBX 5. as employee could continue receiving individual corporate e-mails after leaving the company 7. How is an address bound to a NIC . should not be allowed in in the premises without an escort Appendix B . and choose solid passwords per instructions in user guide 2. Add IP address in DHCP and DNS 3. Lotus Notes.46. NFS. and communicate login/password. change them 5. Disable all accounts (including RAS) immediately before employee is leaving or is told of his dismissal (disgruntled employees and the like are the most common problem of internal threats). X25. Create various accounts (NT user.MIS Personnel Hiring Test WAN       Difference between a repeater. Add phone # to online phone list 4. unless OKed by management. If admin passwords were known by employee. Hand out documentation on resources available onsite (Phone-HOWTO. a router. What are class and classless IP addresses . etc. and.

and what is it for ? What frequency should you choose so that the picture displayed by a monitor doesn't flicker ? . V42bis. black-listing. V42.or sequentialaccess. Kermit. and RAID 5 ? Hardware         Name different manufacturers of microprocessors Different models of the Intel family Different types of RAM How many devices can be connected onto an IDE bus ? SCSI : Speeds. either random. and type of connectors . X2/K56Flex/V90. How many devices can be connected onto a single SCSI bus . ZModem. BBS. RAID1. each with its rough storage capacity What's the difference between an incremental and differential backup job ? What's the difference between RAID 0. Example of some basic modem AT commands ? LAN          Difference between a hub and a switch ? Maximum number of 10BT hubs that can be linked together using regular plugs ? Name different LAN architectures available Name of the different layers that constitute the OSI/ISO and TCP/IP models Difference between TCP and UDP ? Some well-known port numbers ? What settings does a TCP/IP host need to connect to a LAN ? Name major NOS Different ways to protect a LAN from outside hacking ? Wiring    How many wires are required for 10BT wiring ? For 100BTX ? For 100BT4 ? What do UTP and STP stand for ? When is it necessary to use either one ? What are straight-through and cross-over cables ? PBX    How many wires are required to plug an analog phone into a PBX ? An ISDN phone ? What's SPID (French : SDA) ? Approximate voltage level of a RING signal ? Backup    Name different mass-storage devices currently in use. call-back. V34. BBS. Things to watch for before connecting a new device onto a SCSI bus How many primary partitions does a hard-disk support ? How many cylinders should a hard-disk contain to avoir problems when booting an OS from one of the partitions ? What does MBR stand for.  Explain what the following terms mean: RS-232. SLIP/PPP.

netstat. netwatch. and only access a Linux server for e-mail ? What is a shadow password ? What do SUID/SGID mean. VBX. and when should you use them ? What is Samba ? Can it be used as a DC ? On a DNS server. DNS. DCOM. tripwire. What is the CPU/bus ratio ? Software             Name some major OS's What do the following terms mean : SNMP.d over RC scripts ? How do you set things up. BootP. INND. IMAP. sniffing. ActiveX. OLE. Kerberos ? What are run-levels ? When should you use inet. how do you set an alias for a host ? How does a DHCP server work ? What are Telnet. LDAP ? What is the difference between POP and IMAP ? What is Lotus Notes ? What is currently its strong point as compared to Microsoft Exchange ? What is ASCII ? Unicode ? What is a DLL ? What does client/server mean ? Alternative ? What do the following terms mean : DDE. ping. tcpdump. so that a user is presented with a GUI to log in on a Linux server ? What is an i-node ? Name different file systems supported by Linux. OCX? Name different file systems available on Microsoft platforms What is the difference between FAT and FAT32 ? Name major DBMS vendors Unix/Linux                   Name the two original Unix branches Name the major current flavors of Unix Name the current. Corba ? What do the following terms mean : Java. main Linux distributions What is POSIX ? What is the point of building a new kernel ? What are modules. DHCP. COM. NIS/NIS+. POP. nslookup. FTP. X. What are hard links.500. and symbolic links ? How does an X server work ? NT    What are the different release numbers of NT ? What is the difference between a workgroup and an NT domain ? What is a DC ? What is Active Directory? What are the benefits to move to AD? . and when should you use them ? How do you add a new user account into a Linux server ? How to you set a new password for it ? What should you change to unable users to login.

jdoe@yaPLEASEREMOVETHISTOMAILMEhoo.        What do the following terms mean : NetBios. Disguise your e-mail address. and ask applicant about their use Appendix C .) Do not answer any SPAM e-mails. video adapters. Do not use your actual e-mail address when posting to newsgroups or mailing lists. can be tapped. master browser ? What is an SID ? What happens if you clone the partition of an NT host currently connected to the network. as this can be used by spammers to confirm that an e-mail address is valid. etc.User Policy        Read the corporate computer use policy If you receive an e-mail or an instant message asking you to update the password of any of your accounts (NT. e-mail.com Do not install a modem to your host. C/C++. and commute time If possible perform assessment test: Fill a box with different hardware (NIC. or check with MIS if the remote site requires setting up an ad hoc connection Remember that telephone lines. DOS batch files. HOSTS . including wireless. PearlPerl. information on corporate infrastructure. Contact MIS if your mailbox is filled with it. eg. name resolution. do not answer and ask IT to investigate Contact MIS in case of any malicious and threatening telephone calls. If you need to connect to a remote site. your home page).). Office macros) English    Aural comprehension: TOEFL tape riting proficiency: TOEFL MCQs Reading comprehension: TOEFL MCQs Miscellaneous Check applicant's location. Use one-time passwords or tunneling to encrypt all data flow between corporate servers and your modem-equipped host .). WINS. DNS. and do not post your address in any web page accessible from the Internet (eg. Spammers can easily build themselves mailing lists by scanning such material. Python. broadcasts. transportation means. either use the legitimate corporate connection. and restore this image onto a new PC ? How can you upgrade a stand-alone NT host into a DC ? Is FAT32 supported by NT 4 ? What's an ERD ? What is a trust relationship ? What is an NT service ? Where are user or application parameters saved in Windows 9x and NT ? Development (Proficiency in VB. Be suspicious of any phone call asking for confidential information (your password. etc. etc. Visual Test. LMHOSTS.

etc. identification of the incident. access control card to the remote presmises if applicable. disruption of service.). or on-site if visitors are around.              When off-site. always secure it with a lock and cable when working in an office. employees should not all fly on the same plane Generally speaking. use the site PA system if available If available. set up a password in the BIOS. and call MIS/security ASAP. contact MIS whenever you detect a situation that you consider is or could be a security or safety incident Appendix D . never leave a portable computer unattended (eg. w45hatgtg "where 45 have all the good times gone" instead of an actual word. and is responsible for prohibiting use of to newsgroups and web sites that are not work-related. leaving it at your feet in an airport. identify what you are trying to protect (files. determine how likely the threats are. notification.) When traveling in groups. As explained in RFC 2196. post-mortem to improve security in the future. implement measures which will protect your assets in a cost-effective manner. web sites) While on the road. and history of past incidents. check how safe the political and economic situation is. using your hosts as stepping stone to launch attacks to other sites. make the most of the corporate groupware or help desk application before calling up MIS.). etc. pay attention not to give out confidential information on either the company or its computer infrastucture. determine what you are trying to protect it from (files being accessed or deleted or replaced. unauthorized programs being run. etc. data can still be read on a reformated hard drive. etc. Do not throw away computer equipment. handling.). corporate reputation. encrypt all sensitive files (e-mails. as they may still contain sensitive data (for instance. or fax or copy machines. with the right tools. . and that you have all the required equipment (PC Card and cable. If no one is available.Security Policy The security policy to handle incidents should have the following sections: Goals and objectives. Challenge any stranger not wearing an access control card. etc. or waiting for you through the metal detector. online dictionaries abound on the Internet. This channel also reduces synchronous interruptions to a minimum. Those contain answers to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs). transformers. use acronym-based passphrases (eg.) Do NOT write down passwords. Your e-mail and any file on your computer can also be monitored.) Passwords: Instead of regular words. and bring it to MIS instead. Walls have ears Do not leave confidential information lying on your desk. etc. Use a paper shredder before throwing out confidential data Do not run any software received through the mail or the Internet (e-mail attachments. in each area. phone adapters. Before leaving for any trip. and review the process continuously and make improvements each time a weakness is found. make sure the portable comes up with a visible tamper-proof corporate sticker to discourage theft MIS monitors network use. which makes it all the easier for hackers to crack passwords. at your hotel. put your portable in a safe).) Watch out for hackers resorting to social engineering to find information (pretending to be with MIS and calling someone in the company to have them change their password.

can be achieved without dedicating significant resources. and data integrity. as the Bugtraq mailing list shows.com/cgi-bin/printer. so remember to check security-related mailing lists and web sites on a daily basis.com/ http://www. Pay peanuts. list who will provide and administer it.dantz. and who will be allowed to access them. there is no way that anybody will be able to provide you with any acceptable level of security. and does not deal with particular versions of softwares you might be running. authorization. and hire MIS employees with such coding skills. Therefore. if using an RSAtype of encryption. and you'll get monkeys. and hence. availability. that it will remain so tomorrow. Hence the need to keep abreast through mailing lists and web sites.htm Tape Drive Roundup . Appendix E . if only because new software and upgrades often means new security flaws.pl?issue=200101&article=tape_drive . Perl.Choosing a backup software   Use encryption. Do not assume that because your whole site is secure today. confidential information passed on to the competition. or the wages of your staff. especially as technical and involved as handling day-to-day management of a computer infrastructure. keep in mind that. Performing such daily routine tasks is not only time-consuming.Which Tape Drive Is Best for Your Linux System? http://www.The basic goals of security are authentication. but also very boring. hardware. as e-mail-based virus are all it takes to bring down an entire organisation. but if you don't take measures to provide these necessary resources. the cost of protecting assets should be less than the cost of their loss. take into account the knowledge required to use computers securely. and denial of service.com/15tape. whether it's the amount of work to re-create them (lost files). Threats include unauthorized access to resources and/or information.) Also. Python. and shell scripts are your friends. new breaches of security are found every single day. or the impact of the image or future of the company (break-ins. automate as many tasks as you can. make sure you keep safe copies of your private key on a separate media) Temp stuff http://www. Applications (and their corresponding bugs and breaches of security) are updated constantly.pctechguide. For each service that will be provided. Finally. especially if using a courier company to store tapes off-site Make sure you can restore encrypted tapes on a bare-metal host (eg. To make matters worse. Needless to say. very likely to be neglected. Security is a state of mind. confidentiality. That money can be spent on software. nontechnical employees are those most likely to not upgrade to the latest anti-virus and launch any application or click on any e-mail attachement. this document gives a list of general hints.linux-mag. No security. In order to keep it as universal as possible and avoid having to update it too often.

com/shared/printArticle?article=nc/1114/1114ws3 full. The main difference between the two is that a helical-scan drive pulls the tape out of the cartridge and.Unix Security Checklist (from Practical Unix & Internet Security) Preface  Reread your manuals and vendor documentation. The other difference is the way data is written to the tape.networkcomputing. Linear scan writes data from front to back in a serpentine method. That is. standard recording format (can be accessed using non-proprietary software) The Emerging Tape Backup Market http://www. $150-600) DI30 (IDE) is Certified for Linux! ADR50 is Certified for Linux! ZIP QIC 120M floppy drive CD-R/CD-RW Server DAT 4mm (DDS) DAT 8mm (AIT) Jaz VXA DLT Exabyte Mammoth-2 Tandberg LTO Optical Magneto optical DVD Drive price. The former touts higher density and performance. TR5 (10-20GB. . int SCSI. Linear scan uses stationary heads and a less complex tapethreading method. wraps the tape around a rotating drum that contains the heads. Concerns about the tape stretching or snapping due to drum rotation speeds upward of 7.2GB tapes Travan TR4 (4-8GB $200-500).Workstation CastleWood ORB Int IDE $150 Int SCSI $160 Ext SCSI $180 USB $200 2. The stationary heads of the linear tape technology are what theoretically give linear-tape drives superior reliability. ext SCSI. it drops down a row and switches direction. using a series of tensioners. Aided by DLT. Appendix F . linear-scan drives have been winning the race with proven market success. Helical scan writes data diagonally across the entire tape-simultaneously using multiple heads. while the latter promises increased reliability. when the head reaches the end of the tape. Linux. USB). $250-600) Mgf = Seagate TapeStor OnStream (15-30GB. tape price. models (IDE.000 rpm and high tension conditions have been quelled by the success and reliability of solutions such as the Sony AIT-2 drive.html&pub=nwc Tape technology is broken into two major categories: helical tape and linear tape. 25-50GB.

Circulate it to all users. by trying to log in on another terminal. Develop a positive security policy. Don't have different.' " Chapter 2: Policies and Guidelines           Assess your environment. Perform a risk assessment and cost-benefit analysis. test it with the su command. Don't use your password as the password to another application such as a Multi-User Dungeon (MUD) game. If you must write down your password. Don't use your password on other computer systems under different administrative control. Do not write your account name or the name of the computer on the same piece of paper. Consider automatic generation or screening of passwords. After you change your password. Ensure that all users know about good password management practices. Mark your calendar for 6-12 months in the future to reread your manuals. Be sure that every user's account has a password. Get management involved. tokens. Do not attach your password to your terminal. don't make it obvious that what you have written is. and resources available. Write a letter to your vendors indicating your interest and concem about (insufficient) sottware quality and security features. less secure rules for top-evel management. Chapter 3: Users and Passwords              Be sure that every person who uses your computer has his or her own account. Chapter 1: Introduction     Order other appropriate references on security and computer crime. Post a reminder above your computer or desk: "Security is not 'Me versus the Users' but 'All of Us versus Them. Set priorities for security and use. budget. a password. or by using the telnet localbost command. . in fact. nonobvious passwords. Ensure that everything to be protected has an "owner. Pick strong. keyboard. Never record passwords online or send them to another user via electronic mail." Work to educate your users on good security practice. Become familiar with your users' expectations and experience with UNIX. Ensure that authority is matched with responsibility. or any part of your computer. don't forget it! After you change your password. What do you need to protect? What are you protecting against? Understand priorities. Pick passwords that are not so difficult to remember that you have to write them down. or smart cards. Consider use of one-time passwords. again. Schedule time to read them when they arrive.

Remember.Chapter 4: Users. Chapter 6 Cryptography        Learn about the restrictions your government places on the use. other than UUCP users. Think about how you can assign group IDs to promote appropriate sharing and protection without sharing accounts. 027 or 077). Scan the files /var/adm/message. Consider contacting your legislators with your opinions on these laws. Never use a login password as an encryption key. consider superencrypting with Triple-DES. Choose encryption keys as you would a password. This protection includes use of removable media and encryption. Never write SUID/SGID shell scripts. Groups. Avoid use of the root account for routine activities that can be done under a plain user ID. especially if it is more than 1024 bytes in length.g. and sale of cryptography. or other appropriate log files on a regular basis for bad su attempts. Periodically scan your system for SUID/SGID files.avoid obvious or easily guessed words or patterns. Never give any users. do not depend on ACLs to protect files on NFS partitions. or restrict the ability to su to user root su to the user's ID when investigating problem reports rather than exploring as user root. export. Think of how to protect especially sensitive files in the event that the root account is compromised. Use the compress command (or similar compression system) on files before encrypting them. /var/adm/sulog. the same UID. Restrict access to the su command. . and chgrp operations on files clear the SUID/SGID bits on your system. chown. Determine if write. chmod. If your system has "universes" or Context Dependent Files (CDFs). Scan for device files on your system.. Obtain and install a message digest program (such as MD5). Set your umask to an appropriate value (e. Check their ownership and permissions to ensure that they are reasonable.. Chapter 5: The UNIX Filesystem          Learn about the useful options to your version of the Is command. Disable SUID on disk partition mounts (local and remote) unless necessary. however . If you use the Data Encryption Standard (DES) algorithm for encryption. learn how to use them. Learn how to use message digests. If your system has ACLs. be sure that all your administrative actions actually scan all the files and directories on your system. especially if they negatively impact your ability to protect your systems. Don't depend on the crypt command to protect anything particularly sensitive. and the Superuser         Ensure that no two regular users are assigned or share the same account. Never use rot13 as an encryption method to protect data. Get in the habit of checking files based on this information.

Think about creating restricted filesystem accounts for special-purpose commands or users. Avoid proprietary encryption methods whose strengths are not known. Make periodic paper copies of important files. /etc/rc. consider remounting the filesystems as read-only during backups to prevent changes to file access times. If you need to set up an account that can run only a few commands. If your budget and needs are appropriate. and to create and check digital signatures on important files. Instead of logging into the root account. Do not store your backups in the same room as your computer system: consider offsite backup storage. because the tapes will eventually fail. /etc/passwd. Be certain that everything on your system is on your backups. If possible. Consider obtaining a copy of the PGP software and making it available to your users.. log in to your own account and use su. Do not reuse a backup tape too many times. Chapter 7: Backups                 Make regular backups.    Protect your encryption key as you would your password . Try to completely rebuild your system from a set of backup tapes to be certain that your backup procedures are complete. Chapter 8: Defending Your Accounts         Make sure that every account has a password. Make sure to change the password of every "default" account that came with your UNIX. Keep your backups under lock and key. or store it online. Use the group ID mechanism instead. use the rsh restricted shell. Do not set up a single account that is shared by a group of people. Encrypt your backups.g. Protect your encryption programs against tampering. system. Ensure that access to your backup tapes during transport and storage is limited to authorized and trusted individuals. put it in a shell file. Try to restore a few files from your backup tapes on a regular basis. Make at least every other backup onto a different tape to guard against media failure. Do not set up accounts that run single commands. Use PGP to encrypt files and sensitive email. Make periodic archive backups of your entire system and keep them forever. Make paper copies of critical files for comparison or rebuilding your system (e. and /etc/fstab). Remember to update your backup regimen whenever you update your system or change its configuration. . but escrow the keys in case you lose them. disable accounts like uucp and daemon so that people cannot use them to log into your system.don't write it down. When using software that accesses files directly rather than through the raw devices. Do not create "default" or "guest" accounts for visitors. investigate doing backups across a network link to a "hot spare" site.

to help prevent users from picking bad passwords. set a lifetime between one and six months. modems. use them. You may wish to include cryptographic checksums in the lists. If possible. you may wish to slighdy alter the algorithm used by crypt 0 to encrypt your password. Establish a system by which accounts are always created with a fixed expiration date and must be renewed to be kept active. and on all ancestor directories. Chapter 9. Double check the protection attributes on system command and data files. mount disks read-only if they contain system software. Tell your users to use longer passwords. If your computer supports password aging. if your vendor software allows it.. Disable dormant accounts on your computer. For example. Integrity Management        If your system supports immutable files. enable it. so that they cannot be modified by NFS clients. If your software does not support a shadow password file. or public terminals as "secure" in the /etc/default/loging or /etc/ttys files. Consider cracking your own passwords periodically. Write a daily check script to check for unauthorized changes to files and system directories. Consider using the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) or Kerberos for any local network of single-user workstations. Enable password constraints. Disable the accounts of people on extended vacations. If you have shadow password capability. especially on accounts that may be used across a network link. enable it. enable it. Make a checkdist listing the size. set your systems to require the root password when rebooting in singleuser mode. If you export filesystems containing system programs. on their directories. Consider using some form of one-time password or token-based authentication. if present in your software. but don't place much faith in results that show no passwords cracked.                   Monitor the format and contents of the /etc/passwd file. consider asking your vendor when they will be supported in your version of UNIX. If your system supports the TCB/trusted path mechanism. If your system allows the use of a longer password than the standard crypt() uses. If you have source code for your operating system. consider the benefits of accountname aliasing. as these people can use the su command to become the superuser (if applicable). and permissions of every program on your system. Be careful who you put in the wheel group. Do not declare network connections. If your system does not have a shadow password file. make sure that the file /etc/passwd cannot be read anonymously over the network via UUCP or TFTP. . If you are using a central mail server or firewall. modiflcation time. you may wish to export these filesystems read-only. consider adding password screening or coaching software to assist your users in picking good passwords. Put time/tty restrictions on login to accounts as appropriate. contact the vendor and request that such support be added. Keep copies of this checklist on removable media and use them to determine if any of your system files or programs have been modified. If possible. Otherwise. If you don't have them. you can increase the number of encryption rounds from 25 to 200.

Consider adding an automatic log monitor such as Swatch. Consider installing something to check message digests of files (e. aculog. Be certain that the program and all its data files are stored on read-only media or protected with encryption (or both). Be careful to protect your backup copies and comparison programs from potential attackers. If you process your logs in an automated fashion. craft your filters so that they exclude the things you don't want rather than pass only what you do want. Don't include nonstandard directories in your execution path. Run last periodically to see who has been using the system. Review your specialized log files on a regular basis. also have these messages logged to a special hardcopy printer and to another computer on your network. When installing new software. configure it so that all auth messages are logged to a special file.     Consider making all files on NFS-exported disks owned by user root. . This review should include (if they exist on your system) loginlog. install it. If you have syslog. If you have backups of critical directories. Run integrity checks on your system on a regular basis (see Chapter 9). Scan your system for any user home directories or dot files that are world writ-able or group writable. Determine if there is an intrusion-detection and/or audit-reduction tool available to use with your C2 logs. Keep a paper log on a per-site and per-machine basis. Never install binaries obtained from untrustworthy sources (like the Usenet). If you can. Chapter 11: Protecting Against Programmed Threats        Be extremely careful about installing new software. Make sure that your log files are on your daily backups before they get reset. Consider runting rdist from a protected system on a regular basis to report changes. Use this program on a regular basis. Consider installing a simple cron task to save copies of the lastlog file to track logins. Turn on whatever accounting mechanism you may have that logs command usage. Evaluate whether C2 logging on your system is practical and appropriate.g.. Be aware that log file entries may be forged and misleading in the event of a carefully crafted attack. If so. xferlog. Chapter 10: Auditing and Logging                Consider installing a dedicated PC or other non-UNIX machine as a network log host. and others. sulog. Tripwire). Make an offline list of every SUID and SGID file on your system. install it first on a noncritical system on which you can test it and observe any misbehavior or bugs. Don't leave any bin or library directories writable by untrustworthy accounts. you can use comparison checking to detect unauthorized modifications. Have your users check the last login time each time they log in to make sure that nobody else is using their accounts. This approach will ensure that you see all exceptional condition messages. Set permissions on commands to prevent unauthorized alteration. Make sure that your utmp file is not world writable.

forward files." (the current directory) in your search path. too. Review the use of these commands (and the shell) in all scripts executed by cron. get in the habit of typing full pathnames for commands. Watch for unauthorized modification to initialization files in any user or system account. threats. Strictly prohibit smoking. and defenses. Make sure that any shared libraries are properly protected and that protections cannot be overridden. Periodically review all system start-up and configuration files for additions and changes. Keep your backups offsite. Check the placement and recharge status of fire extinguishers on a regular basis. Verify that any files run from the cron command files cannot be altered or replaced by unauthorized users. Never write or use SUID or SGID shell scripts unless you are a hoary UNIX wizard.               If you suspect a network-based worm attack or a virus in widely circulated software.conf. put sensors above the ceiling. Disable terminal answer-back. Periodically review mailer alias files for unauthorized changes. Make sure that the placement and nature of fire-suppression systems will not endanger personnel or equipment more than is necessary. and disable the program if necessary. . If you have a dropped ceiling. Make sure that the devices used for backups are not world readable. if possible. etc. Determine who might have physical access to any of your resources under any circumstances. and drinking in your computer room or near computer equipment. Make sure that personnel know how to use all fire protection and suppression equipment. explosion. call a FIRST response team or the vendor to confirm the instance before spreading any alarm. environment. or structural failure.g. Never have writ-able directories in your search path. Check the behavior of your xargs and find commands. When running as the superuser. Chapter 12: Physical Security             Develop a physical security plan that includes a description of your assets. Never have ". Have heat and smoke alarms in your computer room. eating. perimeter.. Periodically review configuration files for server programs (e.exrc file. . Have water sensors installed above and below raised floors in your computer room. If you have a raised floor. Place your computer systems where they will be protected in the event of earthquake.) Check the security of your at program. Train your users and operators about what to do when an alarm sounds. inetd. Don't use the vi or ex editors in a directory without first checking for a Trojan . Disable the automatic command execution feature in GNU Emacs. install alarm sensors both above and below the floor. including editor start-up files. Install and regularly clean air filters in your computer room.

consider using a polygraph examination of the candidate. shredders. and connectors from tampering. terminators. Do so with the permission of the applicants. users should be required to take holiday and vacation leave regularly. Consider setting autologout on user accounts. Lock and physically isolate your computers from public access. Protect all your network cables. Avoid having glass walls or large windows in your computer room. Check peripheral devices for local onboard storage that can lead to disclosure of information. Have disaster-recovery and business-continuation plans in place. Have antistatic measures in place. Have alarms associated with the systems to indicate if values get out of range. Have applicants and contractors in sensitive positions obtain bonding. and bolts to keep computer equipment from being carried away. Never use programmable function keys on a terminal for login or password information. Provide refresher training on a regular basis. Make sure that staff have adequate time and resources to pursue continuing education opportunities. Consider encrypting all of your backups and offline storage. tie-downs. . Make sure that users in sensitive positions are not overloaded with work. responsibility or stress on a frequent or regular basis. Encrypt sensitive data held on your systems.g. and for personnel taking on new assignments. If the position is extremely sensitive. Have recorders to monitor these values over time. Use bulk erasers. Institute an ongoing user security-awareness program. Protect power switches and fuses. Consider putting motion alarms or other protections in place to protect valuable equipment when personnel are not present. Store computer equipment and magnetic media away from building structural steel members that might conduct electricity after a lightning strike. Try to resolve potential problems before they become real problems. Have regular performance reviews and monitoring. or incinerators. tapes and disks) and printouts before disposal. and if it is legally allowable. even if compensated for the overload. Sanitize media (e.                    Have temperature and humidity controls in your computer room. Consider installing an uninterruptible power supply. In particular. Beware of insects trying to "bug" your computers. Consider using fiber optic cable for networks. Provide comprehensive and appropriate training for all new personnel. if appropriate. Physically protect your backups and test them periodically. Examine them periodically. Use locks.. Chapter 13: Personnel Security          Conduct background checks of individuals being considered for sensitive positions. Install filtered power and/or surge protectors for all your computer equip ment.

or monthly administrative scripts run by cron to clean up the UUCP system. Audit access to equipment and critical data. UUCP             Be sure that every UUCP login has a unique password. Consider using separate callout telephone lines with no dial-in capability for callback schemes.cmds file (Version 2 UUCP). Chapter 15. make sure that access is properly ter minated and duties transferred. If there are daily. Set up a different UUCP login for every computer you cornmunicate with via UUCP. Chapter 14: Thlephone Security              Make sure that incoming modems automatically log out the user if the telephone call gets interrupted. Make sure that mail to the UUCP users gets sent to the system administrator. Make sure that the tip or cu programs automatically exit if the user gets logged out of the remote machine or if the telephone call is interrupted. Limit UUCP access to the smallest set of directories necessary.     Monitor users in sensitive positions (without intruding on their privacy) for signs of excess stress or personal problems. Physically protect the modems and phone lines. . Consider use of encrypting modems with fixed keys to guard against unauthorized use or eavesdropping. Consider making some or all of your UUCP connections use callback to initiate a connection. Make sure that the files in the /usr/lib/uucp directories can't be read or written remotely or locally with the UUCP system. Make sure that /usr/lib/uucp/L. make sure that they are run with the UUCP UID but that they are owned by root. Consider getting leased lines and/or callback modems. Make sure that outgoing modems hang up on the outgoing call if the tip or cu program is exited. Do not install call forwarding on any of your incoming lines. Do not export UUCP files or commands on a writable NFS partition. Make sure that incoming modems automatically hang up on an incoming call if the caller logs out or if the caller's login process gets killed. Make sure that the ruusend command is not in your L. readable only by the UUCP user. Only allow execution of commands by UUCP that are absolutely necessary. weekly. Apply policies of least privilege and separation of duties where applicable. Make sure that no user becomes irreplaceable. Make sure that there is no way for the local user to reprogram the modem. Check permissions on all associated devices and configuration files.sys or /usr/lib/uucp/Systems is mode 400. When any user leaves the organization. Disable third-party billing to your modem lines. Consider getting CALLER*ID/ANI to trace incoming calls automatically. Log the numbers that call your system. Make sure that no UUCP login has /usr/spooI/uucp/uucppublic for its home directory.

The file should also contain the name of any other account that does not belonged to an actual human being. If your standard software does not offer this level of control. uucp. Consider disabling any services that provide nonessential information to outsiders that might enable them to gather information about your systems. Disable UUCP over IP unless you need UUCP.cf file Make sure that your version of the sendmail program does not support the debug. ensure that all UUCP users are listed in the /etc/ftpusers file. Remove all of the UUCP software and libraries if you aren't going to use them. contact your vendor and ask when equivalent functionality will be provided as a standard feature in the vendors' systems.        Test your mailer to make sure that it will not deliver a file or execute a command that is encapsulated in an address. Then. Only give UUCP access to the directories to which it needs access. TCP/IP Networks    Consider lowAevel encryption mechanisms in enterprise networks. Do not depend on IP addresses or DNS information for authentication. or to "tunnel" through external networks. If you support anonymous FTP. If the machine has an active FTP service. Limit the commands which can be executed from offsite to those that are absolutely necessary. configure any "incoming" directories so that files dropped off cannot then be uploaded without operator intervention. and bin. Disable or delete any uucpd daemon if you aren't using it. Delete the "decode" alias in your aliases file. Do not depend on header information in news articles or email as they can be forged. Disable any unneeded network services. Be sure that the UUCP control files are protected and cannot be read or modified using the UUCP program. don't have a copy of your real /etc/passwd as an ~ftp/etc/passwd. Chapter 17: TCP/IP Services                Routinely examine your inetd configuration file. Make sure that your version of the ftpd program is up to date. wiz. . consider installing the tcpwrapper program to better regulate and log access to your servers. If your software allows. your ftp account. Frequenfly scan the files in. You may wish to limit UUCP to the directory /usr/spool/uucppublic. Make sure that /etc/ftpusers contains at least the account names root. or kill commands. Make sure that your sendmail program will not deliver mail directly to a file Make sure that your sendmail program does not have a wizard's password set in the configuration file Limit the number of "trusted users" in your sendmail. Examine carefully any other alias that delivers to a program or file. Make sure that all directory permissions and ownership on your ftp account are set correctly. Chapter 16. and usage of.

IRCs. If you are using POP or IMAP. Enable the best X11 authentication possible in your configuration (e. Block SNMP connections from outside your organization. if enabled. Configure your NNTP or INND server to restrict who can post articles or transfer Usenet news. configure your system to use APOP or Kerberos for authentication. Disable UUCP over IP unless needed. Consider not allowing users to have .g. 1988. Kerberos. Disable rexec service unless needed.rhosts. . Use IP addresses instead of domain names in places where the practice makes sense (e. Set up your logindevperm or fbtab files to restrict permissions on frame buffers and devices.                                  Make sure that your version of the sendmail program is up to date. in . Have an alias for every non-user account so that mail to any valid address gets delivered to a person and not to an unmodified mailbox. If your X11 Server blocks on null connections. Restrict access to your printing software via the /etc/hosts.. Block NTP connections from outside your organization. Make sure that all existing .g. Disable or replace the finger service with something that provides less information. and that. Block incoming RIP packets.rhosts files). Routinely scan your system for suspicious.before an attacker does the same. or other servers. Consider replacing sendmail with smap. Make sure that all files used by the nameserver software are properly protected against tampering.) Make sure that TFTP access. Consider running the authd daemon for all machines in the local net. Make sure that you have the most recent version of the software. Disable zone transfers in your DNS. and perhaps against reading by unauthorized users. with all published patches in place Make sure that the aliases file cannot be altered by unauthorized individuals.equiv file. Consider disabling SMTP commands such as VRFY and EXPN with settings in your sendmail configuration. get an updated version. Make your list of trusted hosts as small as possible. if this is possible on your system.. if possible. Scan your network connections regularly with netstat.g.rhosts files on your system. Secure RPC. If you have a plus sign (+) in your /etc/hosts.rhosts files. is limited to a single directory containing boot files. Scan your network with tools such as SATAN and ISS to determine if you have uncorrected vulnerabilities .rhosts files are protected to mode 600. bind) with all patches applied. doing this might introduce a vulnerability. (But beware that most implementations of trusted commands don't understand IP addresses in . or another more tractable network agent. use static routes where possible and practical.equiv file. in such cases. Tell your users about the information that the finger program makes available on the network Make sure that your finger program is more recent than November 5. Do not place usemames in your /etc/hosts. Disable the rexd RPC service. remove it. Be very cautious about installing MUDs.lpd file. "magic cookies") instead of using xhost. Make sure that you are running the latest version of the nameserver software (e.

Make sure that there is no line beginning with a plus sign (+) in the passwd or group files on any NIS server. If you are transferring sensitive information over the WWW connection (e. Put keylogout in your logout file if you are running secure RPC. Be aware of the potential risks posed by dependence on a limited number of thirdparty providers. configure the program so that it restricts which machines can send requests to your portmapper. If you are using Kerberos. understand its limitations. Be extremely cautions about writing and installing CGI scripts or programs. If this feature is not present. NIS+. contact your vendor and ask when it will be supported. Disable automatic directory listings. Prevent general access to the server log files. If your version of portmapper has a "securenets" feature. Set the server to not follow symbolic links. Configure your server to only allow CGI scripts from a particular directory under your control. Use NIS+ in preference to MS. and disconnect machines that do not really need to be connected. if possible. and Kerberos           Enable Kerberos or Secure RPC if possible. or to only follow links that are owned by the same user that owns the destination of the link. NIS. . Become familiar with all the configuration options for the particular server you use. Monitor the logs and usage of your WWW service. Make sure that your version of portmapper does not do proxy forwarding. including login. enable encryption. Do not mix WWW and FTP servers on the same machine in the same filesystem hierarchy. Have it set to run as a nobody user unique to the WWW service. personal information). Consider making your www server chroot into a protected directory.) Consider using taintperl as the implementation language. Make sure that your version of ypbind only listens on privileged ports. Re-evaluate why you are connected to the network at all. Chapter 20: NFS  Program your firewall and routers to block NFS packets. Make sure that there is an asterisk (*) in the password field of any line beginning with a plus sign (+) in both the passwd and group files of any NIS client. Limit or prohibit server-side includes. Do not run your server as user root. Use netgroups to restrict access to services.. Chapter 19: RPC. (See the specific programming recommendations in the chapter. Chapter 18: WWW Security               Consider running any www server from a Macintosh platform instead of from a UNIX platform. and set its options appropriately (and conservatively).g.

               Use NFS version 3. replicating disk on local machines may be a safer approach. Consider buying a commercially provided and configured firewall. if available. using the access= or ro= options. if available. Mount partitions nosuid unless SUID access is absolutely necessary. Consider setting a policy of default deny for your firewall. if possible. Rerun the program periodically. Do not export user home directories in a writable mode. Keep in mind that firewalls can sometirnes fail. Make sure that user accounts have different passwords for machines on different subnets. email. Consider intemal firewalls as well as extemal firewalls. Set the kemel portmon variable to ignore NFS requests from unprivileged ports. For instance. Make sure that firewall machines have the highest level of logging. (See the discussion in the chapter. Plan on centralizing services such as DNS. Set root ownership on files and directories mounted remotely. Do not export filesystems to yourself! Do not use the root= option when exporting filesystems unless absolutely necessary. Use the most complete firewall you can afford and one that makes sense in your environment. use the secure option for NFS mounts. Never export a mounted partition on your system to an untrusted machine if the partition has any world. Reconsider why you want to use NFS. Configure firewall machines without user accounts and program development utilities. Monitor activity on the firewall regularly. Break your network up into small. Use fsirand on all partitions that are exported.or group-writable directories. Have a central mail machine with MX aliasing and name rewriting. Use the netgroups mechanism to restrict the export of (and thus the ability to remotely mount) filesystems to a small set of local machines. When possible. At the very least.) . Export filesystems to a small set of hosts. Don't configure any machine to trust machines outside the local subnet. and think about doing without. Monitor who is mounting your NFS partitions (but realize that you may not have a complete picture because of the stateless nature of NFS). even if a firewall is interposed. Don't mount NFS directories across subnet boundaries. and Usenet on closely guarded bastion hosts. rather than creating your own. Mount partitions nodev. Give serious thought to whether or not you really want all your systems to be connected to the rest of the world. put a screening router in place. Configure your firewall/bastion hosts to remove all unnecessary services and utilities. Each subnet should have its own NIS server and netgroups domain. independent subnets. in TCP mode. Chapter 21: Firewalls                  Keep in mind that firewalls should be used in addition to other security measure and not in place of them. Plan accordingly: periodically test your firewall and have defense in depth for that eventuality.

Observe the 17 general rules presented in the chapter when writing any network server programs. Initial and time-stamp these copies. enable them. Be very cautious about generating and using "random" numbers.Chapter 22: Wrappers and Proxies     Consider installing the smap proxy in place of the sendmail program to receive mail over the network. Observe the 24 general rules presented in the chapter when writing any software. Note and timestamp everything you discover and do. Carefully examine the system after a break-in. Don't test new software while running as root.there is too much detail to list here. Run machine status-checking programs regularly to watch for unusual activity: ps. Consider installing the tcpwrapper program to restrict and log access to local network services. Chapter 23: Writing Secure SUID and Network Programs        Convey to your vendors your concem about sofiware quality in their products. consider making a dump of the system to backup media before correcting anything. Think about using chroot for privileged programs. remember that the results retumed by this service are not completely trustworthy. good state. w. don't panic! Start a diary and/or script file as soon as you discover or suspect a break-in. . Avoid storing or transmitting passwords in clear text in any application. Chapter 25: Denial of Service Attacks and Solutions     If user quotas are available on your system. Observe the 14 general rules presented in the chapter when writing any program that will be SUID or SGID. Carefully check backups and logs to determine if this is a single occurrence or is related to a set of incidents. be certain that you restore the system to a known. Consider installing the ident/authd service on your system to help track network access. If a break-in occurs. Install a firewall to prevent network problems. and especially when writing software that needs extra privileges or trust. See the chapter text for specific . If a break-in occurs. Chapter 24: Discovering a Break-in         Plan ahead: have response plans designed and rehearsed. etc. vmstat. Run hardcopies of files showing changes and tracing activity. However. Consider writing your own wrapper programs to provide extra control or logging for your local system. Specifically. Configure appropriate process and user limits on your system.

pornographic material. Develop contingency plans and response plans in advance of difficulties. if possible. Put explicit copyright and/or proprietary property notices in code start-up screens and source code. Expand your professional training and contacts by attending security training sessions or conferences. Make certain that your legal counsel is consulted before you provide locally developed software to others outside your organization. and machine names. Keep your backups separate from your machine. trade secrets. Make your users aware of the dangers of electronic harassment or defamation. Recommend a disinterested third party to act as an expert. Consider investing in a network monitor appropriate for your network. Have all users provide a signature noting their understanding of and agreement to such a statement. and other materials as you proceed.g. in writing. Law                    Consult with your legal counsel to determine legal options and liability in the event of a security incident. Restrict access to cryptographic software from the network. Make sure that users understand copyright and license restrictions on commercial software. levels of user access and responsibility. Ensure good physical security for all network cables and connectors. Be aware of other liability concerns. Consider coupling this to provision of personal accounts with an independent service provider. Time-stamp and initial media. Develop contacts with your local law-enforcement personnel. printouts. Monitor disk usage and encourage users to archive and delete old files. Consider joining security-related organizations. If called upon to help in an investigation. images. Configure disk partitions to have sufficient inodes and storage. . Prohibit or restrict access to Usenet from organizational machines. Make sure that you have appropriate swap space configured. IP addresses. Replace any "welcome" messages with warnings against unauthorized use. Have a spare network connection available.        Educate your users on polite methods of sharing system resources. setting the nice to a positive value. Formally register copyrights on your locally developed code and databases.. Keep written records of your actions when investigating an incident. printouts. Keep available an up4o-date paper list of low-level network addresses (e. Do not be unduly hesitant about reporting a computer crime and involving lawenforcement personnel. and sound files. etc. Restrict or prohibit access to material that could lead to legal difficulties. This includes copyrighted material. Run long-running tasks in the background. Define. Include an explicit statement about the return of manuals. request a signed statement by a judge requesting (or directing) your "expert" assistance. and other information upon user departure. if you need it. Chapter 26: Computer Security and US. Consult with your insurance carrier to determine if your insurance covers loss from break-ins. Determine if your insurance covers business interruption during an investigation. Ethernet addresses). Also determine if you will be required to institute criminal or civil action to recover on your insurance.

modems. Appendix B: Important Files   Become familiar with the important files on your system.org/lasg. and add to your knowledge and experience. Protest when vendors attempt to sell you products advertised with "hacker challenges" instead of more reliable proof of good design and testing. close tcp 53 on firewall.Chapter 27: "Who Do You Trust?     Read the chapter. and fixig security bugs in a timely fashion. Monitor newsgroups. strobe & udp-scan. Explore other resources concerning security. adequate testing. host -lvt any acme. netcat. icmpquery & icmpush. identd to get infos on a running process. remove all unneeded sws. Under construction nslookup (ls -d acme. Understand the commands that are available to manipulate processes on your system. and the Internet. don't run progs as root. mailing lists. Appendix G: Table of IP Services Read the table and add your own site notes indicating the services you do and do not wish to support.txt). core dump. attractive. The copies will make you intelligent. fping gping. Understand why SUID/SGID files have those permissions. vrfy/expn mysmtp. Trust us on this. net view /domain: mydomain. seifried. Appendix F: Organizations     Learn more about security. spread dial-in phone #s. traceroute -S -p53 x. Appendix C: UNIX Processes   Understand how processes work on your system. UNIX.net. and other resources that will help you stay current on threats and countermeasures.g RFC 1244 Policy for handling incidents:    Overview (goal and objectives in handling the incident) Evalution (how serious is it?) Notification (who should be notified) . Develop a healthy sense of paranoia. Explore professional opportunities that enable you to network with other professionals. Buy another 1000 copies of this book for all your friends and acquaintances. tx alarm if nic set to promiscuous. and incredibly popular. world-writable files + dir. dll's. > zone. Make your vendor aware of your concerns about security. rogue phone plugs.com.

Many classic programs cannot be set up this way and should not be exposed to the public Internet. very well audited.uiuc. The usual way it to create a special group for each class of suid programs you can identify and make each user a member of the groups needed. Even better. or be sufficiently sandboxed that possible damage is limited. Ditto of xdm's UDP port. I won't go into detail on installing it.edu/pdq So I have my standards.a number of special group IDs controls who may access these. On the local machine domain sockets are used. If an attacker breaks into a system account he cannot reach any suid root program. I will however. but it's got the funniest web site of the lot. try to explain how it works. if you just know how. I've decided to switch to a little known print system called PDQ. among other things. Of the remaining 12. X's TCP port can be banished.   Response Legal/investigative Documentation logs (records to keep from before/during/after the incident) Temp stuff djbDNS instead of BIND Use tcpserver to replace inetd netstat -an --inet netstat -nl --inet # netstat -ln dnscache There's replacements for. newsgroups. since it is very different from the way lpd works. As before. Programs like sudo provide other ways to control who may use what program. For six of the twelve I added extra requirements . that's what documentation is for. and of course Qmail One gruesome night of crawling through man pages. deeply hidden scripts and obscure configuration files reveals that in fact the only one not using port 6000 is the local user. It's not particularly sophisticated. http://feynman.tam. All remaining twelve programs had one thing in common: normally they would only be started by humans. Anything that does interaction with the outside world should either be very trivial. Preferably it should be all of them. I therefore put them all into a directory that only those accounts that correspond to real users can access. Examples are ping and Xwrapper. dns. http and FTP software. No system account needs to use them. Suid programs can be made only accessible to those who need to use them. . 7 had a legitimate reason to be suid root (like su) while the other 5 needed to be suid root for practical reasons but there really should be a better way of doing this.

Security Tools                                                 Nessus NetCat TCPDump Snort Saint Ethereal Whisker Internet Security Scanner PortSentry Sniff TripWire Cybercop Scanner HPing 2 Security Auditor's Research Assistant (SARA) Sniff It SATAN IP Filter IP Tables Firewalk Strobe L0pht Crack John The Ripper Hunt OpenSSH TCP Wrappers nTop ping/traceroute/telnet NetBIOS Auditing Tool Scanlogd Sam Spade NFR logcheck Perl Ngrep (Network monitoring with ngrep) Cheops Vetescan Retina Crack/Libcrack Cerberus Internet Scanner Swatch Nemesis LSOF Lids IPTraf IPLog FragRouter Queso Top .

0 by Thomas Stocking) Secure remote file management with sshfs by StoneLion .        Lcrzoex mscan and sscan from Jsbach ADMhack Osiris host integrity monitoring Samhain integrity monitoring Automate Linux Configuration with cfengine By Carla Schroder Nagios ("Nagios is an open source host. service and network monitoring program". Nagios 2.

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