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**Digital Image Processing Using MATLAB®
**

Rafael C. Gonzalez Richard E. Woods Steven L. Eddins ©2004 Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

ISBN: 0130085197 www.prenhall/gonzalezwoodseddins

Version 1.0 August 10, 2004

© 2004. This publication is protected by United States and international copyright laws, and is designed exclusively to assist instructors in teaching their courses or for individual use. Publication, sale, or other type of widespread dissemination (i.e. dissemination of more than extremely limited extracts within the classroom setting) of any part of this material (such as by posting it on the World Wide Web) is not authorized, and any such dissemination is a violation of copyright laws.

In order to facilitate grading. Since computer projects are in addition to course work and homework assignments. or bound using a clear cover. Results: Image results (printed typically on a laser or inkjet printer). we point to online resources. All the material required for the projects is contained in the book web site. we indicate where the needed material is located in the book and. stapled with three or more staples on the left margin to form a booklet. All images must contain a number and title referred to in the discussion of results. For brevity. the solutions are based on material that has been covered up to the chapter in question.5 by 11 inches). Normally. A useful report format is as follows: Page 1: Cover page. focused on any original code prepared by the student. In these instances. we try to achieve uniformity in the way project reports are prepared.Project Solutions© Page 2 Introduction This document contains sample project statements dealing with the first five chapters in the book. These projects are intended to serve as guidelines for formulating projects dealing with other topics in the book.g. The projects range in complexity from straightforward extensions of the material in the book to more comprehensive undertakings that require several hours to solve.. Page 3 (or 4): Discussion of results. on rare occasions. where lengthy examples are kept to a minimum for the sake of space and continuity in the . One to two pages (max). Layout: The entire report must be on a standard sheet size (e. Appendix: Program listings. standard binding product. It has been our experience that students truly enjoy and benefit from judicious use of computer projects to complement the material covered in class. Although formal project reporting of the nature just discussed is not typical in an independent study or industrial/research environment. but the code is not included. the projects outline in this document offer valuable extensions to the material in the book. we try to keep the formal project reporting as brief as possible. One of the most interesting aspects of a course in digital image processing in an academic environment is the pictorial nature of the subject. § Project title § Project number § Course number § Student’s name § Date due § Date handed in Abstract (not to exceed 1/2 page) Page 2: One to two pages (max) of technical discussion. 8. functions and routines provided to the student are referred to by name. but we often use material from later chapters in order to arrive at a well-formulated solution.

The use of DIPUM Toolbox functions is encouraged in order to save time in arriving at project solutions and also as exercises for becoming more familiar with these functions. The reader will find the projects in this document to be useful for both learning purposes and as a reference source for ideas on how to attack problems of practical interest. Image processing is a highly experimental field and MATLAB. The following criteria can be used as a guide when a project calls for new code to be developed: • • • • • How quickly can I implement this solution? How robust is the solution for “rare” cases? How fast does the solution run? How much memory does the solution require? How easy is the code to read. By taking advantage of MATLAB’s vectorization capabilities solutions can be made to run fast and efficiently. There usually isn’t a single “best” solution to a given project. along with the Image Processing Toolbox. we have made an effort to match the complexity of projects to the material that has been covered up to the chapter in which the project is assigned. it is important to keep in mind that solutions can change over time. as new MATLAB or Image Processing Toolbox functions become available. understand. When one or more functions that have not been covered are important in arriving at a well-formulated solution. offers an unparalleled software development environment. . As a rule. a feature that is especially important when working with large image data bases. and modify? Also. we generally suggest in the problem statement that the reader should become familiar with the needed function(s).Project Solutions© Page 3 discussion.

2 . . Use of while or for loops is not allowed. )in A.). -1. −2.. Write a function for this purpose. with the following specifications: function D = isodd(A) function D = isodd(A) %ISODD Determines which elements of an array are odd numbers..). . 3 . . -2 -1 0 1 2 . Note: Integer and double-precision arrays with real or complex values are numeric.e. . . 1. cell arrays.Project Solutions© Page 4 Chapter 2 Sample Projects PROJECT 2. .. . −3. % E = ISODD(A) returns a logical array. I. Hint: Become familiar with function floor. % A must be a numeric array. 2. −4. 0. . of the same size as A.2 MATLAB does not have a function to determine which elements of an array are even numbers (i. 4 . .e. . −1. . Hints: Become familiar with function floor. . -3. E. .. with the following specifications: function E = iseven(A) %ISEVEN Determines which elements of an array are even numbers. D. of the same size % as A. .e. 1. 0.e. % with 1s (TRUE) in the locations corresponding to odd numbers . . and structure arrays are not. .3 MATLAB does not have a function to determine which elements of an array are odd numbers (i. Use of while or for loops is not allowed. % I = ISINTEGER(A) returns a logical array. of the same size as A. % E = ISEVEN(A) returns a logical array. . and 0s (FALSE) elsewhere.1 MATLAB does not have a function to determine which elements of an array are integers (i. and 0s (FALSE) elsewhere. .. −1. PROJECT 2. become familiar with functions real and imag. . % with 1s (TRUE) in the locations corresponding to even numbers % (i.). . Write a function for this purpose. .. 2. while strings. .1 regarding numeric arrays. PROJECT 2. 4. See Project 2. . )in A. . . . . −2. with the following specifications: function I = isinteger(A) %ISINTEGER Determines which elements of an array are integers.. Write a function for this purpose. . with 1s (TRUE) in the locations corresponding to integers % (i. 0. .e. % A must be a numeric array. If you include the capability to handle complex numbers.

. . For example.4 Write an M-function with the following specifications: function H = imcircle(R. PROJECT 2. . Hint: Become familiar with function floor. % H = IMCIRCLE(R.. Hint: Use online help to become familiar with functions cd. consider using function fullfile instead of function cd. -1. Write an M-function with the following specifications: function [I.e. 1. MAP] = IMAGEIN variable MAP is required to be an output % argument when the image being read is an indexed image. H is a binary image with % 1s on the circle and 0s elsewhere. and saves in I the image selected from the % current directory. -3.] = IMAGEIN('PATH') is used when the image to be read % resides in a specified directory. 3. % [I. )in A. map] = imagein(path) %IMAGEIN Read image in from current-working or specified directory. % [ . M. Your program must check the validity of R and also it should check to make sure that the specified circle fits in the given rectangle dimensions. Use of for or while loops is not permitted. See Project 2. . R must be an integer >= 1. Use of while or for loops is not allowed. N) %IMCIRCLE Generates a circle inside a rectangle. . . PROJECT 2. An image selected from % that directory is read in as image I. . pwd. and 0s (FALSE) elsewhere. . % I = IMAGEIN displays a window containing all the files in the % current directory. N) generates a circle of radius R centered % on a rectangle of height M and width N.Project Solutions© Page 5 % % (i. M. For an alternative solution. the input % argument 'C:\MY_WORK\MY_IMAGES' opens a window showing % the contents of directory MY_IMAGES. and uigetfile. A must be a numeric array. . Hint: Review function meshgrid and become familiar with function floor.5 The main purposes of this project are to learn how work with displaying and changing directories and how to use that information to read an image from a specified directory.1 regarding numeric arrays.

MAP) maps the intensities of input % image S using mapping function. histeq. % % The output image is of the same class as the input. or double.2. If F is double. % Z = INTXFORM(S. to create a map % function that squares the input intensities of an input image of % class uint8 and then use function INTXFORM to perform the mapping % we write: % % t = linspace(0.3.Project Solutions© Page 6 Chapter 3 Sample Projects PROJECT 3.2 Histogram Processing IPT’s histogram function. For example. The specifications for the function are as follows: function z = intxform (s. HISTEQ2 implements the direct. % H = HISTEQ2(F) histogram-equalizes F and outputs the result % in H. % z = intxform(s. % map = t. map).3. Write a histogram equalization function that implements the equations discussed in Section 3. PROJECT 3. % "standard" histogram equalization approach explained in Section % 3. map) %INTXFORM Intensity transformation. F can be of class uint8. 256).1 Intensity Transformation (Mapping) Function Write an M-function for performing general intensity transformations of gray-scale images.^2. MAP specifies an intensity transformation % function as described in Section 3. Hint: Your code will be simplified if you use functions changeclass and interp1. 1. .2. whose values are assumed to % be in the range [0 1]. uint16. MAP. Unlike IPT function histeq. attempts to produce as flat a histogram.2 directly: sk = T ( rk ) = = ∑ p (r ) r j j =1 k k ∑n j =1 nj The function for this project has the following specifications: function h = histeq2(f) %HISTEQ2 Histogram equalization.

If F is of class double its % values should be in the range [0 1]. Hint: One approach is to write a function that uses the results of projects 3.4 Comparing Global and Local Histogram Equalization. all computations are done using 8-bit intensity % values to speed-up computations.1 and 3. they default to % 3. The class of the output % image is the same as the class of the input. The procedure is to define a square or rectangular window (neighborhood) and move the center of the window from pixel to pixel. % The amount of extension is determined by the dimensions of the % local window.2. The intensity range of the input image (regardless of class) is divided into 256 increments for computing the histogram and the corresponding cumulative distribution function (CDF). is equal to the to the old histogram. PROJECT 3. . If N is omitted. % % This function accepts input images of class uint8. Keep in mind that only the intensity level of the center of the neighborhood needs to be mapped at each location of the window.Project Solutions© Page 7 % % % % % % % then its values are assumed to be in the range [0 1]. % G = LOCALHISTEQ(F. In addition to being faster important advantage of this implementation is that it is self-contained. the function will be on the order of five times slower than a function that computes the local histogram once and then updates it as the local window moves throughout the image. N) performs local histogram equalization % on input image F using a window of (odd) size M-by-N to produce % the processed image. The center of the neighborhood region is then moved to an adjacent pixel location and the procedure is repeated. Your function should have the following specifications. it defaults to M. G. h_datain. Note that the histograms h_datain and h_dataout are normalized by the factor equal to the total number of pixels. Write an M-function for performing local histogram equalization. The idea is that the new histogram. Recall that the CDF is actually the mapping function used for histogram equalization.0. If M and N are omitted.3 Local Histogram Equalization The global histogram equalization technique is easily adaptable to local histogram equalization. the histogram of the points inside the window is computed and a histogram equalization transformation function is obtained. function g = localhisteq(f. Both must be odd. or % double. h_dataout. Your code will be simplified if you use functions cumsum and changeclass. At each location. h_old. However. This will result in a simpler solution. uint16. minus the histogram of the data that moved out of the window as a result of moving the window. To handle border effects. This function is finally used to map the intensity level of the pixel centered in the neighborhood to create a corresponding (processed) pixel in the output image. This approach has obvious advantages over repeatedly computing the histogram over all pixels in the neighborhood region each time the region is moved one pixel location. However. Hint: Your code will be simplified if you use the function developed in Project 3. in order to be consistent with the fact that the area of histograms h_new and h_old must be 1. n) %LOCALHISTEQ Local histogram equalization. The output is of the same class as the input. one pixel displacement at a time. m. image F is % extended by using the symmetric option in function padarray.1 and function cumsum. Since only one new row or column of the neighborhood changes during a pixel-to-pixel translation of the region. updating the histogram obtained in the previous location with the new data introduced at each motion step is possible. mn. h_new. That is: h_new = h_old + h_datain − h_dataout. PROJECT 3. plus the histogram of data added as the window is moved. M.

9. 1 – 8 1. (c) Explain the differences in the resulting images. PROJECT 3. Note in both (a) and (b) how noise is enhanced by both methods of histogram equalization.2.tif and compare the results between Fig. Although the background tonality will be different between the two functions.tif and process it with function localhisteq using neighborhoods of sizes 3 × 3 and 7 × 7. then use IPT function histeq. the mask of size 5 × 5 would consist of all 1s with a –24 in the center location. For example. (b) Histogram-equalize it using the global function histeq2 from Project 3.5 Experimenting with Larger “Laplacian” Masks It is shown in Example 3. 1.10 that the Laplacian mask w8 = [ 1. 1. If you did not do that project. 1] yields a result sharper than the result with a similar mask with a −4 in the center. with local enhancement producing noisier results than global enhancement.5(a)(blurry_moon). 1. 15. . Explain why. the net result is that global histogram equalization will be ineffective in bringing out the details embedded in the black squares within the image. 1. and 25.17(c) in the book and the results obtained with masks of size n × n for n = 5. 3.Project Solutions© Page 8 (a) Download image FigP3. (a) Write an M-function that generates a “Laplacian” mask of arbitrary odd size.4(a)(embedded_objects_noisy). Explain the differences in your results. (b) Download the image FigP3.

but fRH is approximately one order of magnitude smaller than these two quantities. (b) Download FigP4. The average image power is defined as 1 2 fA = F (u . varargin) %IMPOWER Filters an image and computes its average power. of input image f.2. y ) . (d) You will find that fRL and fA are close in value. % fA = impower(f) Computes the image power. PROJECT 4. f ( x. fR.1. varargout is quite useful when the number of outputs is large and variable.tif. v ) MN u v ∑∑ (a) Write an M-function with the following specifications: function [varargout] = impower(f. g] to handle both instances of outputs.2 Working with Phase Angles . In general. Although in this case we could just as easily have used the syntax function [fA. % fA. varargout is one way to write a function whose number of outputs is variable. The resulting % filtered image and its power are output as g and fR. SIG) computes the average image power. the power spectrum is defined as P(u. use SIG = 16 and generate fRL and gL for a lowpass filter and fRH and gH for a highpass filter. (c) Then.3. Show the original image and the two filtered images. fA. g] = impower(f. As discussed in Section 4. Similar comments apply for varargin regarding input variables.1 Working with the Power Spectrum and Using Functions varargout and varargin The main objectives of this project are to investigate the effect that filtering has on average image power and to practice using functions varargout and varargin. Either filter has sigma = SIG. TYPE.Project Solutions© Page 9 Chapter 4 Sample Projects PROJECT 4. v ) 2 where F (u . the purpose of using varargout here simply as an exercise. using function impower. Explain the main reason for the difference. It also filters f using a Gaussian highpass % filter if TYPE = 'high' or a Gaussian lowpass % filter if TYPE = 'low'.1(a)(test_pattern). v ) = F (u . fA. fR. Obtain its average image power. v ) is the Fourier transform of an image. As discussed in Section 3. % [fA.

the Fourier transform is complex. Read image FigP4. The purposes of this projects are (1) to show that the phase angle carries information about the location of image elements.tif and FigP4. Then compute the inverse transform using only the phase term (i. based on the results from Project 4. we want to show the effects of changing the real and imaginary components of the Fourier transform differently. but clearly shows the woman’s face and other features.. Note how the image is void of contrast. v ) = R 2 (u. PROJECT 4. as in Project 4. Here. Then computer the inverse FFT using the spectrum of g for the real part and the phase of f for the imaginary part. Obtain the inverse transform and show the resulting image. v ) [Note that the exponent is positive. Show your result. Recover the image using S and P2.e. Display the result and note how the details from the phase component dominate the image.tif (call them f and g). P. (2) that the spectrum carries information regarding contrast and intensity transitions. not negative as it is shown in the initial printing of the book]. we expect that the effect on the phase will dominate in the recovered image. N] = size(S). v ) e jφ ( u. and phase. v ) is the phase angle. as the following projects show. Download FigP4.25*real(F). (c) In Chapter 4. (b) Compute the inverse using only the magnitude term (i. PROJECT 4.Project Solutions© Page 10 As indicated in Section 4.2-1(a)(woman). v ) is the spectrum and 1/ 2 I (u . It is recommended that you look up functions complex and angle before starting the project. Then. v ) = F (u . 1:N/2) = 0 where [M.2. Here. v ) + I 2 (u.. Let F2 = complex(0. v ) φ (u. imag(F)). (a) Let S1 = S and S1(1:M/2. all filters used are zero-phase-shift filters. Note that this affects both the spectrum and the phase. However. ifft2 of e jφ ( u. F (u . Show your result. (b) Let P2 = cong(P).4 Bandreject and Bandpass Filtering . (a) Compute the spectrum and the phase angle of image f and show the phase image. v ) ] and show the result.2-1(b)(test_pattern).2. and obtain its spectrum.e.3 Fun Project: Distorting Signs and Symmetries in the Fourier Transform Interesting and sometimes nonsensical results are obtained when the symmetry and signs in the Fourier transform are not preserved. ifft2 of F (u . Display the result and note how little structural information it contains. Recover the image using S1 and P. and (3) that phase information is dominant over the spectrum regarding visual appearance of an image. (c) Compute the spectrum of g. where conj is the complex conjugate.1 of the book. v ) = tan −1 R (u .tif. which have no effect on the phase because they multiply the real and imaginary components of the transform by the same quantity. S. so it can be expressed in polar form as F (u .2-1(a)(woman). v ) ).

W. The corresponding bandpass filter is given by H bp (u. (a) Write a function with the following specifications to implement these filters: >> function H = bandfilter(type. especially because they are much more difficult to implement using spatial techniques.tif and sharpen it using the modified version of unsharp masking. In frequency domain terminology this means generating a highpass filtered image by subtracting from the image a lowpass filtered version of itself. v ) = 2n D (u. N. ℑ ∇ 2 f ( x.6(a)(blurry_moon). PROJECT 4. v ) = 1 − H br (u. Download image FigP4. the technique often is modified to subtract a blurred and dimmed (multiplied by a positive constant between 0 and 1) version of the blurred image. it will show in the spectrum as impulses. The technique consists of generating a sharp image by subtracting from the image a blurred version of itself. To simplify your project you may ignore padding in this case. and D0 is its center. The transfer function of a Butterworth bandreject filter (BBRF) of order n is 1 H br (u. PROJECT 4. Display the spectrum as a guide to where to set up the band of your filter. Although used less often.1. To generate a bandpass % filter specify TYPE as 'pass'. To obtain a little more flexibility. If you use function pixval to determine the coordinates of the impulses interactively.tif is a tomography image of a human head. W. that is.7 Laplacian in the Frequency Domain It is not difficult to show that the Laplacian in the frequency domain can be implemented using the filter H (u. and n = 0. bandreject and bandpass filters are an important category of frequency domain filters. (a) Clean up the image using bandreject filtering.5 Using Bandreject Filtering for Image Denoising Image FigP4. D0. M. % order n. keep in mind that this function lists the column coordinates (v) first and the row coordinates (u) second. W = 8. % H = BANDFILTER(M. TYPE) generates a bandreject % filter (if TYPE is specified as 'reject') of size M-by-N.5(a)(HeadCT_corrupted. v ) = −4π 2 (u 2 + v 2 ) . heavily corrupted by sinusoidal noise in at least two directions. D0 = 50. PROJECT 4. (c) Write the plots to disk in tif format using 300 DPI resolution. N. Hint: Since the noise is sinusoidal. (b) Generate and show 3-D perspective plots of the two filters for M = N = 600. v )W 1 + 2 2 D (u. (b) Use bandpass filtering to extract the noise pattern.Project Solutions© Page 11 In the book we discuss lowpass and highpass filtering in detail. v ) . v ) − D0 where W is the width of the band. n) %BANDFILTER Generate a bendreject or bandpass filter. v ) . width W and center at D0. y ) = −4π 2 (u 2 + v 2 ) F (u . D0.6 Unsharp Masking Unsharp masking has been a staple in photography darkroom for countless years. Don’t forget to use function fftshift to center the filter and thus produce nicer looking plots.

Project Solutions© Page 12 (a) Download image FigP4. C = 2. H. v ) is the distance from the origin of the (centered) Fourier transform.6(a)(blurry_moon). 1 -8 1. in the center. it is required that A < B. V)]^B} % % For this filter to make sense. F. A % good set of starting values: A = 0. (b) Read image FigP4. % G = HOMOFILT(F. N)/8. C. 3. A.4. and % D0 = min(M. D0) performs homomorphic filtering on % F using the default filter: % % H = A + C/{1 + [D0/D(U.8(a)(PET_image).8 Homomorphic Filtering (a) Homomorphic filtering attempts to achieve simultaneous reduction of the dynamic range of an image and coupled with an increase in sharpness (see Gonzalez and Woods [2002] for details of this technique). v ) ] B where D(u. rather than a −4. (b) Generate a frequency domain filter from h = [1 1 1. H) performs homomorphic filtering on the input % image. % G = HOMOFILT(F. using the specified filter. You will note that your image looks more like Fig. Write a function for performing homomorphic using this filter as the default: function g = homofilt(f. . varargin) %HOMOFILT Homomorphic filtering. 3. Use this filter to process the image in the frequency domain and compare your result with (a). A frequency domain filter used frequently for homomorphic filtering has the form H (u. v ) = A + C 1 + [ D 0 / D (u . and A < B. B. 1 1 1] using the approach discussed in Section 4.17(c). indicating that results obtained in the frequency domain more closely resemble the spatial results obtained using a Laplacian mask with a −8. PROJECT 4.tif and implement in the frequency domain the steps leading to the images in Fig.tif and perform homomorphic filtering on it using the default filter. B = 2.25.16(d) in the book.

CENTERS. The image is heavily corrupted by salt noise. This is the same nickel oxide image. Display the histogram (using function bar) and indicate (by name) what you think the noise PDF is.4. RADII. ORDER) generates % a Butterworth notch filter. N. consult Chapter 5 of Gonzalez and Woods [2002]. M. ORDER) %NOTCHFILTER Generates a frequency domain notch filter. % H = NOTCHFILTER(TYPE.2(a)(salt_only). CENTERS. (Hint: If you need to become more familiar with the details of the filters available in function spfilt.tif. PROJECT 5.Project Solutions© Page 13 Chapter 5 Sample Projects PROJECT 5.4 Writing an M-Function for Notch Filtering With reference to the discussion in Sections 5. (b) Use function spfilt to denoise image FigP5. H is a notch pass or notch reject . of size M-by-N with a total of % K symmetric notch pairs. as appropriate. N. H.tif is corrupted by noise.) PROJECT 5. Determine the relevant noise parameter(s) using the histogram you extracted. to generate X samples of the noise type and parameter(s) you determined in (a).2. M. The tradeoff in your selection of a filter in (a) and (b) should be to produce the cleanest image possible with as little image distortion (e. (a) Download this image and extract its noise histogram. Here.3 Adaptive Median Filtering Repeat Project 5.g.2 using adaptive median filtering and compare the results by generating difference images of the results. Generate the histogram of the samples using function hist..1 Estimating Noise PDFs and Their Parameters The image in FigP5. RADII.) (b) Use function imnoise or imnoise2. The function specifications are as follows: function H = notchfilter(type. X is the number of pixels in the ROI in (a).2(b)(pepper_only). (Hint: Use function roipoly to extract the data you think will help you identify the noise. blurring) as possible. write an M-function for performing notch filtering. This is an optical microscope image of a nickel-oxide thin film specimen magnified 600X. Compare with the corresponding histogram from (a). PROJECT 5. but corrupted this time by pepper noise only. and display the histogram.1(a)(noisy_superconductor_image).tif.2 Spatial Noise Reduction (a) Use function spfilt to denoise image FigP5. Select the size of filter window to give the best (in your opinion) visual results.3 and 5.

RADII is a K-by-1 array containing the corresponding radius for each specified notch.Project Solutions© Page 14 % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % filter. v) = [(u + M/2 . 4. If you completed Project 4.v) where D1(u. If RADII is a scalar.2) that the center of the transform is at coordinates (u0. ORDER is a K-by-1 array containing the order for the Butterworth filter corresponding to each notch. an image of your specified filter. Show the original image.v0)^2]^1/2 and. 5. Typically.) As implemented here.tif. If ORDER is a scalar. the value of D0 is specified greater than 1 to allow for a smooth transition between the center of the notch and its border. v) = [(u . 10). Even if the pattern is a pure sine wave. so to view it as an image or mesh plot. v0) and (-u0.N/2 + v0)^2]^1/2. and the restored result. 512. and due to the coordinate subtractions for D1 and D2 above. Recall (Sec. A notch PASS filter has the equation HP = 1 . it should be centered using H = fftshift(H).g. This is a notch REJECT filter because it attenuates frequencies at the locations of the notches. PROJECT 5.5 Notch Filtering Use function notchfilter to denoise FigP4. it has a notch at (277. compare your result with the image denoised using bandreject filtering in that project. the same order is applied to all notches. order 10).. v0) = (floor(M/2) + 1.4 The expression for D1 should read as shown above.5. especially when the filter is sharp (e. If the notch filter locations are determined by visually analyzing the spectrum. keep in mind that the top. keep in mind that this function lists the column coordinates (v) first and the row coordinates (u) second. then the same radius is used for each notch. left corner of the freq. The filter equation for one notch reject pair located at (u0. D2(u. Because dftuv is used to compute the distances. the filter is NOT centered on the frequency rectangle.v)D2(u. the following 512-by-512 filter has a notch at coordinates (237. by symmetry. -v0) is the Butterworth expression 1 HR = --------------------------D0^2 1 + [ --------------. 237): H = notchfilter(512.u0)^2 + (v + N/2 .M/2 + u0)^2 + (v . the program generates the symmetric pair). the analysis is easier carried out using the centered spectrum.]^n D1(u. 1). NOTE: When attempting to remove sinusoidal spatial interference. floor(N/2) + 1) For example.5(a)(HeadCT_corrupted). 277) and.HR. [237 277]. CENTERS is a K-by-2 array containing the center of each notch (only one pair of coordinates is needed per notch. it generally is advisable to do all DFT filtering without padding. padding introduces frequencies in the sine . similarly. depending on whether TYPE is specified as 'pass' or as 'reject'. If you use function pixval to determine the coordinates of the impulses interactively. rectangle is at (1. (NOTE: There is an error in the first printing of the book in Section 5.

the effect of wraparound error introduced by not using padding usually is negligible by comparison. . in this case. Thus.Project Solutions© Page 15 wave that often are quite visible and difficult to remove in the filtered image.

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