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A Maximum Power Control of Wmd Generator System Using a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator and a Boost Chopper Circuit

Kenji Amei Yukichi 'Igkayasu Takahisa Ohji Masaaki Sakui Faculty of Engineering, Toyama University, 3 190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555, Japan Phone:+81-76445-6710 FAX: +81-76445-6710 E-mai1:amei @eng.toyama-u.ac.jp

Abstract
The wind generator system using a boost chopper for generation control of permanent magnet synchronous generator is proposed. And, the theoretical analysis of characteristics of power generation is discussed. By replacing main circuit composition of generator and boost chopper with the equivalent circuit, characteristics for generating power and DC output voltage were expressed by the function of duty ratio of the boost chopper and generator rotational frequency. Electric power supplied from the generator is characterized by the condition o the load with the peak point, Therefore, f the optimum duty ratio for obtaining the maximum power was theoretically determined by differentiating the characteristic equation of generating power with respect to duty ratio of the boost chopper. It was verified experimentally by the construction of the simulator of the wind generator system, and the validity of derivation technique f o r the maximum power point was c o n j h e d .

1 Introduction
Supply and consumption of the energy based on the conventional fossil fuel are considered as a factor of global warming and environmental deterioration. The utilization of natural energy is noticed as a new energy source which replaces conventional energy source. The power generation by natural energy such as solar energy and geothermal energy, wind force, wave force is proposed. For the real practical application, the research of the performance to improvement and cost reduction is actively promoted. Since the wind power generation has been established on the basis of electric motor technology which is already completed, it is expected as natural energy power generating system of which the practical application is most regarded promising. Wind generator system and the control method have already been proposed in order to efficiently utilize the wind energy which changes every moment [1][2]. The
0-7803-7156-9/02/$10.000 2002 IEEE

induction generator applied to conventional wind power generation has the advantage which is solidly and cheaply, maintenance-free. However, permanent magnet synchronous generator is used for proposing wind generator system because of power factor is low and an excitation source of AC is necessary in induction generator. Boost chopper circuit composed of one switching device is used for the control of the generated output in order to improve the efficiency [3]. The main circuit composition of generators and boost chopper, etc. was replaced in the equivalent circuit in order to theoretically analyze this wind generator system. Characteristics such as generated output power and DC output voltage were expressed in functions of duty ratio of the boost chopper and the generator rotational speed. The electric power generated from the generator has characteristics by the condition of the load with the peak point. Therefore, the optimum duty ratio for obtaining the maximum power was theoretically deduced by differentiating the equation of the generated output power by duty ratio of the boost chopper. It was verified experimentally by the production of the simulator of the wind generator system. The validity of derivation technique of proposing maximum power point was confirmed. In proposing method, the value of each part is calculated on the basis of the rotational speed observed by the rotation sensor. The consideration on characteristics of the windmill is unnecessary, because the torque is controlled in proportion to the rotational speed of the generator, and because characteristics of the windmill are reflected in the change of the rotational speed. Therefore, this method can be applied for all windmills.

2 System Configuration
Fig.1 shows the system configuration of this equipment. This equipment is constituted by a permanent magnet synchronous generator, three-phase diode rectifier circuits, boost chopper circuit and voltage inverter circuit. Permanent magnet field excitation three-phase synchronous generator is used in order to

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PCC-Osaka 2002

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realize high efficiency and simplification of the power conversion circuit. Generated AC power is rectified by three-phase diode rectifier circuits in DC power. Three-phase diode rectifier circuits have the characteristics in which the phase of the largest line-to-line voltage is conducted. The current phase becomes always equal the phase voltage, and the power factor of fundamental wave approximates to one. Rectified DC power is boosted by the chopper circuit, and it is regenerated to the electric power system through the inverter with a high power factor. Since the validity of theoretical analysis method and the derivation technique of a maximum power point of wind generator system is mainly discussed in this paper, the inverter controlled with the high power factor is replaced a load resistance connected with DC link.

Fig.2 Boost chopper circuit

It is expressed by a duty ratio.


VdC,=

bdcl
tOff

-- 1 'del - 1-a
Where a is as follows.

a=-

to"

(3)

ton + t o 8

3 Derivation of the equivalent circuit


3.1 Boost chopper circuit[4]
The AC power output from the generator is converted into DC power through diode rectifier circuits, and it is boosted by the boost chopper circuit. In this chapter, the operation of the boost chopper circuit is theoretically analyzed. Generator and rectifier circuits which supplied the boost chopper circuit with electric power were replaced in a DC voltage source in order to facilitate the analysis. And, the inverter circuit connected with an output of the boost chopper circuit was simulated as load resistance connected with DC link, since it is controlled in the operation at the high power factor as a current source. The circuit configuration of the boost chopper is shown in fig.2. When it is assumed that the inductance and the capacitance of the equivalent circuit are sufficiently large, the current of the switching device is smoothed by the inductance, and DC output voltage is smoothed by the capacitance. The energy is stored in L d c , when SW was turned on in the period of t o n . And, the energy is transferred to C , , when SW was turned off in the period of teff. Following equation is obtained.
'dcl'on

It is possible that boost chopper circuit and load resistance R , are considered a kind of variable resistance changed by duty ratio from the viewpoint of the DC voltage source. This variable resistance R,, is defined as:
I del =-Vdd
Rdd

(4)

The output current I,, is expressed by output voltage Vdcz and load resistance R, .
(5) 4 Following equations are obtained, because input power and output power of the boost chopper is equal. vdc,'dc, = 'dc2Idc2 (6) By substituting (2) in (6), Vdc, and V,,, are eliminated.
I d , , = (l- a ) f d c l (7) By dividing of both sides of (2) in I,, , (7) is substituted.

Idc 2

=LL

In addition, (4) and (5) are substituted to (8).


R,, = (1 --a)' , R (9)

From equation (9), it was confirmed that the boost chopper from the viewpoint of the DC voltage source could be expressed in the function of the duty ratio.

= Vdc2to,7

(1)

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3.2 Permanent Magnet Synchmnous Generator


Since the power for excitation source is not required for the permanent magnet synchronous generator, high efficiency is expected. And, since the electromotive force in proportion to rotational speed is generated, it is possible to take out the generated output in the easiness. The equivalent circuit for one phase is shown in fig. 3. The constant of the generator is defined as K, and a field magnetic flux by the permanent magnet is defined as 4 , and the mechanical angular velocity is defined as w, . Induced electromotive force E of permanent magnet synchronous generator is shown like the following,
E = K&og
(10)

Fig.4 Connection diode rectifier circuits to the generator

From this, the relationship between V,,, and line to line voltage Vu and phase voltage V, is shown as following. -

Terminal voltage V, of the generator is shown like the following, when line current of the generator is defied as I, . (1 1) Where, R, is the winding resistance, and X s is the synchronous reactance.

3 v,, = -v4 3
R

LL

. . V8 = E - RJ8 - J X J ,

= -V* 3&

From (12)"and (14), the equation of I,, concisely expressed is obtained.

and I,

3.3 Diode rectifier circuits 3.4 The calculation of the electric power in AC side
The generator is connected with rectifier circuits like fig. 4. It is assumed that the AC power generated from the generator is converted into DC power through diode bridge rectifier circuits.
3' v8 8

= vc'c d,dl

(12)

Where, Vdcl, I,, are DC side voltage and DC side current, respectively. Three-phase diode rectifier circuits have the characteristics in which the phase of the largest line to line voltage is conducted. The resistance value per one phase of rectifier circuits from the viewpoint of A.C. side is defined as R , , and the maximum value of line-to-line voltage is defied as Vwd. The mean value of DC voltage is shown like the following.

The whole aspect of wind generator system of fig. 1 is shown in detail in fig. 5. Resistance value R, per one phase of rectifier circuits from the viewpoint of A.C. side is shown like the following by generator terminal voltage V, and line current I , .

From (14) and (15), the following equation is obtained.

v, ,

=-

3 6

The following equation is obtained, when (4), (9) and (16) are substituted in (17).

V,,cosBdB

n z
= -V-,t
7r

Fig.3 Equivalent circuit per one phase of synchronous generator

Fig.5 Whole aspect of wind generator system

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R, =-R 18
7r2

7r2
dc'

is defined like the following in order to facilitate the calculation.


x = -(1 - a)"RL
18
It2

=-(1-a)2RL
18

The line current of the generator is shown like (19) from (1 l ) , and the amplitude is expressed as (20).
I * E = m

The follbwing equation is obtained, when (24) is differentiated in a .

Generated output P is shown like the following, when it is expressed in the function of x .

From ( l o ) , (18) and (20), generated output power P is calculated.

P = 31VgllZg COS p
= 3R, 11,12

The following equation is obtained, when both sides is differentiated in a . dP -=-- dP dx d a a!~ d a - ?r2(K~w,)2RL(1-a) 3

{:;
-(1

-a)2 RL}' -(Raz + X s 2 )


-a)'R,

The DC voltage V, is obtained from (14). ,

[{y; -(I

+ Ra}' + X S 2 ] '

(27) It has the extreme value, when (27) becomes the zero. Duty ratio ama, the maximum power point is shown in in (28), because a is within 0 I a < 1 . (22) And, output voltage Vdc2 of the boost chopper circuit is calculated like (23) by multiplying the duty ratio in Vdc,.

dc2

=- a 1 -a

'del

3.6 DC voltage in maximum power point


By substimting amax deduced in (28) in (22) and (23), output voltage V,,, of rectifier circuits and output voltage V,,, of the boost chopper circuit are calculated like the following equation.

3.5 The derivation of the maximum power point


The generated output power is shown by a function of duty ratio a and angular velocity w , , as it is shown in equation (21), and it has characteristics with the peak point. The rotational speed of the generator always changes by wind velocity. Duty ratio a of the boost chopper must be controlled in order to effectively take out the electric power, while the maximum power point is pursued. Based on (21),duty ratio amax which the in electric power becomes maximum value is deduced. It

By solving (30) on R,, it is shown as a function of O g and ' d c 2 .

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By substituting instant rotational speed w , and output DC voltage reference Vdcz* in equation (31), the value of the load resistance R , for fixedly maintaining DC voltage is calculated. The parameter necessary for the theoretical analysis is shown at table 1.

4. The experimental verification


Simulation system shown in fig. 6 was produced, and the maximum power control of wind generator system was verified experimentally by using it. Ratings and parameters of the simulator system are shown in tables 2. The windmill is simulated by controlling the speed in the induction motor driven by the inverter with feedback control. In actual wind generator system, rotational speed shows the characteristics which change with the change of load torque. However, in produced windmill simulation system, the consideration for the load torque is yet insufficient, and it is simulated only by the speed control. Then, the rotational speed of the generator was tested under the always-fixed condition, and it was examined on three rotational speeds of 1200rpm , 15OOrpm, 18OOrpm , as an example. Load resistance R , for three kinds of rotational speed is calculated by substituting fixed DC voltage reference Vdcz' and three kinds of rotational speed in (31), respectively. In these conditions, DC output voltage and generated output power were observed, when duty ratio a of the boost chopper circuit was changed from 0 to about 0.9. The analysis method was evaluated in comparison with experimental result and calculated value from theoretical equations. Characteristics of DC output voltage at three kinds of rotational speeds are respectively shown in fig. 7(a),7(b) Table 1 Parameters for analysis Generator Constant Field flux 'Svnchronous meed lPole
K 25.OV.slradlwb
cp N P 00156wb 1SMh"

Fig.6 Simulation system for the wind power generation

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

D t Ratio a uy

Fig.7(a) Characteristics of DC output voltage( 1200rpm)

x
0

' Experimentall I 0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Duty Ratio a

Fig.7(b) Characteristics of DC output voltage( 1500rpm)

16

? i 2 300
Table 2 Ratings and parameters
INV 2.2kW. ZOOV Inverter M Induction Motor L 2.2kW. 200V. 9.OA. 4Poles. 60Hz SG 1.5kW. 165V. 6.6A. 6Poles. 90Hz PM Generator
ninde hridue
0

m
Il -

200
-

.3 100
U

IL-

)iode IGBT Inductor Capacitor

S O W . SOA 600V.50A SW 600V.SOA Ldc 1.4mH Cdc 450V. 3300uF


DB

.L -

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

D t Ratioa uy

Fig.7(c) Characteristics of DC output voltage(l8OOrpm)

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and 7(c). DC output voltage of experimental value is slightly lower than that of theoretical value at all rotational speeds. However, experimental value and theoretical value showed the almost similar tendency, and it was confirmed that the technique of the theoretical calculation simulated the wind generator system. Characteristics of the generated output power are shown in fig. 8. Though the experimental value is slightly lower than theoretical value as well as characteristics of DC voltage, duty ratio in the maximum power point is almost equal. From this fact, it was confirmed that the maximum power point could be always pursued by controlling the boost chopper circuit using duty ratio theoretically calculated. In the theoretical analysis, it was assumed that voltage and current of the generator were sine wave. But, in the experiment, the distortion was generated in the effect of the overlap angle in the voltage of the generator. The effective fundamental wave component was dropped by this, and the DC voltage drop was generated. ON-state voltage drop of the switching device and effect by the armature reaction of synchronous generator are considered as a cause of the others.

for electric power regeneration will be examined, while the factor of the error which arises between theoretical value and experimental value is further examined.

References
[l] T.Tanaka, T.Toumiya, T.Suzuki: A study for adapted control interval of wind power system with resistance load controlled by hill-climbing method, 1998 National convention record 1.E.E.Japan p.7-332 [2] K.Aoki, T.Nakano: Neural network based maximum power control wind generator system, 2000 National convention record 1.E.E.Japan p.7-176 [3] N.Yamamura, M.Ishida, T.Hori: A Simple Wind Power Generating System with Permanent Magnet Type Synchronous Generator, IEEE PEDS99, pp.849-854, 1999 [4] Eduard.Muljadi, Stephen.Drouilhet, fichard.Holz, Vahan Gevorgian: Analysis of Permanent Magnet Generator for Wind Power Battery Charging, IEEE Ind. Appl. Conf. 1996, Vol.1 pp.541-548, 1996

5. Conclusion
In this paper, characteristics of power generation on wind generator system, which used the boost chopper circuit for generation control of permanent magnet synchronous generator, were theoretically analyzed. The generated output power was shown as a function of rotational speed of the generator and duty ratio o boost f chopper. The control method which pursued the maximum power point on the basis of the derivative was proposed. And, it was verified that duty ratio generated in the maximum power had theoretically been deduced by the experiment in three kinds of rotational speed areas. In the future, the optimum control method of the inverter

1200

t
?t

E lo00
3
0 .

800

3
u

600
400

200

Fig.8 Characteristics of generating power

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