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For : School of Agriculture Development (SPP) Negeri Pelaihari Editor : Warih Nugroho, DVM
Alhamdulillah, thanks to Allah that has given His bless to editor to finish this book. This book is a collection of articles To Learn English that editor got from the internet. So, if reader finds any mistakes from this book please visit www.tolearnenglish.com as reference. Editor needs to collect these articles because of these articles are easy to use. So, the editor thinks these articles will help the students to learn English in School of Agriculture Development if they are made in to the book. In order to finish this book the editor was helped by many people that have an interest in progress of English language. So, the editor doesn’t forget to say thanks to: 1. Mr. A K Permana Alamsjah, DVM the headmaster of School of Agriculture Development of Pelaihari 2. Mr. Ir. Dwi Priyanto, the English teacher in School of Agriculture Development. 3. Warih Pamungkas Yoga Utomo, editor’s brother that has given the articles and all of his support to editor. 4. Endang Marlina and Najwa Ulya Nugrahaini editor’s wife and daughter for their support 5. Member of Teenager English Club School of Agriculture Development for their motivation to learn English and other people that can’t told one by one for their sympathize and other help. Editor knows that this book is not prefect and needs revision in the future. Editor hopes there are any critics and suggests from the reader to make this book better. Editor warns to reader that this book only use in School of Agriculture Development. This book isn’t printed for commercial use and printed in limited edition.
Pelaihari, February 2008
Warih Nugroho, DVM
Page Preface Contents Present Simple Present Continuous (Be +ing) Present Simple or Present Continuous Past Simple Preterite Be + Ing Present Prefect Pluperfect Future Future Prefect and Future Progressive The Passive Voice Comparatives Superlative Direct and indirect discourse The Imperative Asking A Question Interrogative Word Modals : Can, May, Must, Have to Some, Any, No Present Participles Reflexive Pronouns The Subjunctive Which, Who, Whose, Where Non Defining Relative Clauses Defining Relative Clauses vs Non Defining Relative Clauses Adverbs
i ii 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 27
Adjectives: Form & Usage Adjective Placement Conditional Making Suggestions References
28 29 30 31 32
Main uses: permanent situations, regular habits and daily routine; feelings Syntax: In the positive form, add an 's' to the base form of the 3rd person singular. If the verb ends in −y preceded by a consonant, change the −y to −ies Examples: I wake up You wake up He/She/It wakeS up We wake up You wake up They wake up Negative: Conjugate 'do' + not (don't and doesn't) + the base form of the verb to make negatives. I don't wake up at 9.30 am She doesn't wake up at 9.30 am Question: Conjugate 'do' (do or does) + the base form of the verb in question forms. Do you wake up at 9.30? Does she wake up at 9.30? Answers: Do you wake up at 9.30 ? Long answer: Yes, I wake up at 9.30 No, I don't wake up at 9.30 Short answer: Yes, I do. No, I don't. TEST 1. The cinema _______________ (close) at 7 pm. 2. The _______________ (not/think) that you should buy this dress. 3. We usually _______________ (take) a taxi to go to work. 4. How often _______________ (you go) to the swimming−pool? 5. Courses _______________ (begin) the third of September. 6. When _______________ (he arrive) home in the evenings? 7. They _______________ (not/live) in Washington, they _______________ (live) in New York. 8. We usually _______________ (take) a taxi to go to work. 9. He _______________ (get up) early on Mondays. 10. I _______________ (not/believe) in witches. 11. The Sun's rays _______________ (take) eight minutes to reach the Earth.
Present Continuous (BE + −ING)
Main use: action which is being done at the same moment. Syntax: Auxiliary BE (conjugated) + Verb ending in −ING Examples: I am playing football. You are playing football. He/She/It is playing football. We are playing football. You are playing football. They are playing football. Negation: I am not playing football, you are not playing football... Question: Am I playing football? Are you playing football? Is he playing football? ... Answers: Are they playing football? Long answers: Yes, they're playing football. No, they aren't playing football. Short answers: Yes, they are. No, they aren't. TEST − Fill in the gaps 1. They ........................ (study) at the moment. 2. She ........................ (watch) TV. 3. What ........................ (you/read) at the moment? 4. I ........................ (cook) dinner tonight. Would you like to come? 5. It ........................ (work). I think it's broken. 6. He ........................ (learn) German for his job.
Present simple or Present continuous? Put the verbs into the correct tense (present simple OR present continuous):
The train always ________________(1: leave) on time. "What's the matter? Why ________________(2: cry/you)?" That's strange. They________________(3: not to watch) TV. He________________(4: not to speak) very good English. Please be quiet! I________________(5: do) my homework. Where________________(6: live/they)? Listen! John ________________ music! (7: play) I never ________________(8: go) to the swimming pool. Harold Black's a famous pianist. He________________(9: give) two or three concerts every week. He ________________(10: travel) a lot and this week he's in New York. He________________(11: stay) at an expensive hotel. He's at his hotel now. He________________(12: have) his breakfast in the dining−room. He________________(13: drink) a cup of coffee and he________________(14: read) a newspaper. Harold's always very busy. He________________(15: play) the piano regularly. He________________(16: practise) for four hours every day. He________________(17: go) to bed late and he always ________________(18: get up) early. But he sometimes________________(19: get) dressed too quickly, and this morning he________________(20: wear) one blue sock and one red one!
Past Simple (Preterite)
Main use: past action (dated and definite) −− REGULAR VERBS −− Did they play football yesterday? >> Yes, they played football yesterday. = Yes, they did. >> No, they didn't play football. = No, they didn't. −− IRREGULAR VERBS −− Did they win yesterday? >> Yes, they won. = Yes, they did. No, they didn't win yesterday. = No, they didn't. TEST − Fill in the gaps: ____________ (1: you/go) to London yesterday? Yes, I ____________ (2): I ____________ (3: take) the Eurostar and I ____________ (4: arrive) at Waterloo Station. I ____________ (5: meet) old friends there. They ____________ (6: be) all very happy to see me. I___________ (7: visit) the town with them and I even ____________ (8: see) Prince Charles! I ____________ (9: go) to Buckingham Palace too! It ____________ (10: be) a wonderful journey!
Preterite: BE + −ING
Main use: action in the past, which was being done, when another short action interrupted it. Syntax: auxiliary BE (was/were) + Verb + −ING Examples: Were they playing football when you saw them yesterday? Answers: Yes, they were playing football when I saw them yesterday. = Yes, they were. No, they weren't playing football when I saw them yesterday. = No, they weren't. TEST Please choose the correct tense: simple past or BE+−ING? I _____________ (1: have) a bath yesterday when the phone _____________ (2: ring). "That must be my mother," I _____________ (3: think). As I _____________ (4: get) out of the bath, I _____________ (5: put) my foot on my watch and I _____________ (6: break) it. The phone _____________ (7: still/ring). I _____________(8: run) out of the bathroom and I _____________ (9: hit) my head on the door. It _____________ (10: hurt) terribly and I _____________ (11: want) to sit down for a moment, but the phone _____________ (12: still/ring). "Please wait a minute, mother," I _____________ (13: think). The cats _____________ (14: sit) at the top of the stairs. I _____________ (15: not/see) them and I _____________ (16: fall). At the bottom of the stairs I _____________ (17: get up). My right leg _____________ (18: hurt) more than my head. The phone_____________ (19: still/ring). At last I _____________ (20: answer) it. It _____________ (21: be) my mother."Hello, dear. Is everything all right?" she ____________ (22: say).
Main uses: 1. Past actions with results/consequences in the present. Paul has eaten all the cookies. When was the action done? In the past: a few minutes ago/yesterday. Consequence? There is no cookie left. There is nothing left for me. 2) Actions which began in the past and are still in progress. Paul has lived in London for 10 years. When did it start? 10 years ago. Is it finished? No, it isn't. Paul is still in London. He lives in London. SYNTAX: HAVE (or HAS with he/she/it) + PAST PARTICIPLE I have done my homework. She has done her homework (verb: do) NEGATIVE: I have not done my homework. = I haven't done my homework. She has not done her homework. = She hasn't done her homework. QUESTION: Have you done your homework? Yes, I have. / No, I haven't. TEST: Present perfect − Conjugate the verbs: 1. Peter _____________ (steal) my trainers! 2. I ________________ (buy) this magazine. 3. We ______________ (write) three pages this afternoon. 4. _________________ (ever/you/be) to London? 5. I ________________ (finish) my work yet.
The plu−perfect is formed with the auxiliary HAD, followed by the past participle of the main verb: He had always wanted to travel in Africa. She had already left when Philippe arrived. I bought the book that Corinne had recommended to me. The plu−perfect shows that the action has been done before another action (in the past). Adverbs such as "already" reinforce this impression. She learned to love the dog that had bitten her the week before. When I got home, I had already heard the bad news. The children ate all the cookies that their father had bought. The plu−perfect is often used in hypothetical expressions with "if", in conjunction with the past conditional: I would not have come if I had known he was ill. With the adverb "just", the plu−perfect indicates the immediate past in a past context: He had just eaten lunch when I arrived. TEST − Fill in the gaps with the verbs (plu−perfect): 1. I went to Paris two days ago. I ___________________ (already / to be) to Europe several years before. 2. I ate the apple I _________________ (to buy) in the supermarket. 3. _________________ you _________________ (to do) your homework when your friend arrived? Answer 1: Yes, I _________________. Answer 2: No, I _________________.
WILL: − predictions (John won't win the race; the weather will be very bad tomorrow.) − scheduled events (the show will start at 10 tonight). − promises: I will help you to do your homework tonight. Syntax: S + WILL + base form Will you help me? I will help you > You will help you / He will help you / We will help you / You will help you / They will help you. GOING TO: − planned events or intentions (which have been decided on before the moment of speaking and which are not very far from this moment). Syntax: S + BE (present tense) + GOING TO + base form Are you going to buy a car tomorrow? I am going to buy a car tomorrow morning. > You are going to buy a car… She is going to buy a car… We are going to buy a car… You are going to buy a car… They are going to buy a car… TEST: 1) Put these words into the correct order to build a sentence: a) to / New York / I / tomorrow / fly / am / to / going b) she / records / will / to / bring / the / her / party c) am / married / I / get / going / to d) later / guitar / the / play / will / you e) they / eat / to / going / are 2) Fill in these sentences a) I've just finished my homework so I …………………………………. (to play) video games. b) She ………………………………….(to give) a concert at the Town Hall next Saturday night. c) They are hungry; they ………………………………….(to have) a snack. d) You ………………………………….(not to use) the phone, are you?
FUTURE PERFECT AND FUTURE PROGRESSIVE
Relatively rare in English, the future perfect serves to express one future action which precedes a future moment or another future action. Moreover, it asserts that these actions will be completed before the principal action. It is formed by adding the modal "will" to the auxiliary "have," preceding the past participle: She will have finished before eight o'clock. Tomorrow morning they will all have left. They will already have finished eating by the time we get there. One can often use the simple future instead of the future perfect, but a nuance is lost: the simple future does not emphasize the completion of the first action: Tomorrow morning they will all leave. (The future perfect would emphasize that they will already have departed before tomorrow morning.) They will finish eating by the time we get there. (They may finish just as we arrive; the future perfect would emphasize that they will have finished before we arrive.)
The future progressive serves to express an action which will be in the process of occurring. It is formed by putting the present progressive into the future: will be + present participle. I will be waiting for you at six o'clock. He will be eating by the time you arrive. Hint for usage: How to choose between the future progressive and the simple future? If it is possible to use the expression "will be in the process of," it is the future progressive that best expresses the action. The future progressive indicates that an action will be continuing at a given moment; the simple future suggests that the action will be complete. Thus the verb tense can nuance meaning. Consider these sentences, both of which are grammatically correct: I will be finishing my homework at 10:00. (This suggests that I may finish my homework at 10:05 or 10:15; I will be nearing completion, in the process of completion.) I will finish my homework at 10:00. (This suggests that I will finish at 10:00 sharp.) TEST Put these words in the correct order to build a sentence. Be careful: one word is not used. 1. you / going / present / will / to / party / their / be ? 2. be / I / cake / tomorrow / leaving / will 3. she / 9 pm / have / will / by / been / ready / bed 4. midnight / eat / will / they / before / left / have / already.
The Passive Voice
Main use: It is used to put the emphasis on the person or the thing which is affected by an action. It is used in sentences where the object of the action is more important than the people who perform the action. Syntax: Subject + BE (tense of the active sentence) + Past participle Important: If you need to tell who is doing the action, use BY America was discovered by Christopher Columbus in 1492. Examples: Present (be+ing): Peter is eating an apple. >An apple is being eaten by Peter. Present Simple: They make shoes in this factory. >Shoes are made in this factory. Preterite: They built this bridge in the 13th century. >This bridge was built in the 13th century. and so on... TEST − Put the following sentences into the passive voice. 1. They built the house in two months. > help: The house... 2. We will carry the luggage upstairs. 3. Everyday John feeds the cat. 4. They have not caught the murderer yet. 5. “The fog caused the accident. The police called the ambulance. The insurance will cover the damage.
Main rule: Comparatives are used to compare two things and to highlight the superiority, inferiority, or equality of one term compared to another. Short Adjectives ( 1 - 2 syllables) Long Adjectives (3+ syllables) superiority ADJ + -ER than fast > X is faster than Y. MORE + ADJ than expensive > X is more expensive than Y. equalitity as ADJ as big > X is as big as Y. inferiority less ADJ than beautiful > X is less beautiful than Y. Examples: Jean is taller than Catherine. Philippe is less tall than Jean. Leïla is as tall as Jean. young --> younger | tall --> taller | old --> older NOTES: If the adjective ends in "--y" the "y" becomes "i" : heavy --> heavier | early --> earlier | busy --> busier | healthy --> healthier | chilly --> chillier If the adjective ends in "--e" only an "r" is needed: wise --> wiser | large --> larger | simple --> simpler | late --> later If the adjective ends with "single vowel + consonant" the consonant is doubled and one adds "-er" : big --> bigger | thin --> thinner | hot --> hotter
> Some very common adjectives have irregular comparatives: good --> better | bad --> worse | far --> farther
TEST - Compare these 2 cars (fictitious data). Use the adjectives.
MERCEDES (big car) $200,000 1. expensive > ............................................. 2. cheap > ................................................... 3. powerful > ............................................... 4. large > .................................................... 5. comfortable > .......................................... 6. fast > ...................................................... Mini (small car) $10,000
When comparing two things one uses the comparative (previous lesson); however, for comparisons in larger groups, you must use the superlative. The superlative designates extremes: the best, the first, the worst, the last, etc. A. It is the word "most" or the ending "−−est" that designates the superlative. · He is the most efficient worker we have. · That is the poorest family in the neighborhood. B. The compared term (adjective or adverb) will be preceded by the definite article: · He works the fastest of any student I know. · She is the tallest woman in town. C. Unlike the comparative, the superlative is not followed by "than": instead, one uses "of," followed by the context of the comparison (although this context is sometimes implicit): · It's the best day of my life! · She works the best of the whole class. · She's the one who arrived first. Irregular forms Monosyllabic adjectives (and several common two−syllable adjectives) take the ending "−−est" in superlatives of superiority, and thus will not use the adverb "most." However, these same adjectives will use "less," like other adjectives, in superlatives of inferiority: young −−> the youngest, tall −−> the tallest, old −−> the oldest >If the adjective ends in "−−y" the "y" becomes "i": heavy −−> the heaviest, early −−> the earliest, busy −−> the busiest, healthy −−> the healthiest, chilly −−> the chilliest >If the adjective ends in "−−e" one adds only "−−st" : wise −−> the wisest, large −−> the largest, simple −−> the simplest, late −−> the latest, >If the adjective ends in "single vowel + consonant," the consonant is doubled and one adds "−−est": red −−> the reddest, big −−> the biggest, thin −−> the thinnest, hot −−> the hottest >Some very common superlatives have irregular forms: good −−> the best, bad −−> the worst, far −−> the farthest, >Some adjectives exist only in superlative form: the first, the last TEST Fill in the blanks with a comparative or a superlative : a.Canada is (big) ________than the USA but China is (populous) ________country in the world. b. We stayed at (cheap) ________hotel in the town but my cousin’s campsite was (cheap) ________ than our hotel. c. January is generally (bad) ________ than December but February is (cold) ________ month. d. English is (easy) ________ than German. | e. Chinese is (difficult) ________language. f. Heathrow is one of (busy) ________ airports in Europe. g. My father thinks that the Beatles were (good) ________ than the Rolling Stones, but in my opinion, U2 is (great) ________ band.
Direct and indirect discourse
When one reports what others have said word for word, this is called "direct discourse." It is generally signalled by the presence of quotation marks: · Philippe said, "I'll come if I have the time." · My roommate said, "Clean the place up, or get out of here!" When one paraphrases the words of others, writing them so as to avoid direct quotation, this is called "indirect discourse." Indirect discourse entails certain changes: A. Quotation marks are not used: direct discourse: He told me, "You're stupid" indirect discourse: He told me that I was stupid. B. When the verb in the reported discourse is conjugated, is it generally preceded by "that"; however, the inclusion of "that" is optional · She said that she would be late. · OR: She said she would be late. · They informed us that the plane was delayed. · OR: They informed us the plane was delayed. C. Imperative forms, when recounted in indirect discourse, generally become infinitive constructions: direct discourse: He told me, "Write to me." indirect discourse: He told me to write him. direct discourse: I told them, "Get out of here!" indirect discourse: I told them to get out of here. D. When a quotation is put in indirect discourse, care must be taken to verify that verb tenses reflect the change in temporal context: direct discourse: She said, "I will be on time." indirect discourse: She said she would be on time. direct discourse: When he called he said, "I am at the airport" indirect discourse: When he called he said he was at the airport. TEST indirect discourse 1. Sarah said, "I am ill." 2. Paul told me, "Go to the cinema and buy two tickets". 3. Thierry explained to us, "I went to Spain during my holidays". 4. John said, "I will buy a new computer soon". 5. My father told me, "Do your homework!"
Imperatives are used to issue commands. They use the infinitive of verbs (dropping the word "to"); in the first person plural ("we"), the infinitive is preceded by "let's" (or: "let us"): · Speak! · Finish your homework! · Let's eat! · Close the door! The negative imperative is formed by placing "don't" (or "do not") before the imperative form; in the first person plural one uses "let's not" (or "let us not") : · Let's not forget who helped us. · Don't leave me! · Don't walk on the grass! · Please don't eat the daisies! The imperative has no effect on the word order of the rest of the sentence. TEST − Find the imperative forms of these phrases: 1) you / go to the supermarket. 2) we / have a drink 3) you / not to smoke 4) we / not to take the car
ASKING A QUESTION
A) THE RULE interrogative pronoun/adverb + auxiliary + subject + verb + ... Examples Why did you go to Spain? Exception: when WHO is the subject of the sentence: Example Who went to Spain? B) THE MAIN INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS / ADVERBS WHO Peter has broken the vase. Who has broken the vase? WHAT John took an orange. What did John take? WHICH Which pullover do you want? The blue one or the red one? WHEN I went to Spain in 1998. When did you go to Spain? WHY I am sad because my dog is ill. Why are you sad? WHAT... FOR I save money to buy a new car. What do you save money for? HOW + adjective HOW I go to Belgium by car. How do you go to Belgium? HOW FAR I am 5 miles from Paris. How far are you from Paris? HOW LONG This movie lasts for 2 hours.
How long does this movie last? HOW MUCH + singulier I want two bottles of milk. How much milk do you want? HOW MANY + pluriel I want three potatoes. How many potatoes do you want? HOW OFTEN I go to Spain twice a week. How often do you go to Spain? HOW OLD I am 24 years old. How old are you? TEST : Ask a question about the underlined words: Yesterday, Sandra went to the shopping center She bought a beautiful dress. She got back home. She was unhappy because it was too large. Her father phoned the shop. He went back to the shop.
When? I bought a new car yesterday. When did you buy a new car? Where? I went to Paris. Where did you go to? How much + Singular / How many + Plural I ate two apples. How many apples did you eat? Why? I went to the hospital because I was ill. Why did you go the hospital? Which when a choice must be made between 2 things: · Which film do you want to see? "Impossible Mission" or "Pretty Woman"? · Here are two pizzas. Which one do you prefer? TEST Ask a question about the underlined words: 1. I saw that movie in a big cinema. 2. I will see my girlfriend next summer. 3. I would like to buy three bottles of milk. 4. I love this film because I love Tom Cruise. 5. Sandra stole my keys! 6. I ate a big cake. 7. I spoke to Sarah.
MODALS: CAN, MAY, MUST, HAVE TO
I can drive
I must do my home work
I can come
2. For an opinion that you think has a good possibility of being true
Look at his uniform. He must be a policeman. HAVE TO
She may come tomorrow
1) In the affirmative: HAVE TO has a meaning similar to MUST.
I have to go to the school.
2) In a very polite question
May I open the window?
2) In the negative: HAVE TO has a different meaning:
"you don't need to dot that" It's Sunday! I don't have to go to school.
TEST : Fill in the gaps with CAN/CAN'T, MAY/MAY NOT, MUST/MUSTN'T, HAVE TO/DON'T HAVE TO JOHN: "_________ you come to the match this afternoon?" PETER: "I'm sorry. I _________ . I _________ wash my father's car." JOHN: "But it's raining! You _________ wash it!" PETER: "I know, but my parents say the rain _________ stop soon. And I _________ go out with you tonight because I _________ go to my grandmother's birthday party and I _________come back late."
SOME, ANY, NO
SOME: used in positive sentences for countable and uncountable nouns. Example: I have some friends. ANY: used in negative sentences or questions for countable and uncountable nouns. Example: Do you have any cheese? − He doesn't have any friends in Chicago. EXCEPTION! "some" is used in questions when offering or requesting something that is there. Examples: Would you like some bread? (offer) − Could I have some water? (request) SOMEBODY, SOMEWHERE, SOMETHING: Used in positive sentences. Example: He lives somewhere near here. ANYBODY, ANYWHERE, ANYTHING: Used in negative sentences or questions. Examples: Do you know anything about that boy? − She doesn't have anywhere to go. NOTHING: Used in positive sentences (with a negative meaning). Example: This show is very boring! There's nothing interesting! TEST 1) A / AN, SOME or ANY? 1. I've got ………………. cookbook. 2. There is ……………….water in the fridge. 3. There isn't……………….whisky left in the bottle. 4. There was……………….bottle of whisky on the shelf. 5. She wants to eat ……………….apple. 6. Have we got ……………….chips? 2) SOMETHING, ANYTHING OR NOTHING ? 1. He's hungry, but there's …………………… to eat in the fridge! 2. I don't want to eat…………………… 3. I can see …………………… under the table. What is it? 4. "Pardon? What did you say?" − "……………………" 5. Is there …………………… interesting to watch on TV tonight?
Formation The present participle is formed by adding the ending "−−ing" to the infinitive (dropping any silent "e" at the end of the infinitive): to sing −−> singing to take −−> taking to bake −−> baking to be −−> being to have −−> having Use A. The present participle may often function as an adjective: That's an interesting book. That tree is a weeping willow. B. The present participle can be used as a noun denoting an activity (this form is also called a gerund): Swimming is good exercise. Traveling is fun. C. The present participle can indicate an action that is taking place, although it cannot stand by itself as a verb. In these cases it generally modifies a noun (or pronoun), an adverb, or a past participle: Thinking myself lost, I gave up all hope. Washing clothes is not my idea of a job. Looking ahead is important. D. The present participle may be used with "while" or "by" to express an idea of simultaneity ("while") or causality ("by") : He finished dinner while watching television. By using a dictionary he could find all the words. While speaking on the phone, she doodled. By calling the police you saved my life! E. The present participle of the auxiliary "have" may be used with the past participle to describe a past condition resulting in another action: Having spent all his money, he returned home. Having told herself that she would be too late, she accelerated. TEST A) Find the gerund: 1. to give | 2. to walk | 3. to sit | 4. to help B) Fill in the blanks with BY or WHILE + a present participle. Une one of these verbs: to look, to watch, to work 1. He passed his exam __________________ very hard. 2. He did his homework __________________ TV. 3. They found the way to our house __________________ at their map.
Reflexive pronouns are used to show that the actions described by a verb act upon the subject of the verb: the subject and the object are thus the same. The forms of reflexive pronouns correspond to the forms of the subject pronouns: Subject pronouns I you he she it we you they Reflexive pronouns myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves
To use a verb reflexively, the reflexive pronoun must follow the verb (and, in the case of an intransitive verb, it will follow any preposition used with the verb). If there are multiple verbs in the sentence, the reflexive pronoun follows the verb to which it applies: I told myself it would never happen. She talks to herself all the time. Look at yourself in that mirror! I would like to give myself a raise. At the end of a sentence, one can add reflexive pronouns as a way of accentuating the subject in the sentence. In this case, the verb does not have reflexive power: I would rather do that myself. Can you talk to him yourself?
Fill in the gaps with the correct pronouns: 1) The door opens ________________ when someone comes near it. 2) Look at your umbrella! You should buy ________________ a new one. 3) There was so much noise, I couldn't make ________________ heard. 4) "− Who taught you Latin?" || "− I taught ________________ ." 5) They lost the match and were ashamed of ________________ .
The subjunctive is used rarely. One finds vestiges of it in a few hypothetical expressions (using "if + to be") and in a few set phrases. (In many cases the subjunctive −− considered archaic or literary −− is replaced by the modal "would," used to express the conditional.) Other meanings often communicated by the subjunctive in other languages will be expressed by modal verbs in English. > In constructions using "if + to be", one should use "were" (instead of "was") with the first and third persons singular ("I" and "he," "she," or "it"). (In spoken English, and in much informal writing, "was" will still be used.) If I were Muriel, I'd never go back there. If she were alone, I'd stop by to see her. He acts as if he were crazy. > When you use verbs, the rule is easy to understand: If I had enough money, I would buy a big house. > Set phrases and proverbs: God help us! Long live the king! Would that I were free!
Build a sentence with one part from column A and one part from column B. The sentence must be logical. eg: If she had time, she would visit you. A a. She had time. b. John didn't know this beautiful girl. c. They spent too much time on the beach. d. Betty liked exotic food. e. There was enough snow. f. You travelled by bus. g. I had your address. B 1. She would visit you. 2. She wouldn't eat at McDonald's every day. 3. He wouldn't invite her out. 4. I would send you a postcard. 5. It would be cheaper. 6. They would get sunburnt. 7. You would go skiing.
WHICH, WHO, WHOSE, WHERE
The dog which is here is very aggressive.
The girl who is looking at us is called Sarah.
This singer, whose name I don't remember, has a beautiful voice.
This is the town where I live.
TEST : A) Fill in these sentences with WHO, WHICH, WHERE or WHOSE 1. The man, _____________ is sitting on the chair, is a teacher. 2. The dog, _____________ is eating, belongs to Mike. 3. This actor, _____________ films are very bad, is really rich. B) Build 1 sentence with these 2 sentences (use a relative clause): 4. John is speaking to his boss. His boss is a famous writer. 5. I like the town. You live there. 6. I like the painting. It is in this room.
Non−defining relative clauses
Person Object Subject who which Object who, whom which Possessive whose whose, of which Examples: >> SUBJECT: Frank Zappa, who was one of the most creative artists in rock 'n roll, came from California. >> OBJECT: Frank invited Janet, who (whom) he had met in Japan, to the party. Peter brought his favorite antique book, which he had found at a flee market, to show his friends. >> POSSESSIVE: Olympia, whose name is taken from the Greek, is the capitol of Washington State. The singer, whose most recent recording has had much success, is signing autographs. The artist, whose name he could not remember, was one of the best he had ever seen. >> NOTE: In non−defining relative clauses, which can be used to refer to an entire clause. Example: He came for the weekend wearing only some shorts and a t−shirt, which was a stupid thing to do. TEST Choose the right pronoun: 1. The girl, _____________ is sitting on the bench, is called Sarah. 2. The dog, _____________ John has just bought, is very clever. 3. The actor, _____________ films are very famous, is very happy. Build 1 sentence with a relative clause: 4. Peter has met his girlfriend. She is a journalist. 5. His house is located near London. It very large. 6. Peter has just bought a car. He has found it abroad.
Defining Relative Clauses VS. Non−defining relative clauses
Non−defining Relative Clauses They provide interesting additional information which is not essential to understanding the meaning of the sentence. Example: Mrs. Jackson, who is very intelligent, lives on the corner. "Mrs Johnson lives on the corner" provides a good piece of information. We also know that she is very intelligent, thanks to the relative clause (another interesting piece of information). NB: YOU MUST USE COMMAS! Defining Relative Clauses − their information is crucial in understanding the meaning of the sentence. − if you remove them, the sentence has a different meaning or no meaning at all. Examples: The woman who lives in apartment No. 34 has been arrested. What woman? The woman who lives in apartment n°34, not another woman. A defining relative clause clearly defines who or what we are talking about. Without this information, it would be difficult to know who or what is meant. NB: NO COMMAS! Defining Relative Clauses Subject: Example: Children who (that) play with fire are in great danger of harm. The man who bought all the books by Hemingway has died. Which is better? which/who OR that? who and which: written English that: oral English Object: Example: That's the boy (Ø , that, who, whom) I invited to the party. There's the house (Ø, that, which) I'd like to buy. Possessive: Example: He's the man whose car was stolen last week. They were sure to visit the town whose location (OR the location of which) was little known.
TEST Choose the right pronoun: 1. It is the book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I've just read. 2. She is the girl. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sat next to me in the bus. 3. They are the people . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . helped me. 4. This is the dog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . scared me. Build one sentence (containing a defining relative clause) with these two sentences: 5. A robot is a machine. It can replace human workers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. 6. A vet is a doctor. He treats animals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 7. Pets are animals. They are kept at home as companions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 8. A robot is a machine. It looks like a human being. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I) Building adverbs A. Most adverbs are formed from the adjective. One adds the ending "−ly" to the adjectival form: intelligent −−> intelligently, slow −−> slowly , precise −−> precisely B. If the adjective ends with "−le," simply replace the "e" with "y": simple −−> simply , subtle −−> subtly , C. The adverb corresponding to the adjective "good" is irregular: good −−> well D. Some adverbs have the same form as the adjective: high , low , hard , better , fast E. In general, adverbs of time and space have no corresponding adjective; the same can be said of adverbs of quantity: yesterday , today , tomorrow , early , soon , late , here , there , less , more , as , very , much , a lot of , little of II) Where? A. When an adverb modifies a verb, it generally comes at the end of the clause (but before any prepositional phrases or subordinated clauses): He writes poorly. She pronounced that word well.. Joseph worked diligently. They worked hard before coming home. Exceptions: a few adverbs telling the speaker's opinion, such as "probably," "undoubtedly," "surely," "certainly," etc., come at the beginning of the sentence, or between the modal verb (or auxiliary) and the principal verb: We are probably going to spend the summer in Corsica. Certainly we would never do that! We will undoubtedly see a dirty political campaign this year. B. Adverbs of time and space generally come at the end of the sentence; however, they may be placed at the beginning of the sentence if the predicate clause is long and complicated: I saw her yesterday. We're going to the beach today. She went to bed very early. Tomorrow we will try to get up early to prepare for our trip. C. Adverbs modifying adjectives or an other adverb are placed before the adjective or the adverb they modify: She was really very happy to see you. It was a brilliantly staged performance. TEST A) Find the corresponding adverbs: bad, clear, different, sad, simple, calm B) Insert these adverbs into these sentences: 1. I like this wine. (very much) 2. We will go to the cinema tonight. (probably) 3. I lost my temper. (nearly)
Adjectives: forms & usage
Forms: Adjectives are generally invariable in English and do not agree with nouns in number and gender. a blue car the great outdoors a group of young women However, a few adjectives have a connotation which is slightly masculine or feminine. Thus, one says that a woman is beautiful while a man would be called handsome. Adjectives indicating religion or nationality (or a region, state or province) generally begin with a capital letter, whether they refer to people or objects: She is an American student. They go to a Catholic school. They enjoy Breton music. Usage: The adjective will be placed, with very few exceptions, in front of the noun it modifies. When two adjectives precede a noun, they can be connected by a comma (,) or by the conjunction"and." In a series of three or more adjectives, one usually uses "and" before the last adjective in the list. Examples: I like short novels. That fellow will be a competent worker. She writes long and flowery letters. He works long, hard hours. She had a mean, old and overbearing step−mother. An adjective may follow the noun when it is in a predicate (after the verb) or in a relative clause. (In relative clauses the relative pronoun may be implicit.) Examples: He was a man (who was) always happy to help others. She is a woman (who is) true to herself. They were entirely satisfied.
Complete this sentence with an article, a noun and an adjective: Peter has ... − adjectives: elegant / short / brown / long / little / blue / warm / curly − articles: a / an / (nothing) − nouns: coat / gloves / beard / eyes
Where should I put my adjectives? When you use several adjectives, please use he following order to build your sentence. Please note that sentences containg 4 (or more!) adjectives are very awkward and should be split into several sentences.
Opinion >> an interesting movie, an exciting journey Dimension >> a large house, a big car Age >> an old boat, a young boy Shape >> an oval carpet, a round table Colour >> a grey raincoat, a green door Origin >> French bread, a Japanese town Material >> a plastic bottle, a wooden treasure EXAMPLES: >A wonderful old Italian clock. (opinion − age − origin) >A big square blue box. (dimension − shape − colour) >A disgusting pink plastic ornament. (opinion − colour − material) >Some slim new French trousers. (dimension − age − origin)
Build a phrase with this noun and these adjectives 1. book >> interesting − small − Spanish 2. house >> beautiful − modern − small 3. cap >> cotton − funny − green 4. picture >> modern − ugly − rectangular
The conditional is formed using the modal "would" in front of an infinitive (dropping the word "to"). The conditional is used especially in three contexts:
1) Politeness I would like the menu, please. Would you have a couple of minutes for me? 2) To indicate the "future within the past": She said she would come to the party. I thought he would arrive before me. 3) In hypothetical constructions with "if." When "if" is followed by the preterit or the subjunctive, the conditional is expected in the second clause: If I had the time, I would do my homework. If you told me the truth, I would believe you. The "if" of hypothetical expressions can be implicit: In your position (= if I were you), I wouldn't stay here! TEST − Build a sentence with all these words: 1. rich / would / If / buy / a / house / were / big / I 2. said / like / come / She / would / not / to / she 3. could / I / big / would / if / give / you / a / ring / I
4 ways to tell your friends what you would like to do in the next few days: 1) WHAT ABOUT/HOW ABOUT ... + Base form + −ING
What about going to the pictures tonight? How about going to the pictures tonight?
2) WHY + Negative
Why don't we go to the swimming−pool tomorrow?
3) IMPERATIVE: Let's + Base form
Let's go to the restaurant now!
We could visit Paris next week.
TEST Put these words into the right order to build a sentence. 1. tea / have / 's / let / cup / a / of 2. a / car / about / buying / huge / what / ? 3. don't / why / we / together / cinema / to / the / ? / go 4. could / take / we / train / the / Madrid / to
Anonym, 2007. To Learn English. www. tolearnenglish.com FM, Meindar.1991. Kamus Lengkap 10 Juta. Penerbit Eska Media, Jakarta
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