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The expected value of a random variable has two dierent denitions, and its not obvious that theyre equivalent. Here I present both denitions and show why they are in fact equivalent. An elementary probability or statistics book might say that a random variable X is continuous if there exists a function fX : I I the probability R R, density function (PDF) of X, such that

x

P (X x) =

fX (t) dt.

E(X) =

x fX (x) dx.

An advanced (i.e., measure-theoretic) probability book would dene E(X) dierently. Let X : I be a random variable. (This implies (, P ) is a R measure space, P () = 1, and X is an itegrable function.) The expectation of X is simply its integral: E(X) =

X dP.

Note that while both denitions involve integrals, they integrate dierent functions over dierent spaces. In the elementary denition, a real-valued function is being integrated over the real line. In the advanced denition, the random variable itself is being integrated over a probability space. In the elementary theory, you never see , the domain of X. And you never work with X itself, only with its associated PDF. The advanced theory focuses on X and its domain. Perhaps the biggest source of confusion in theoretical probability is failure to distinguish X and fX .

Now we start to show how the advanced denition relates to the elementary one. The random variable X induces a probability measure X on I by R X (A) = P { : X() A}. If X is absolutely continuous with respect to Lebesgue measure then by the Radon-Nikodym theorem there exists a function fX : I I such that X (A) = R R f dx. Sometimes this result is written as A X dX = fX dx. The function fX is a PDF for X. The following theorem is what is sometimes called the rule of the unconscious statistician or the RUS. The justication for the name is that the theorem is applied so frequently that it is done almost unconsciously. Theorem 1 (RUS) If g : I I is X -measurable, then g(X) is P -measurable R R and g(X) dP = g(x) fX (x) dx.

I R

E(g(X)) =

E(X) =

We outline a proof the theorem above. Let 1A be the indicator function of a Borel set A I Then R. 1A (x)fX (x) dx = X (A) = P {X 1 (A)} =

I R

1A (X()) dP.

By linearity, this proves the theorem for all functions g taking only a nite number of values. Since every measurable function is a monotone limit of such functions, the theorem follows from the monotone convergence theorem.

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