The Funky Four~s background is an interesting one,with Lil` Rodney Cee having been part of the street

-jivers the Magnificent Seven between 1977 and 1978. The Funky Four were founded when KK Rockwell and D.J. Breakout,adding first Keith Keith and then female MC Sha Rock. Rahiem joined,then departed to take up an engagement with Grandmaster Flash. Keith Keith also left. With the addition of Lil` Rodney Cee,then Jazzy Jeff,the group became the Funky Four,with D.J. Breakout and Baron.None of the group were older than 17 when they signed with the Enjoy label,opening that imprint`s account(in rap terms)with"Rappin` And Rocking The House".This utilized the Cheryl Lynn break,"Got To Be Real",over which a 16-minute rap commentary was placed.

The drums were programmed by Pumpkin,arguably rap`s first production hero,and it was an impressive overall introduction. Shortly afterwards they switched to Sugarhill,adding the Plus One More suffix. In addition to this cast D.J. Mark The 45 King would act as Breakout`s record boy,locating and passing records up to the decks as his D.J. requested them. They made their debut for Sugarhill with "Thats The Joint",a song arranged by jazz-funk organist Clifton Jiggs Chase. Their performances at Bronx house parties included full blown dance routines.After a clash album with the Cash Crew,their career petered out somewhat,through Jazzy Jeff would go on to a brief solo career with Jive Records. Lil` Rodney Cee and KK Rockwell would go on to be partners in follow under achievers,Double Trouble.At which time Rodney Cee would marry Angela(Angie B)Brown of Sequence fame. Herc's methods also pre-dated,and partially introduced,sampling. By adapting pieces of Funk,Soul,Jazz and other musics into the melting pot,he would be able to keep a party buzzing. With his sound system the Herculords,he would tailor his sets to the participants,most of whom he knew by name. He would call these out over improvised sets; "As I scan the place,I see the very familiar face..of my mellow:Wallace Dee in the house! Wallace Dee! Freak for me! As one of Hip Hop's founding Fathers,Kool Herc's reputation and influence has outlasted the vaguaries of musical fashion. A status no doubt boosted by the fact that he has not attempted to launch a spurious recording career on the back of it. Kool Herc was the subject of celebration at the Rapmania Festival in 1990. Here are some words from the Father of Hip Hop: The first place I played was 1520 Sedgewick Avenue-that's a recreation room-matter of fact in my apartment,yunno. Like the pied piper,the rats came out of the bricks to dance. My parties back then was twenty-five cent, Then it went to the recreation room,then we gave a block party,one time,anual block party. When you come down the block that cleaned up,you know Herc gonna play some music,and um,I couldn't come back to the old ranch no more,I had to go to a place called the Twilight Zone. And then I used to give flyers out over by the Hevalo,and my mans would tell me to step off. I said, "One day I"m be in here." So I gavemy first party at the Twilight Zone,it was raining,the gods was raining down on me. Everybody came down from the Hevalo,wondering what was happening. They said,"Hercis playing down the block." "Who's Herc?' "That's the guy you chased away with the flyers from outside." And from the Twilight Zone I went on up to the Hevalo... (From there he moved to a spot called the Executive Playhouse,on 173 street in the Bronx,as well as playing numerous high schools,community centers,and parks.) Assuming his native Jamaican patois,he continues: My muddah roots come from St. Mary{a parish in Jamaica},yunno. A man named George inspirate I from Jamaica,yunno,and he lived pon Victoria Street,yunno and used to come with the big sound system. It was devastating,cause it was open air,when it rained that's the dance.... I did a lot of things from Jamaica,and I brought it here and turned it into my own little style...Herc came to prominence in the West Bronx between 1974 and 1975.

Born in Kingston,Jamaica,West indies,moving to New York in 1967. Kool Herc owns the rights to the accolade "first Hip Hop D.J. Illustrating the connections between reggae and rap,Herc brought his sound system to block parties in the Bronx from 1969 onwards. By 1975 he was playing the brief rhythmic sections of records which would come to be termed "breaks",at venues like the Hevalo in the Bronx. His influence was pivotal,with Grandmaster Flash building on his innovations to customised the modern Hip Hop DJ approach.

Herc's methods also pre-dated,and partially introduced,sampling. By adapting pieces of Funk,Soul,Jazz and other musics into the melting pot,he would be able to keep a party buzzing. With his sound system the Herculords,he would tailor his sets to the participants,most of whom he knew by name. He would call these out over improvised sets; "As I scan the place,I see the very familiar face..of my mellow:Wallace Dee in the house! Wallace Dee! Freak for me! As one of Hip Hop's founding Fathers,Kool Herc's reputation and influence has outlasted the vaguaries of musical fashion. A status no doubt boosted by the fact that he has not attempted to launch a spurious recording career on the back of it. Kool Herc was the subject of celebration at the Rapmania Festival in 1990. Here are some words from the Father of Hip Hop: The first place I played was 1520 Sedgewick Avenue-that's a recreation room-matter of fact in my apartment,yunno. Like the pied piper,the rats came out of the bricks to dance. My parties back then was twenty-five cent, Then it went to the recreation room,then we gave a block party,one time,anual block party. When you come down the block that cleaned up,you know Herc gonna play some music,and um,I couldn't come back to the old ranch no more,I had to go to a place called the Twilight Zone. And then I used to give flyers out over by the Hevalo,and my mans would tell me to step off. I said, "One day I"m be in here." So I gavemy first party at the Twilight Zone,it was raining,the gods was raining down on me. Everybody came down from the Hevalo,wondering what was happening. They said,"Hercis playing down the block." "Who's Herc?' "That's the guy you chased away with the flyers from outside." And from the Twilight Zone I went on up to the Hevalo... (From there he moved to a spot called the Executive Playhouse,on 173 street in the Bronx,as well as playing numerous high schools,community centers,and parks.) Assuming his native Jamaican patois,he continues: My muddah roots come from St. Mary{a parish in Jamaica},yunno. A man named George inspirate I from Jamaica,yunno,and he lived pon Victoria Street,yunno and used to come with the big sound system. It was devastating,cause it was open air,when it rained that's the dance.... I did a lot of things from Jamaica,and I brought it here and turned it into my own little style...Herc came to prominence in the West Bronx between 1974 and 1975.

HIP HOP HISTORY MONTH
The Universal Zulu Nation calls on the World to recognize the whole month of November as HIP HOP HISTORY MONTH! The official birthday of the Universal Zulu Nation is November 12, 1973. The official birthday of Hip Hop is November 12th, 1974. With consideration to the above mentioned dates, nothing makes more sense than to celebrate Hip Hop culture and it's history during November, which is exactly what the Universal Zulu Nation has been doing for over 27 + years. November is also significant in the fact that it kicks off the "indoor jam season". The Hip Hop community jams, enjoyed outdoors in the parks, throughout the Summer, had to move indoors for about 7 months to community centers, gymnasiums, schools etc. for the Fall and Winter seasons. The Hip Hop World should recognize this month and pay tribute to those who laid the foundation and paved the way as well as to those who continue to preserve the rich tradition of the culture. Of course, The Zulu Nation appreciates all efforts to preserve the whole of Hip Hop culture, including any days or weeks set aside to conscientiously appreciate Hip Hop, but would rather that all of these days and weeks combine to celebrate in unity every November as the tradition has been since the beginning of this culture. Founded by the godfather of Hip Hop himself, Afrika Bambaataa, The Universal Zulu Nation is the world's oldest, largest and most respected grass roots Hip Hop organization. It's members and supporters are Hip Hop's most famous and legendary artists. True school enthusiasts travel from all around the world to be in New York City, in November, for the annual Zulu Hip Hop Anniversary, the only true Hip Hop Anniversary since the beginning. The Anniversary hosts a positive Hip Hop community coming together from all walks of life to celebrate the true essence and excitement of what Hip Hop was meant to be. Many artists who have donated their performances to help raise funds at Zulu Hip Hop Anniversaries have gone on to become legends and many of these legends continue to return to NYC, in November, to give back to the core community who supported them since their careers began. A Little Background Information: In the early years of the culture, the movement went untitled until Afrika Bambaataa, started calling it "Hip Hop", a term originated by Lovebug Starski. In the 70's, ten years prior to it's gaining global recognition, Hip Hop was a celebration of life gradually developing each of it's elements to form a cultural movement. Due to it's energy, dynamics, and

momentum, Hip Hop culture has become, ultimately, a key to upliftment and reformation, as well as a billion-dollar industry. From the 80's on, the Rap industry and media have helped to make the terms "Hip Hop" and "Rap" synonymous, leaving out the other elements included in the culture. In light of this enormous oversight, the Zulu Nation promotes the "5th element" of Hip Hop, which is KNOWLEDGE, and actively tries to educate the masses about the history and foundational elements of true Hip Hop culture. Bambaataa declared: "When we made Hip Hop, we made it hoping it would be about peace, love, unity and having fun so that people could get away from the negativity that was plaguing our streets (gang violence, drug abuse, self hate, violence among those of African and Latino descent). Even though this negativity still happens here and there, as the culture progresses, we play a big role in conflict resolution and enforcing positivity." Hip Hop is the Vehicle to Deliver Innumerable Lessons! Afrika Bambaataa doesn't believe that Hip Hop heads should just have knowledge of Hip Hop. He promotes and proves that Hip Hop can be used as a vehicle for teaching awareness, knowledge, wisdom, understanding, freedom, justice, equality, peace, unity, love, respect, responsibility and recreation, overcoming challenges, economics, mathematics. science, life, truth, facts and faith. The Elements: Hip Hop culture is defined as a movement which is expressed through various artistic mediums which we call "elements". The main elements are known as MC'ing (Rapping), DJ'ing, WRITING (Aerosol Art), SEVERAL DANCE FORMS (which include Breaking, Up-Rocking, Popping, and Locking) and the element which holds the rest together: KNOWLEDGE. There are also other elements such as Vocal Percussion/Beat Boxing, Fashion, etc. Within the past 20 years, Hip-Hop culture has greatly influenced the entertainment world with its creative contributions in music, dance, art, poetry, and fashion. Due to their lack of knowledge about the whole of Hip Hop culture, many of our world's youth are mistaken in thinking that activities such as: smoking blunts, drinking 40's, wearing a designer label plastered across their chest, carrying a gun, or going to strip clubs, are "Hip Hop". Hip Hop is being portrayed negatively by many artists who work in the element of Rap (emceeing), and this negativity is usually instigated and promoted by the record industry and various other corporations who exploit the culture at the expense of the youth's state of mind and morality. The Universal Zulu Nation believes there is a difference in speaking out about negativity (activism) and promoting it as a desirable lifestyle. Gangsters, pimps, playas, hustlers, niggers, spics, and many other derogatory words once used against us are now self employed in

our everyday vocabulary. Our ancestors who have fought and died trying to free us from these sicknesses and slave mentality are probably turning over in their graves! Bambaataa asks you to just think about this, "How in the hell did we turn from GODS to dogs?" Afrika Bambaataa encourages you to do more research about our story, his/her-story, and what you think is your mystery is actually your history. Where are our Hip Hop thinkers, lawyers, holistic doctors, scientists, agriculturalists/herbalists, revolutionaries, politicians, judges, researchers, teachers, police, army, accountants, anthropologists, etc. Where is our own Hip Hop Museum? Many talk the talk but don't walk the walk. Many straight out sell-out to the liberation of our people as well as to all humans on the planet so called Earth! He also encourages you to do research on any Hip Hop organization that deals with consciousness and the upliftment of all people. To all those who purposely make up your own history and lie about the culture- DO YOUR RESEARCH! You can contact the Universal Zulu Nation at their main website www.ZuluNation.com and to explore links to other Zulu chapters and websites. Thank you in advance for forwarding this announcement to everyone you know! Peace and Blessings Afrika Bambaataa & the entire Universal Zulu Nation. As we say in Zulu - respect the many UNIVERSES and especially MOTHER EARTH PS: If you are planning any events in honor of Hip Hop History Month in November please feel free to write to the webmaster at ZuluNation.com to keep us up-to-date! THE 5TH ELEMENT OF HIP HOP CULTURE KNOWLEDGE, CULTURE, OVERSTANDING FACTOLOGY VS. BELIEFS

NEW YORK STATE SENATE RECOGNIZES NOVEMBER AS

HIP HOP HISTORY MONTH

STATUS: J6602 ESPADA Resolutions, Legislative TITLE....Honoring the rich traditions of Hip Hop Culture

/www.senate.state.ny.us/ 12/11/02REFERRED TO FINANCE 12/17/02REPORTED TO CALENDAR FOR CONSIDERATION 12/17/02ADOPTED

BILL TEXT:

LEGISLATIVE RESOLUTION honoring the rich traditions of Hip Hop Culture

WHEREAS, It is the sense of this Legislative Body to pay tribute to those individuals of historic and artistic significance whose creative talents have contributed to the cultural enrichment of our communities and our Nation; and WHEREAS, The month of November is now recognized by the State of New York as Hip Hop Culture History month; and WHEREAS, Afrika Bambaattaa, was the first Hip Hop activist, who once said, "Hip Hop Culture was created to be about peace, love, unity and having fun, in order to help people to get away from the negativity that was plaguing our streets"; and WHEREAS, Even though this negativity still exists, as the culture progresses, Hip Hop Culture plays a big role in the conflict and resolution by encouraging positivity; and WHEREAS, Hip Hop is made up of Rap, DJ'ing, Break dancing, Up-Rocking, Popping, Locking, Vocal Percussion, and Beat Boxing; and WHEREAS, The godfather of Hip Hop culture is Afrika Bambaattaa; and the world's oldest, largest and most respected grass roots Hip Hop organization is the Universal Zulu Nation; and

WHEREAS, Hip Hop culture is a positive tool for social change; and WHEREAS, The inception of Hip Hop culture in the Bronx was during the early 1970's; it has been a vehicle for breaking down racial barriers on a world wide level; and WHEREAS, Hip Hop is a means for overcoming challenges, and a means for teaching awareness and knowledge, inspiration and wisdom; and WHEREAS, During the 70's, Hip Hop was a celebration of life, gradually developing to form a cultural movement as a result of its dynamic energy and momentum; and WHEREAS, Hip Hop culture has become, ultimately, a key to uplift the spirit of many; and WHEREAS, Hip Hop culture has greatly influenced the entertainment world with its creative contributions in music, dance, art, poetry, and fashion; and WHEREAS, Hip Hop is the vehicle to deliver innumerable lessons and continues to provide for unity, love, respect, and responsibility; and WHEREAS, D.J. Afrika Bambaattaa and the Universal Zulu Nation, Cool Herc, Grandmaster Flash, the Cold Crush Brothers, Cool Clyde and Lightnen Lance, Nolie Dee, Maria Davis and Mytika Davis are true inspirations; and WHEREAS, It is the sense of this Legislative Body, in keeping with its time-honored traditions, to recognize and pay tribute to those organizations which foster ethnic pride and enhance the profile of cultural diversity that strengthens the fabric of the communities of New York State; and WHEREAS, It is the sense of this Legislative Body that those who enhance the well-being and vitality of their community and have shown a long and sustained commitment to excellence certainly have earned our recognition and applause; now, therefore, be it RESOLVED, That this Legislative Body pause in its deliberations to

honor the rich traditions of Hip Hop Culture; and be it further RESOLVED, That copies of this Resolution, suitably engrossed, be transmitted to Afrika Bambaataa and all of the participants of the Hip Hop Culture Celebration.

WHERE DID THE NAME HIP HOP COME FROM?
BY DYNAMITE J Where did the name Hip Hop come from, and who is responsible for saying The name Hip Hop came from Afrika Bambaata? When Bam throws a party, he feels like a theme name for his party would be better and more exciting. If you were given two flyers and one said "Party" at 123 four st., or Flava Jam 2002 at 123 four St. One of the names for his early parties was THE HIP HOP BEENY BOP. Some could equate this as a teen Jam because of the phrase Beeny Bop. Bop is also short for Boppers. So when Bambaata had his parties, and Starski would Mc the jam, He would say thing s like WELCOME TO THE HIP HOP BEENY BOP! THAT'S RIGHT YA'LL, HIP HOP TILL YOU DON'T STOP. So true respect is giving to Mc Starski with being credited for popularizing the Phrase Hip Hop, but it's also respect and credit due to Afrika Bambatta for starting the word HIP HOP. Dynamite J please respond back with your opinions, or re-buttals to what I said.

STOP CALLING THESE IMPOSTERS HIP HOP ARTISTS, they do not do or cover all its elements of the hip hop culture This version of Hip Hop that the worlds media promotes globally, is a strange sissified version of its true self. It consists of middle-class fakers acting like gangsters, so-called hardcore rappers, so-called underground heads and so-called superstars killing each other, while the white controlled global media celebrates. Who are these imposters? Hip Hop is the MC (not rapper), DJ or turntablists, B-boys or B-girls (not

breakdancers), Writer (not graffiti artists), BeatBoxer and students of Knowledge of Self. These according to the founders of the culture are the main elements of the culture. Now you have world media calling EMINEN, 50cents and the rest of the multi-nationally backed "rappers", the upholders of HIP HOP CULTURE. Excuse me, but do they b-boy, write, MC and DJ ? HELL NO! so why do we perpetuate these lies. They have no right to call what our ancestors created and gave as a voice for the people, whatever the hell they wish to call it. Strangely enough we just allow this bullshit to continue without any protest. We even reduce ourselves to speak their names and titles they named what we do. Hip Hop elders have not been approached in their research about the culture, they just named things as they wished. We sit in front of the TV and hear them spread these lies to the world and accept this powerless position they have put us in. I HAVE HAD ENOUGH. It is time to set the record straight. These titles that make up the HIP HOP CULTURE are titles that practitioners of writing, MCing, B-boying, DJing, Beatboxing earn and no just giiven to anyone. It is something that is earned with time, dedication, research and sacrifice. Nowadays everyone is a rapper and maybe they are right, because an MC earns that reputation for skill as well as ability to be the "master of the ceremony" (Where the name MC comes from by the way). Many of these rappers are studio rappers that have no stage, microphone or crowd/ audience control skills. A true MC or Hip Hop head would not lie to the audience about fake bling, bling that he or she does not have, especially knowing how many youths are listening to them on the radio and watching them on the TV. A true B-boy or Hip Hopper learns the history of the culture and gives respect to those who have gone before. Those like Afrika Bambaataa, Kool DJ Herc, Grandmaster Flash, Grand Wizard Theodore, MC Cowboy, the Rock Steady Crew, The Nigga Twins, Pop Masters Fabel, Phase 2 and Mr Wiggles to name but a few who contributed to the REAL HIP HOP culture. There are also hip hop histories in countries around the world and those contributions by those individuals have to be given the credit that they deserve. This new mentality of forgetting the past as quickly as a new song hits the number 1 spot on radio or MTV, is a global mentality. This eliminates resepct for elders and those that pave the way. It also seperates the younger practitioners from those who have experience and who could help them not repeat the mistakes that they have made before these young kids who are now earning millions. It is my opinion that it is for this very reason that the gap between the elders and next generation are made bigger by record companies and the entertainment industry. Their intention is to keep these younger artists as blind to the realities of the industry as possible. EXPERIENCE CAN NOT BE DOWNLOADED.

Do you think that classical music lovers would allow the world media to call their music "Screeching noise" or simply rename it whatever they wish, without putting up a fight ? I think the arrogance of the world media is because HIP HOP is considered a black sub-culture or street culture. Even the usage of the prefix "sub", implies something that is lesser than or under what might be considered cultural. Think about it a bit more. We name it b-boying/ b-girling, they rename it breakdance, we name it writing, they rename it graffiti, we name it MCing and they rename it rapping. It is an insult to our creative ability. They control the media and thus feel that they have the power to name whatever they wish and get away with it. Like Michael Jackson being called Wacko Jacko, this is like calling us "Nigger" and "Kaffer" all over again. We internalies the lies they feed us and start to believe what they call us. Attached to the medias version of hip hop are gangs, profanity and violence. The REAL HIP HOP is a powerful tool globally bringing youth together and enlightening them to their true selves. REAL HIP HOP is educating youth, fighting AIDS, exchanging cultures, breaking down racism, protesting against global dictators. I do this call out to all defenders of the TRUE HIP HOP CULTURE to use the correct terminology and free our culture from their verbal enslavement of it. Only once we do this will we be able to regain the financial control of this multi-billion dollar industry that they have almost taken complete control of. I know that everywhere in the world their are true soldiers of the REAL HIP HOP. Like Mr Devious, from South Africa, who was prepared to die for what hip hop has taught US. In the USA is the Univeresal Zulu Nation, Eazy Roc and Asia One that started the B-Boy Summit, also from the USA is Poe One and Cros One from the Freestyle Sessions event, in Germany is Storm and Swift of Battle Squad, also in Germany is Thomas of Battle of the Year, in Japan is Dance Machine, in Spain is Kapi, in HOlland is Timski, in New Zealand is Norman, in South Africa is myslef Emile of Black Noise, wew have brothers in Brazil, Mexico, Sweden, France, Denmark, Zimbabwe, Australia and every other country on this planet. We are many my brothers and sisters and our voice can never be silenced, but we have to RE-IGNITE THE FIRE OF TRUE HIP HOP REVOLUTION. We have to insist that MTV Awards and Grammy Awards remove the false labeling of the best Hip Hop Artsist, until they are willing to call up a group that have writers, DJs, MCs, B-boys, etc. I hope that you will forward these thoughts to all those concerned with HIP HOP getting the respect it deserves.And hopefully we will enlighten more youth to the REAL HIP HOP and not the FAKE one that is spread MTV and other media.

Yours in the REVOLUTIONARY HIP HOP Change must come Emile YX? Black Noise Cape Flats Uprising cc 2004

FAKIN' THA FUNK' IN THA FACE OF GENOCIDE: HIP HOP, POLITICS AND POLITICAL HYPE
By: Min. Paul Scott

Back in tha day during the P-Funk era, tha Brotha's on tha block with the Don Cornelius afro's used to warn each other about 'fakin' tha funk.' If we look at the term from a socio-political perspective, it means, not really being down for the cause or the true aspirations of your people. Although, the words may have changed over the Hip Hop years to 'perpetratin' or 'frontin' the meaning remains the same; not being TRUE to tha Game. This being an election year, we must take a more critical look at everything affecting Afrikan people and since most of the focus (and money) has been put on getting the Hip Hop generation to vote, Hip Hop is not exempt. To say the least, Hip Hop and politics make strange bedfellows; a case of sleeping with the enemy. Since most politicians are old conservative white men who don't' know Afrika Bambaataa from Bam Bam from the Flintstones, the relationship between politicians and 20something year old Hip Hop headz should be examined. Bro. Cimerron of the Durham UNIA chapter once broke down to me how politics is all about obtaining and controlling resources. If this is true, then the contradiction of a limousine ridin,/champagne sippin'/ private jet flyin' rap superstar being the spokesperson for the millions of bill collector avoidin'/ struggling to pay rent/ repo man dodgin' Black folks becomes too obvious to ignore. As one of the talking heads on TV recently said 'voting is a Democracy's alternative to rioting in the streets.' Or as Malcolm X would put it, a choice between the ballot or the bullet. Therefore, white folks always need some assurance that the most angry and potentially militant members of a society are still going along with the program. They must have some indicator that Black folks still believe in the virtues of Capitalism and if we work hard and get an education (or go to jail for a couple of years and become a reformed Capitalist Hip Hop entrepreneurial evangelist) that we can one day be the president of the United States.

White folks need a universal spokesperson for all Black people, whether it be a Jessie Jackson, Jay Z or Junebug on tha corner with a jehri curl and a 40oz. They need someone to assure them that the natives ain't restless and everything is cool. In order to sleep at night Mr. And Mrs. White must know, without a shadow of a doubt that Tyrone Brown is going to show up at his job at Burger King at 5:55 AM to make sure their coffee is brewed just the way they like it. So politics in the Hip Hop Era is a Trojan horse or in this case a Trojan ,tricked out, 56 Impala with spinnin' rims and fuzzy dice on the mirror. Politics is a sophisticated science, a chess game between 'the haves' and the 'break me off a piece of thats'. Either you are the exploiter or the exploited; a player or gettin' played or a pimp or getting' pimped. But the powers that be want you to be political but not politically conscious. Since voting was denied to Black folks for so long, we look at voting as a religious experience instead of a tool to be used on the way to empowerment. Therefore, a trip to the polls becomes a divinely ordained pilgrimage. But the voting booth is not an absolution box and a pull of a lever does not erase sins done against Afrikan people. Voting is a practical means to an end and not vice versa. The power structure needs to periodically (at least every four years) check the pulse of the Black community. So despite what Bill O'Reilly and 'em say, politicians need Hip Hop more than Hip Hop needs politicians. (I'm sure both presidential candidates are planning a crunk after party at the White House election night.) It is the M.O. (Method of Operation) of most politicians to play with the emotions of the masses of people and to manipulate them. Although, they may spend millions of dollars on fancy campaign slogans, their real campaign strategy is based on the simple premise that most people are stupid and their campaign anthem is jacked from the ole Gap Band slow Jam 'We got 'em Goin' Round in Circles.' The ethnic groups who have realized this have put it into practice and have gone from borrowers to lenders, from employees to employers and from renters to real estate tycoons. Although, many 'ethnic' groups enter into the 'Beulah Land of Politics' with specific goals, demands and objectives, Black folks are just 'happy to be there.' Why doesn't the Hip Hop Nation become a political party? They could use the old PE logo as the party symbol and run Chuck D as prez and Prof. Griff as vice. The Hip Hop community already has enough money and resources to solve 90% of the economic and social problems in the Black community. What they lack is direction. What if all those get out to vote/ Hip Hop summit attending/ multi-millionaires pooled their resources and worked to solve the problems in the communities that they supposedly

represent? What if the Black Hip Hop artists used their influence to fight for Reparations or any of the other Black Nationalist issues that have been ignored or dismissed by the so-called mainstream ? What if they joined forces with brothers like Uno and the Hip Hop 4 Black Unity Campaign. Why have we stopped asking why? Unfortunately our most brilliant young minds are caught in the middle between a Black Nationalist agenda that will leave them unappreciated, poor righteous teachers and a white supremacist system that can make them celebrities over night. Despite the hype, the people in tha 'hood don't need a voter registration form. The people in tha 'hood need food, the people in tha 'hood need jobs, the people in tha 'hood need a way out of their misery. And if a voter registration card is going to lead to that in a very practical and concrete way, fine. But if it is not, election day would be better spent sittin' it tha crib watching 106 and Park, instead of standing in line at the polls. So if the political process is not the ultimate answer, what is? The greatest threat to white supremacy has and will always be Afrikan physical, mental and spiritual self determination and everything done by Afrikan people in the name of empowerment must reflect this reality. Voting has its place, but is just a microcosm of the bigger picture and must produce almost immediate and tangible results. Now lyrics like this won't get you invited to Hip Hop Conferences or Tavis Smiley symposiums but someone has to follow the teachings of Yeshua the Black revolutionary Messiah and speak the TRUTH that will make Afrikan people FREE. Contrary to popular belief, tha streets are not waiting for the next Biggie Smalls or Tupac Shakur. Tha streets are waiting for a voice of TRUTH to lead them out of oppression. That is why any Hip Hop artist who comes around now does not quench the thirst of the masses of Black youth. Someone has to be willing to go down like the hero of Countee Cullen's great poem; singing the hymns of Black Power and flippin' tha last finger in the face of White Supremacy.

Minister Paul Scott represents the Messianic Afrikan Nation in Durham, NC. He can be reached at (919) 949-4352 email messianicafrikannation@yahoo.com Web site: ttp://members.blackplanet.com/THE-MYD

The History Of Hip Hop
written by Davey D HIP HOP STARTED IN THE BRONX WITH DJ KOOL HERC

Modern day rap music finds its immediate roots in the toasting and dub talk over elements of reggae music. In the early 70's, a Jamaican dj known as Kool Herc moved from Kingston to NY's West Bronx. Here, he attempted to incorporate his Jamaican style of dj which involved reciting improvised rhymes over the dub versions of his reggae records. Unfortunately, New Yorkers weren't into reggae at the time. Thus Kool Herc adapted his style by chanting over the instrumental or percussion sections of the day's popular songs. Because these breaks were relatively short, he learned to extend them indefinitely by using an audio mixer and two identical records in which he continuously replaced the desired segment. In those early days, young party goers initially recited popular phrases and used the slang of the day. For example, it was fashionable for dj to acknowledge people who were in attendance at a party. These early raps featured someone such as Herc shouting over the instrumental break; 'Yo this is Kool Herc in the joint-ski saying my mellow-ski Marky D is in the house'. This would usually evoke a response from the crowd, who began to call out their own names and slogans. As this phenomenon evolved, the party shouts became more elaborate as dj in an effort to be different, began to incorporate little rhymes-'Davey D is in the house/An he'll turn it out without a doubt.' It wasn't long before people began drawing upon outdated dozens and school yard rhymes. Many would add a

little twist and customize these rhymes to make them suitable for the party environment. At that time rap was not yet known as 'rap' but called 'emceeing'. With regards to Kool Herc, as he progressed, he eventually turned his attention to the complexities of djaying and let two friends Coke La Rock and Clark Kent (not Dana Dane's dj) handle the microphone duties. This was rap music first emcee team. They became known as Kool Herc and the Herculoids. pg2 Rap caught on because it offered young urban New Yorkers a chance to freely express themselves. This was basically the same reason why any of the aforementioned verbal/rhyme games manifested themselves in the past. More importantly, it was an art form accessible to anyone. One didn't need a lot of money or expensive resources to rhyme. One didn't have to invest in lessons, or anything like that. Rapping was a verbal skill that could be practiced and honed to perfection at almost anytime. Rap also became popular because it offered unlimited challenges. There were no real set rules, except to be original and to rhyme on time to the beat of music. Anything was possible. One could make up a rap about the man in the moon or how good his dj was. The ultimate goal was to be perceived as being 'def (good) by one's peers. The fact that the praises and positive affirmations a rapper received were on par with any other urban hero (sports star, tough guy, comedian, etc.) was another drawing card. Finally, rap, because of its inclusive aspects, allowed one to accurately and efficiently inject their personality. If you were laid back, you could rap at a slow pace. If you were hyperactive or a type-A, you could rap at a fast pace. No two people rapped the same, even when reciting the same rhyme. There were many people who would try and emulate someone's style, but even that was indicative of a particular personality. Rap continues to be popular among today's urban youth for the same reasons it was a draw in the early days: it is still an accessible form of self expression capable of eliciting positive affirmation from one's peers. Because rap has evolved to become such a big business, it has given many the false illusion of being a quick escape from the harshness of inner city life. There are many kids out there under the belief that all they need to do is write a few 'fresh' (good) rhymes and they're off to the good life. pg3

Now, up to this point, all this needs to be understood with regards to Hip Hop. Throughout history, music originating from America's Black communities has

always had an accompanying subculture reflective of the political, social and economic conditions of the time. Rap is no different. Hip hop is the culture from which rap emerged. Initially it consisted of four main elements; graffiti art, break dancing, dj (cuttin' and scratching) and emceeing (rapping). Hip hop is a lifestyle with its own language, style of dress, music and mind set that is continuously evolving. Nowadays because break dancing and graffiti aren't as prominent the words 'rap' and 'hip hop' have been used interchangeably. However it should be noted that all aspects of hip hop culture still exists. They've just evolved onto new levels. pg4 Hip hop continues to be a direct response to an older generation's rejection of the values and needs of young people. Initially all of hip hop's major facets were forms of self expression. The driving force behind all these activities was people's desire to be seen and heard. Hip hop came about because of some major format changes that took place within Black radio during the early 70's. Prior to hip hop, black radio stations played an important role in the community be being a musical and cultural preserver or griot (story teller). It reflected the customs and values of the day in particular communities. It set the tone and created the climate for which people governed their lives as this was a primary source of information and enjoyment. This was particularly true for young people. Interestingly enough, the importance of Black radio and the role djs played within the African American community has been the topic of numerous speeches from some very prominent individuals.
pg5

Hip hop continues to be a direct response to an older generation's rejection of the values and needs of young people. Initially all of hip hop's major facets were forms of self expression. The driving force behind all these activities was people's desire to be seen and heard. Hip hop came about because of some major format changes that took place within Black radio during the early 70's. Prior to hip hop, black radio stations played an important role in the community be being a musical and cultural preserver or griot (story teller). It reflected the customs and values of the day in particular communities. It set the tone and created the climate for which people governed their lives as this was a primary source of information and enjoyment. This was particularly true for young people. Interestingly enough, the importance of Black radio and the role djs played within the African American community has been the topic of numerous speeches from some very prominent individuals. pg 6

For example in August of '67, Martin Luther King Jr addressed the Association of Television and Radio Broadcasters. Here he delivered an eloquent speech in which he let it be known that Black radio djs played an intricate part in helping keep the Civil Rights Movement alive. He noted that while television and newspapers were popular and often times more effective mediums, they rarely languaged themselves so that Black folks could relate to them. He basically said Black folks were checking for the radio as their primary source of information. In August of 1980 Minister Farrakhon echoed those thoughts when he addressed a body of Black radio djs and programmers at the Jack The Rapper Convention. He warned them to be careful about what they let on the airwaves because of its impact. He got deep and spoke about the radio stations being instruments of mind control and how big companies were going out of their way to hire 'undignified' 'foul' and 'dirty' djs who were no longer being conveyers of good information to the community. To paraphrase him, Farrakhon noted that there was a fear of a dignified djs coming on the airwaves and spreading that dignity to the people he reached. Hence the role radio was playing was beginning to shift...Black radio djs were moving away from being the griots.. Black radio was no longer languaging itself so that both a young and older generation could define and hear themselves reflected in this medium. pg 7 pg 8 Author Nelson George talks extensively about this in his book 'The Death Of Rhythm And Blues'. He documented how NY's Black radio station began to position themselves so they would appeal to a more affluent, older and to a large degree, whiter audience. He pointed out how young people found themselves being excluded especially when bubble gum and Europeanized versions of disco music began to hit the air waves. To many, this style of music lacked soul and to a large degree sounded too formulated and mechanical. In a recent interview hip hop pioneer Afrika Bambaataa spoke at length how NY began to lose its connection with funk music during this that time. He noted that established rock acts doing generic sounding disco tunes found a home on black radio. Acts like Rod Stewart and the Rolling Stones were cited as examples. Meanwhile Black artists like James Brown and George Clinton were for the most part unheard on the airwaves. Even the gospel-like soulful disco as defined by the 'Philly sound' found itself losing ground. While the stereotype depicted a lot of long haired suburban white kids yelling the infamous slogan 'disco sucks', there were large number of young inner city brothers and sisters who were in perfect agreement. With all this happening a void was created and hip hop filled it... Point blank, hip hop was a direct response to the watered down, Europeanized, disco music that

permeated the airwaves.. FYI around the same time hip hop was birthed, House music was evolving among the brothers in Chicago, GoGo music was emerging among the brothers in Washington DC and Black folks in California were getting deep into the funk. If you ask me, it was all a repsonse to disco.

pg 9 In the early days of hip hop, there were break dance crews who went around challenging each other. Many of these participants were former gang members who found a new activity. Bambataa's Universal Zulu Nation was one such group. As the scene grew, block parties became popular. It was interesting to note that the music being played during these gigs was stuff not being played on radio. Here James Brown, Sly & Family Stone, Gil Scott Heron and even the Last Poets found a home. Hence a younger generation began building off a musical tradition abandoned by its elders. Break beats picked up in popularity as emcees sought to rap longer at these parties. It wasn't long before rappers became the ONLY vocal feature at these parties. A microphone and two turntables was all one used in the beginning. With the exception of some break dancers the overwhelming majority of attendees stood around the roped off area and listened carefully to the emcee. A rapper sought to express himself while executing keen lyrical agility. This was defined by one's rhyme style, one's ability to rhyme on beat and the use of clever word play and metaphors. pg 10 In the early days rappers flowed on the mic continously for hours at a time..non stop. Most of the rhymes were pre-written but it was a cardinal sin to recite off a piece of paper at a jam. The early rappers started off just giving shout outs and chants and later incorporated small limricks. Later the rhymes became more elaborate, with choruses like 'Yes Yes Y'all, Or 'One Two Y'all To The Beat Y'all being used whenever an emcee needed to gather his wind or think of new rhymes. Most emcess rhymed on a four count as opposed to some of the complex patterns one hears today. However, early rappers took great pains to accomplish the art of showmanship. There was no grabbing of the crotch and pancing around the stage. Pioneering rapper Mele-Mel in a recent interview pointed out how he and other acts spent long hours reheasing both their rhymes and routines. The name of the game was to get props for rockin' the house. That meant being entertaining. Remember back in the late 70s early 80s, artists weren't doing one or two songs and leaving, they were on the mic all night long with folks just standing around watching. Folks had to come with it or be forever dissed pg 11

Before the first rap records were put out (Fat Back Band's King Tem III' and Sugar Hill Gang's 'Rapper Delight'), hip hop culture had gone through several stages. By the late 70's it seemed like many facets of hip hop would play itself out. Rap for so many people had lost its novelty. For those who were considered the best of the bunch; Afrika Bambaataa, Chief Rocker Busy Bee, Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Four (yes initially there were only 4), Grand Wizard Theodore ad the Fantastic Romantic Five, Funky Four Plus One More, Crash Crew, Master Don Committee to name a few had reached a pinnacle and were looking for the next plateau. Many of these groups had moved from the 'two turntables and a microphone stage' of their career to what many would today consider hype routines. For example all the aforementioned groups had routines where they harmonized. At first folks would do rhymes to the tune of some popular song. The tune to 'Gilligan's Island' was often used. Or as was the case with he Cold Crush Brothers, the 'Cats In the Cradle' was used in one of their more popular routines. As this 'flavor of the month' caught hold, the groups began to develop more elaborate routines. Most notable was GM Flash's' Flash Is to The Beat Box'. All this proceeded 'harmonizing/hip hop acts like Bel Biv DeVoe by at least 10 years. The introduction of rap records in the early 80s put a new meaning on hip hop. It also provided participants a new incentive for folks to get busy. Rap records inspired hip hoppers to take it to another level because they now had the opportunity to let the whole world hear their tales. It also offered a possible escape from the ghetto.... But that's another story..we'll tell it next time.
written by Dave'Davey D'Cook c 1985

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