Unit 7: 19th Century Imperialism

AFRICA “White Man’s Burden”

moral responsibility of the white men in Africa to “barbarians” in regards to religion, health/sanitation, economic development and education drug used to treat malaria – shows fear of spread of malaria as well as development in medicine officer in Ottoman Empire, established a separate Egyptian state – introduced reforms to bring Egypt into modern world; modernized army, public school system, small industries, new products manufactured connected Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea so that Egypt could more easily transport goods (though immediate benefits were limited due to construction costs)– completed in 1869, Great Britain took interest David Livingstone, an explorer, disappeared in Africa- Henry Stanley was a journalist who found him, and after Livingstone’s death, Stanley continued his explorations, set up Belgian settlements in Congo (as directed by King Leopold II) King of Belgium, driving force behind colonization in Africa, ended up with territory south of Congo River (as France got northern) the local people of South Africa who clashed w/ the British invaders, land taken from them by British and Boers the movement of Boers, relocating eastward because the British were too lenient towards the natives of Africa British v. Boers… British burned Boer crops, put them in detention camps


Muhammad Ali

Suez Canal

Stanley and Livingstone

King Leopold II


Great Trek

Boer War

Unit 7: 19th Century Imperialism

INDIA Sepoys Sepoy Mutiny

Indian soldiers of British East India Company rebellion of sepoys because of distrust of British – very violent, many losses for both sides, British decided to transfer power and directly control India representatives throughout India to carry out British orders trading company with power (given by the British) to be actively involved in India’s political and military affairs Dominion or rule, especially the British rule over India group of Indians preferring reforms to revolution, wanted to represent all of India but mainly were wealthier, English-speaking Hindus- goal was to seek independence for all classes (still split over religious differences) writer, life mission to promote Indian pride, wrote about conflicting feelings towards British, wanted ‘world peace’ English sold opium to China, an addictive poison – caused many deaths, exerted English control over China because of high demand, opened trade and gave English great economical advantage – British sent in force the practice of Europeans living in China but subject to their own laws, not Chinese Chinese adoption of Western technology while still keeping Confucian values and institutions imposing European beliefs and technology in China to spread culture

Viceroy British East India Company

Raj India National Congress

Rabindranath Tagore

CHINA Opium Wars

Extraterritoriality Self-strengthening Spheres of influence

Unit 7: 19th Century Imperialism

Open Door Policy

forced agreement between China and other major states to allow trade – beneficial to United States and other trading countries, didn’t end spheres of influence but reduced tariffs/quotas on foreign imports that were controlled by sphere of influence countries domestic explosion- The Boxers wanted foreigners out of China to end economic problems and foreign influences, went throughout countryside and slaughtered foreign missionaries and Chinese Christians…response: allied army of British, French, German, Russian, American and Japanese attacked Beijing, restored order – Chinese gov. forced to pay money to the allied countries….gov. was very weak!! American commodore, went to Japan, forced them to not be isolated transformation of Japan (Meiji = enlightened rule) – modern political system based on Western model, new land taxes, military and education improvements, rights for women! determined authority in the hands of a prime minister and his cabinet of ministers (emperor= figure head), established the Diet (legislative) Russia v. Japan, Russia lost; Japan gets Korea, Taiwan, and Sakhalin

Boxer Rebellion

JAPAN Matthew Perry Meiji Restoration

Meiji Constitution

Russo-Japanese War

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