Microsoft Word 2003: Formatting Your Research Paper using MLA Style Table of Contents I. Introduction............................................................................................................................................... 2 II.

Formatting Pages..................................................................................................................................... 2 A. To Set Line Spacing: ................................................................................................................................. 2 B. To Set Margins: ......................................................................................................................................... 2 III. Adding Page Numbers........................................................................................................................... 2 IV. Heading And Title.................................................................................................................................. 3 V. Citing Sources Within The Text ............................................................................................................. 3 VI. Long Quotations..................................................................................................................................... 4 VII. Inserting A Page Break ........................................................................................................................ 4 VIII. Works Cited......................................................................................................................................... 4 IX. Visuals ..................................................................................................................................................... 5 A. Tables ........................................................................................................................................................ 5 B. Figures ....................................................................................................................................................... 5 Appendix: Examples Of Various Reference Sources: ............................................................................... 6 Books.............................................................................................................................................................. 6 Encyclopedia Articles..................................................................................................................................... 6 Periodicals ...................................................................................................................................................... 7 Nonprint Sources ............................................................................................................................................ 8

Microsoft Word 2003: Formatting Your Research Paper using MLA Style I. Introduction This reference guide provides instructions for formatting your research paper with Microsoft Word 2003. This guide is written for users who are familiar with the basic features of Word 2003. If, however, you need help using the basic features, you can refer to the Creating a Document with Word 2003 guide. When you write a research paper, it is important to follow a particular formatting style throughout your paper. A consistent style enhances readability and helps to give your paper a professional appearance. The following information is based on the format set out in the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers published by the Modern Language Association of America. This style is commonly used in areas of literature, arts, and the humanities. Note: The information that follows is intended as a general guide and does not address all aspects of MLA style formatting. For more detailed guidelines see the latest edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, available at any library, or visit the Marygrove College Writing Center, room LA 005 in the Liberal Arts Building. II. Formatting pages Your paper should be double-spaced throughout, including the list of works cited. Margins should be one inch in all directions (top, bottom, left, right). Indent the first word of a paragraph one-half inch (or five spaces) from the left margin. The proper font size is 12-point font; acceptable font types are Times New Roman (most common) and Courier. All type should be set flush with the left margin, creating an uneven right margin (NOT justified). A. To set line spacing: 1. 2. 3. 4. From the Format menu and select Paragraph. If necessary, select the Indents and Spacing tab. Click on the Line Spacing arrow and select Double. Then click on OK.

B. To set margins: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From the File menu, select Page Setup. At the Page Setup dialog box, select the Margins. At the Top, Bottom, Left, and Right boxes, select 1”. Click on the Apply to arrow and choose Whole document. Then click on OK.

III. Adding page numbers When you add page numbers to your paper, Word will automatically number each new page in your document. In MLA format, the page number appears in the upper-right-hand corner of each page, one inch from the right edge and one-half inch from the top of the paper. Number all pages consecutively starting with the title page. Use Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3…) for page numbers. Type your last name before the page number in case pages are ever misplaced. Note: To view page numbers, your document must be in the Print Layout view. To change the view, go to the View menu and click on Print Layout. To add page numbers: 1. From the View menu, select Header and Footer. The Header and Footer toolbar should appear:

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2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

From the Insert menu, select Page Numbers. At the Page Numbers dialog box, click on the Alignment box and select the alignment Right. Be sure the Show number on first page box is checked and then click OK. Click the Align Right button on the Formatting Toolbar. Type your last name. Click Close on the Header and Footer toolbar.

IV. Heading and Title A title page is not required in MLA format. Place your heading in the upper left corner of the first page of your research paper, one inch from the top of the page and flush with the left margin. Your heading should include the following information (on separate lines and double-spaced): your name, your instructor’s name, the course name/number, and the date. Double-space again and center the title of your paper. Do not underline your title, put it in quotation marks, or type it in all capital letters. Underline only those words you would underline in the text of your paper, e.g. the title of a book. Double-space also between the lines of the title as well as between the title and the first line of the text. The top of the first page of a research paper:

V. Citing Sources Within the Text MLA guidelines require that you cite quotations, summaries, paraphrases, and other material used from sources within parentheses typically placed at the end of the sentence in which the quoted or paraphrased material appears. The parenthetical method replaces the use of footnotes. These in-text parenthetical citations correspond to the full bibliographic entries found in a list of works cited at the end of your paper. Source material must be documented in the body of the paper by citing the author(s) of the source and page number(s) on which the borrowed information can be found. Notice that the period at the end of the sentence is placed after the parenthetical citation. Examples: The authors argue that a number of scientists found Einstein’s theory flawed (Smith and Jones 76). If the last names of the authors appear in the sentence, then only the page number is required: In their controversial article, Williams and Martinez claim the results of the university study were inconclusive due to the “unscientific method of data collection” (121).

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For more than 3 authors, use the first author’s last name, followed by the abbreviation “et al.”: (Hunter et al.) If no author is available, use a short form of the title (the shortest form that will allow you to recognize the work properly). For instance, if you were working with an anonymous article titled “Low-Income Parents and Public Schools,” you might use the following: (“Low-Income Parents” 251) If citing a source within another source, use the abbreviation “qtd. in.” For instance, if you wish to cite Bill Clinton as he appears in an article by Jonathan Alter, you would use: (Clinton, qtd. in Alter 37) If the source of the quotation is named in the main part of the sentence (e.g., “Former President Clinton stated . . . ”) do not include it again in the parenthetical citation. Note: Page numbers are not used when citing complete works, articles in works arranged alphabetically (like encyclopedias), or nonprint sources such as films, recordings, etc. Note: For a quotation from an electronic source such as an online article or web page, give the paragraph or section number if no page number is available. You may use the abbreviations para. and sec. VI. Long quotations When you include long quotations (more than four typed lines), you must use a colon after the formal introduction, indent the quotation ten spaces from the left margin, omit the quotation marks, and place the parenthetical page citation after the period. Like everything else in an MLA-style paper, the long quotation is double-spaced. To format a long quotation: 1. Begin the quotation on a new line. 2. Type the quotation, and then select the text. 3. Next, click and drag the Left Indent marker (on the Ruler) 1 inch to the right.

Note: If the Ruler is not visible across the top of your document, go to View and select Ruler. VII. Inserting a page break Your list of Works Cited begins on a separate page, after the last page of your paper. To insert a page break: 1. Place the cursor after the last text character that you typed in your paper. 2. From the Insert menu, select Break. 3. Under Break types, click on Page break. 4. Click OK. VIII. Works Cited All sources included in the Works Cited section must be cited in the body of the paper. As stated above, your list of Works Cited begins on a separate page, after the last page of your paper. Type the heading “Works Cited” centered on the first line of the page. The references (with hanging indent – see below) begin on the line following the Works Cited heading. Double-space within and between reference sources. Entries are organized by last names of first authors. Most Reference entries have three components: 1. Author(s): Multiple authors are listed in the same order as specified in the source, using last names, first names, and middle initials (if given). Commas separate all authors. When there are four or more authors, list the first one and then use “et al.” (Latin for “and others”) to represent the remaining authors. If no author is identified, the title of the document begins the reference.

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2. 3.

Year of Publication: If no publication date is identified, use “n.d.” Source Reference: For a journal article, this includes the article title, journal title, volume (and sometimes issue) number, and page number(s); for a book, it includes the title, city of publication, and publisher. In general, the source reference for web documents includes author and date (if known) as well as title, date of retrieval, and URL (web address). Underline titles of journals, books, and web sites.

Note: See below for examples of formatting reference sources. To create a hanging indent: 1. Select the Works Cited text. 2. From the Format menu, select Paragraph. 3. At the Paragraph dialog box, check that the Indents and Spacing tab is selected. 4. In the Special box, select Hanging. 5. In the By box, select 0.5". Note that the Preview box at the bottom of the window displays a sample of the hanging indent. 6. Then, click on OK. IX. Visuals MLA classifies visuals as tables and figures (figures include graphs, charts, maps, photographs, and drawings). Visuals should be placed in the text, as close as possible to the sentences that relate to them. A. Tables Label each table with an Arabic numeral (Table 1, Table 2, and so on) and provide a clear caption that identifies the subject. The label and caption should appear on separate lines above the table, flush left. For instance: Table 1 Child Poverty Rates Below the table, give its source in a note like this one: Source: Marian Wright Edelman, “Saving the Children: Taking a Stand,” Emerge June 1996: 58. B. Figures For each figure, place a label and a caption below the figure, flush left. The word "Figure" may be abbreviated to "Fig." Include source information following the caption. For example: Fig. 3. Map of World Religions, “Operation World.” Global Mapping International. 15 Nov. 2002. Global Mapping International. 14 Feb. 2003 <http://www.gmi.org/products/ow.htm>.

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Appendix: Examples of various reference sources: Books Note: The authors' names should be given as they are on the title page of the text, in the order they appear (which will NOT always be alphabetical). If the names of editors appear on the title pages, then a comma should come after the last name to appear in the entry and the abbreviation “eds.” should follow the comma (“ed.” for a single editor). In the entry, the first author's name should be reversed, followed by a comma, and then each additional author's name in its normal order. If MORE THAN three persons authored the book, only the name (reversed) of the first author/editor should appear, followed by a comma and "et al." Basic form Author(s), if known. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Examples 1. Book by one author/editor Hull, Mary, ed. Censorship in America: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2001. 2. Book by two or three authors Strunk, William, and E. B White. The Elements of Style. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1999. 3. Book by four or more authors Hunt, Thomas C., et al. Handbook of Research on Catholic Education. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001. 4. Two or more books by the same author Anderson, Jack. Art Without Boundaries: The World of Modern Dance. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1997. ---. Ballet and Modern Dance. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Book Co., 1986. 5. One selection from an anthology or an edited book Walker, Alice. “Only Justice Can Stop a Curse.” Home Girls: A Black Feminist Anthology. Ed. Barbara Smith. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2003. Encyclopedia articles 1. Well known source Basic form Author(s), if known. “Article Title.” Encyclopedia Title. Edition year. Example “Civil Rights.” The World Book Encyclopedia. 2001 ed.

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2. Less familiar source Basic form Author(s), if known. “Article Title.” Encyclopedia Title. Editor(s). Number of volumes. City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Example Horn, Maurice. “Flash Gordon.” The World Encyclopedia of Comics. Ed. Maurice Horn. 2 vols. New York: Chelsea, 1976. Periodicals 1. Article in a journal with continuous pagination (no issue number) Basic Form Author(s). “Article Title.” Periodical Title Volume number (Publication date): Pages. Example Troester, James D. “Working Through Family-Based Problem Behavior Through Activity Group Therapy.” Clinical Social Work Journal 30 (2002): 419-428. 2. Article in a journal that paginates each issue separately (includes issue number) Basic Form Author(s). “Article Title.” Periodical Title Volume number.Issue number (Publication date): Pages. Example Lott, Bernice. “Low-Income Parents and Public Schools.” The Journal of Social Issues 57.2 (2001): 247-259. 3. Article in a monthly or bimonthly periodical Jenkins, Paul. “The Next Christianity.” The Atlantic Monthly Oct. 2002: 53-68. 4. Article from a weekly or biweekly magazine or newspaper Sloan, Arthur. “Will Corporate America Really Change? Don’t Count on It.” Newsweek 1 July 2002: 44-45. 5. Article from a daily newspaper Carter, David L. “Casino Has its Doubters.” [Rochester, NY] Democrat and Chronicle 27 Dec. 2002: B3.

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Nonprint Sources 1. A film or video recording Jacob Lawrence: An Intimate Portrait. Prod. and Dir. Grover Babcock and Elvin Whitesides. Videocassette. Museum Associates, 1993. 2. A sound recording Crawford, Richard. An Introduction to America’s Music. W. W. Norton & Co., 2001. Perlman, Itzhak. Cinema Serenade. Cond. John Williams. Pittsburgh Symphony Orch. Sony Classical, 1997. Electronic Sources According to MLA, all references to electronic sources should include the same basic information provided for a traditional print source. Information specific to the electronic version must also be included. Special attention should be paid to reporting the date on which the information was retrieved from the electronic database or Internet (because electronic information sources are more fluid than print sources and may change from day to day). Note about long URL’s (web addresses): When indicating a long URL that does not fit on a line, only break the URL after a slash. Do not use a hyphen to indicate a break in the URL. 1. Article in an online periodical Note: For an article from an online periodical, follow the appropriate guidelines for that type of publication (see Periodicals, #1-5, above), and then add the following information: • date of access • URL of the article Example (journal that paginates each issue separately) DeMatteo, Arthur E. “Cleveland’s A. B. duPont: Engineer, Reformer, Visionary.” Northeast Ohio Journal of History 1.1 (2002): 5-23. October 23, 2002 <http://www2.uakron.edu/nojh/articles/fall_2002/features/ article_dematteo_1.html>. 2. Journal article from a periodical database Note: For an article retrieved from an electronic database, follow the guidelines for the appropriate type of journal, magazine, or newspaper (see Periodicals, #1-5, above), and then add the following information: • database name (underlined) • database service name • name of the library where service was accessed • city and state where library is located • date of access • URL of the service (not of the article) Example (journal with continuous pagination) Baldwin, Kate. “Black Like Who? Cross-Testing the ‘Real’ Lines of John Howard Griffin’s Black Like Me.” Cultural Critique 40 (1998): 103-43. MLA Bibliography. OCLC FirstSearch. Marygrove Coll. Lib., Detroit, MI. 16 Dec. 2002. <http://firstsearch.oclc.org>.

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3. Article from a non-periodical database Example “Shange, Ntozake 1948-.” Contemporary Authors. Gale Literature Resource Center. Marygrove Coll. Lib., Detroit, MI. 12 July 2002. <http://galenet.galegroup.com>. 4. Online Encyclopedia Article Basic Form Author(s) (if given). “Title of Material Accessed.” Date of material (if given). Title of Encyclopedia. Publication information for print version of the source (if given). Date of electronic publication, of the latest update, or of posting (if known). Date accessed <URL>. Example "Stock Market Crash of 1929." Britannica Online. Vers. 98.2. April 1998. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 20 August 1999 <http://www.eb.com:180/cgi-bin/g?DocF=micro/ 567/22.html>. 5. Web page within a larger web site Basic form Author(s) (if known). “Title of article or web page.” Name of web site. Date of publication, or of latest update (if known). Sponsoring Institution or Organization. Date accessed <URL>. Examples Dickinson, Laurie. “Zora Neale Hurston.” Voices from the Gaps: Women Writers of Color. 1996. Dept. of English, U of Minnesota. 15 Feb. 2003 <http://voices.cla.umn.edu/authors/ ZoraNealeHurston.html>. “Talking with Kids About HIV and AIDS.” Talking with Kids About Tough Issues. n.d. Children Now. 28 March 2003 <http://www.talkingwithkids.org/aids.html>. 6. Multipage web site Basic Form Name of Web Site. Date of electronic publication, or of the latest update. Name of any institution or organization sponsoring or associated with the web site. Date accessed <URL>. Example CAADWeb. 18 October 2003. Center for the Arts of the African Diaspora. 26 Dec. 2002 <http://www.caadweb.org/>.

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