Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

20 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- ignou
- AP Stats Unit 3 Practice Test
- Rmsd and Msd
- Statistical case solve ch 3.pdf
- BHU PET 2012 M.sc.Statistics
- OBTL Precalculus
- Lecture
- Understanding How CP and CPK Are Used
- m 091217986
- IndicThreads Pune12 Recommenders Apache Mahout
- Correlation R2 Matrix
- Data+Evaluation+Using+a+Monte+Carlo+Oo2 (1)
- Factors Contributing to the Sustainability of 5s Programmes in Government Hospitals in Regional Director of Health Services Area Kurunegala
- debra lesson plan feb 3
- Kemiringan Dan Penggunaan Standar Deviasi
- Testing Durkheim's Theory of Suicide
- HbA1c Performance Evaluation 1503(1)
- double edge sword
- Brooks1955 вік
- Capa Normal Formula Scapa Stats

You are on page 1of 42

This lecture may contain information, ideas, concepts and discursive anecdotes that may be thought provoking and challenging It is not intended for the content or delivery to cause offence Any issues raised in the lecture may require the viewer to engage in further thought, insight, reflection or critical evaluation

Craig Jackson Prof. Occupational Health Psychology Faculty of Education, Law & Social Sciences BCU

craig.jackson@bcu.ac.uk

Keep it simple

Some people hate the very name of statistics but.....their power of dealing with complicated phenomena is extraordinary. They are the only tools by which an opening can be cut through the formidable thicket of difficulties that bars the path of those who pursue the science of man.

Sir Francis Galton, 1889

8 out of 10 owners who expressed a preference, said their cats preferred it.

How confident can we be about such statistics? 8 out of 10? 80 out of 100? 800 out of 1000? 80,000 out of 100,000?

Continuous BP Height Weight Age Discrete Children Age last birthday colds in last year

Ordinal Grade of condition Positions 1st 2nd 3rd Better- Same-Worse Height groups

Easier to summarise Ordinal / Nominal data Cut-off Points (who decides this?)

Allows Continuous variables to be changed into Nominal variables BP BP > 90mmHg = = Hypertensive Normotensive =< 90mmHg

Easier clinical decisions Categorisation reduces quality of data Statistical tests may be more sensational Good for summaries

BMI

Obese vs Underweight

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS Frequencies Basic measurements Describing a phenomena How many Meters, seconds, cm3, IQ

INFERENTIAL phenomena

STATISTICS

Inferences Proving or

about disproving

Multiple Measurement or. 25 cells why statisticians and love dont mix

22 cells

26

25

24

24 cells

23

22

21

21 cells 92 cells

20

Total Mean

= =

N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total Mean SD Age 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 200 20 0 IQ 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1000 100 0 N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total Mean SD Age 18 20 22 24 26 21 19 25 20 21 216 21.6 4.2 IQ 100 110 119 101 105 113 120 119 114 101 1102 110.2 19.2 N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total Mean SD Age 18 20 22 24 26 21 19 25 20 45 240 24 8.5 IQ 100 110 119 101 105 113 120 119 114 156 1157 115.7 30.2

Central Tendency

Mode Median

Patient comfort rating 10 9 8 7 6 5

Mean

4 3 2 1

31

27

70

121

140

129

128

90

80

62 Frequency

Dispersion

Range Spread of data

82mmHg

Mode

Dispersion

An individual score therefore possess a standard deviation (away from the mean), which can be positive or negative Depending on which side of the mean the score is

If add the positive and negative deviations together, it equals zero (the positives and negatives cancel out)

negative deviation positive deviation

Dispersion

Range The interval between the highest and lowest measures Limited value as it involves the two most extreme (likely faulty) measures Percentile The value below / above which a particular percentage of values fall (median is the 50th percentile) e.g 5th percentile - 5% of values fall below it, 95% of values fall above 5th 1st it. 25th 50th 75th 95th 99th A series of percentiles (1st, 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 95, 99th) Range gives a good general idea of the scatter and shape of the data

56

57

58

59

510

511

61

62

63

64

Standard Deviation

To get around observations this, we square each of the

Makes all the values positive (a minus times a minus.) Then sum all those squared observations to calculate the mean This gives the variance - where every observation is squared Need to take the square root of the variance, to get the standard deviation

Grouped Data

Normal Distribution SD is useful because of the shape distributions of data. Symmetrical, bell-shaped / normal / distribution Non Normal Distribution Some distributions fail to be symmetrical If the tail on the left is longer than the right, the distribution is negatively skewed (to the left) of many

Gaussian

If the tail on the right is longer than the left, the distribution is positively skewed (to the right)

Normal Distributions

Standard Normal Distribution has a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1 The total area under the curve amounts to 100% / central value (mean) unity of the observations

3 SD

2 SD

1 SD

0 SD

1 SD

2 SD

3 SD

Proportions of observations within any given range can be obtained from the distribution by using statistical tables of the standard normal distribution

balls dropped through a succession of metal pins.. ..a normal distribution of balls

Distributions

Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911) Alumni of Birmingham University 9 books and > 200 papers Fingerprints, correlation of calculus, twins, neuropsychology, blood transfusions, travel in undeveloped countries, criminality and meteorology)

% of population

with

improving

standards

of

56 57 58 59 61 62 63 64

510

511

Galtons quincunx machine ran with hundreds of balls a more perfect shaped normal distribution.

Obvious implications for the size of samples of populations used The more lead shot runs through the quincunx machine, the smoother the distribution

Presentation of data

Table of means Exposed n=197 Age 45.5 (yrs) ( 9.4) I.Q 105 ( 10.8) 115.1 Controls T n=178 48.9 99 ( 7.3) ( 8.7) 94.7 ( 12.4) P 2.19 0.07 1.78 0.12 3.76

0.04

Speed

(ms) ( 13.4)

Presentation of data

Category tables

Exposed Healthy 50 Controls 150 200

Unwell

147 197

28 178

175 375

Bar Charts

A set of measurements can be presented either as a table or as a figure Graphs are not always as accurate as tables, but Title of graph portray trends more easily y-axis

Legend key

scale

Bar Charts

Some Real Data A combination of distributions facilitate comparisons

7000 Vacation 6000 5000 Votes 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 User rating 8 9 10 Empire

is

acceptable

to

With a scatter diagram, each individual observation becomes a point on the scatter plot, based on two co-ordinates, measured on the abscissa and the ordinate

ordinate

abscissa Two perpendicular lines are drawn through the medians - dividing the plot into quadrants Each quadrant should outlie 25% of all observations

Correlation is a numerical expression between 1 and -1 (extending through all points in between). Properly called the Correlation Coefficient. A decimal measure of association (not necessarily causation) between variables

Correlation of 1 Maximal - any value of one variable precisely determines the other. Perfect +ve Correlation of 0 - No relationship between the variables. Totally independent of each other. Nothing Correlation of -1 Any value of one variable precisely determines the other, but in an opposite direction to a correlation of 1. As one value increases, the other decreases. Perfect -ve Correlation of 0.5 - Only a slight relationship between the variables i.e half of the variables can be predicted by the other, the other half cant. Medium +ve

Correlations between 0 and 0.3 are weak Correlations between 0.4 and 0.7 are moderate Correlations between 0.8 and 1 are strong

Correlation is a numerical expression between 1 and -1 (extending through all points in between). Properly called the Correlation Coefficient. A decimal measure of association (not necessarily causation) between variables

Sampling Keywords

POPULATIONS Can be mundane or extraordinary SAMPLE Must be representative INTERNALY VALIDITY OF SAMPLE Sometimes validity is more important than generalizability SELECTION PROCEDURES Random Opportunistic Conscriptive Quota

Sampling Keywords

THEORETICAL Developing, exploring, and testing ideas EMPIRICAL Based on observations and measurements of reality NOMOTHETIC Rules pertaining to the general case (nomos - Greek) PROBABILISTIC Based on probabilities CAUSAL How causes (treatments) effect the outcomes

Clinical Research

Types of clinical research Experimental vs. Observational Longitudinal vs. Cross-sectional Prospective vs. Retrospective Experimental Longitudinal Prospective Observational Longitudinal Prospective

Cross-sectional

Retrospective Survey

Experimental Designs

Between subjects studies

Treatment group Outcome measured patients Control group Outcome measured

Observational studies

Cohort (prospective)

coho rt prospectively measure risk factors

Case-Control (retrospective)

start point measured aetiology odds ratios prevalence developmen

Cases have Lung Cancer Controls could be other hospital patients (other disease) or normals Matched Cases & Controls for age & gender Option of 2 Controls per Case Smoking years of Lung Cancer cases and controls (matched for age and sex) Controls n=456 F Smoking years 13.75 6.12 ( 1.5) ( 2.1) Cases n=456

P 7.5

0.04

Volunteers in 2 groups e.g. exposed vs non-exposed All complete health survey every 12 months End point at 5 years: groups compared for Health Status Comparison of general health between users and non-users of mobile phones ill mobile phone user non-phone user 381 292 89 421 healthy 108 313 802 400 402

90% consultations take place in GP surgery 50 years old

Randomisation Bias

RCT Deficiencies

Trials too small Trials too short Poor quality Poorly presented Address wrong question Methodological inadequacies Inadequate measures of quality of life (changing) Cost-data poorly presented Ethical neglect Patients given limited understanding Poor trial management Politics Marketeering Why still the dominant model?

What data is needed to answer the larger-scale research question Combination of quantitative and qualitative ? Cleaning, re-scoring, re-scaling, or re-formatting Measurement of both IVs and DVs is complex but can be simplified Binary measurement makes analysis easier but less meaningful Binary data needs clear parameters e.g exposed vs controls

Continuous & Discrete data can also be converted into Binary data Normal distribution of participants / data points desirable Means - age, height, weight, BMI, IQ, attitudes Frequencies / Classifications - job type, sick vs. healthy, dead vs alive Means must be followed by Standard Deviation (SD or ) Presentation of data must enhance understanding

If you or anyone you know has been affected by any of the issues covered in this lecture, you may need a statisticians help:

www.statistics.gov.uk

Further Reading

Abbott, P., & Sapsford, R.J. (1988). Research methods for nurses and the caring professions. Buckingham: Open University Press. Altman, D.G. (1991). Designing Research. In D.G. Altman (ed.), Practical Statistics For Medical Research (pp. 74-106). London: Chapman and Hall. Bland, M. (1995). The design of experiments. In M. Bland (ed.), An introduction to medical statistics (pp525). Oxford: Oxford Medical Publications. Bowling, A. (1994). Measuring Health. Milton Keynes: Open University Press. Daly, L.E., & Bourke, G.J. (2000). Epidemiological and clinical research methods. In L.E. Daly & G.J. Bourke (eds.), Interpretation and uses of medical statistics

Further Reading

Jackson, C.A. (2002). Planning Health and Safety Research Projects. Health and Safety at Work Special Report 62, (pp 1-16). Jackson, C.A. (2003). Analyzing Statistical Data in Occupational Health Research. Management of Health Risks Special Report 81, (pp. 2-8). Kumar, R. (1999). Research Methodology: step guide for beginners. London: Sage. a step by

Polit, D., & Hungler, B. (2003). Nursing research: Principles and methods (7th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

- ignouUploaded byMir Aqib
- AP Stats Unit 3 Practice TestUploaded bybehealthybehappy96
- Rmsd and MsdUploaded byJorge Sanchez
- Statistical case solve ch 3.pdfUploaded byAshik Uz Zaman
- BHU PET 2012 M.sc.StatisticsUploaded byaglasem
- OBTL PrecalculusUploaded byYvoj Oñisac
- LectureUploaded byanon-753408
- Understanding How CP and CPK Are UsedUploaded byisotemp
- m 091217986Uploaded byIOSRjournal
- IndicThreads Pune12 Recommenders Apache MahoutUploaded byindicthreads
- Correlation R2 MatrixUploaded bySazzad Hossain Tuhin
- Data+Evaluation+Using+a+Monte+Carlo+Oo2 (1)Uploaded bysilvra
- Factors Contributing to the Sustainability of 5s Programmes in Government Hospitals in Regional Director of Health Services Area KurunegalaUploaded byIJSTR Research Publication
- debra lesson plan feb 3Uploaded byapi-286186447
- Kemiringan Dan Penggunaan Standar DeviasiUploaded byProdi Arsitektur Untan
- Testing Durkheim's Theory of SuicideUploaded byAnanthan Ps
- HbA1c Performance Evaluation 1503(1)Uploaded byAinun Jariah
- double edge swordUploaded byapi-312460838
- Brooks1955 вікUploaded byTanya Slobodyan
- Capa Normal Formula Scapa StatsUploaded byCarlos Ca
- Intuitive Information RetrievalUploaded byehuang9305
- Bias PenelitianUploaded byAriyati Mandiri
- Electrical-Resistivity-Based-Empirical-Model-For-Delineating-Some-Selected-Soil-Properties-On-Sandy-loam-Soil.pdfUploaded byIJSTR Research Publication
- Cohort StudyUploaded byRahul Netragaonkar
- Analytical StudiesUploaded bynikkihipulan
- Market Integration in the North and Baltic Seas, 1500-1800Uploaded byespocin
- Akshay Bankay Integrated math SBA 2018.docxUploaded byNkosi Jupiter
- The Relationship Between Work-life Balance and EmployeeUploaded byPradeepa
- lec 1Uploaded bytacamp da
- Assessment and Evaluation of Learning Part 4Uploaded byGenissa Miñoza Baes

- Guideline on Adjuvants in VaccinesUploaded bySiri Sri
- Week 2 Antigens and ImmunizationUploaded bySiri Sri
- CrfUploaded bySiri Sri
- 4106626 Pharmacology Question BankUploaded bySiri Sri
- All Nobel PrizesUploaded byKirti Kalra
- Chemotherapy and Rational Drug UseUploaded bySiri Sri
- History of the Microsoft Windows Operating System FamilyUploaded bySiri Sri

- ttestUploaded byKarthik Balaji
- Assignment Final1Uploaded byManeeshBaranwal
- Parametric TestsUploaded byDipendra Kumar Shah
- skittles finalUploaded byapi-313793109
- The Extreme Value DistributionUploaded bysipil123
- Spss Training MaterialUploaded bySteve Elroy
- SChapter_1Uploaded bydivvi
- section 3.4.pdfUploaded byChristine Joy
- CorrelationUploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- Assignment 2Uploaded byRehana Anwar
- Cara Pake MicrofitUploaded byNugraha Ginting
- Do Reputable Companies Have Superior Earnings Quality.pdfUploaded byNicholas Adzor
- Regression workbook.xlsxUploaded bypavikutty
- Goodness of Fit TestUploaded byAgus Yanto
- A Statistical Journey: A Taming of the Skew! by D.F. DeMoulin & W.A. KritsonisUploaded byAnonymous sewU7e6
- Math 104 MidtermUploaded byteacher.theacestud
- b;klUploaded by53melmel
- Introductory Econometrics a Modern Approach 6th Edition Wooldridge Test BankUploaded byMinh Duy Hoàng
- Alevel Ut s1 u2 TestUploaded bySema
- Operational Management: Management of ControlUploaded byBikram Prajapati
- CH07AUploaded bynikowawa
- sop'methUploaded byAndrew Arciosa Calso
- Exame Final IIUploaded byMariana Gameiro
- Output Modul 4 StatistikaUploaded byAkhyar Ghofari
- MS 08 - Solved AssignmentUploaded byAdarsh Kalhia
- Tutorials + SolutionsUploaded byAshwin Seeruttun
- Effects of a Supplemental Vocabulary ProgramUploaded bydjelif
- statistics practice 10Uploaded byapi-248877347
- ABCalcUploaded byAnonymous bGMdk9
- New Introduction to ResearchUploaded byMuhammad Maulaya

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.