# GEOMETRICAL OPTICS

AND
OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS
Putri Permata T. (x.2/13)
Shaffan Ula P. (x.2/18)
Yoshinta P. (x.2/26)
Ligita F.A. (x.2/29)
SMAN 5 SURABAYA
INTRODUCTION
 Optics is branch of physics concerns the propagation and
behavior of light. In general, light is part of the electromagnetic
spectrum that extends from X rays to microwaves and
includes the radiation that produces the sensation of vision.
The study of optics is divided into geometrical optics and
physical optics.
 Geometrical optics study the application of laws of reflection
and refraction of light in the design of lenses, mirrors and other
optical instruments.
 We’ll discuss about how images are formed by lenses. We’ll
also discuss about magnifiers and the human eye.

LENSES
 Lens in optics is glass or other transparent substance so shaped
that it will refract the light from any object, converging or diverging
it, and form a real or virtual image of the object.
 Lenses are classified by the curvature of the two optical surfaces.
Each surface of a lens can be convex, concave, or flat.
 Lens axis is imaginary line perpendicular to both surfaces
axis
CONVEX LENS
 If the lens is convex, a beam of light traveling parallel to the
lens axis and passing through the lens will be converged (or
focused) to a spot on the axis, at a certain distance behind the
lens (known as the focal length).
 Convex lens has positive focal length
 In this case, the lens is called a positive (+) or converging
lens. Convex lens usually described as a vertical line with sign
(+) on it’s top.

PROPERTIES OF CONVEX LENS
+
f2 f1 o
+
f2 f1 o
+
f2 f1 o
When a beam of ray parallel to the axis passes
through the lens, it will converge to a point (f1)
Similarly, rays passes f2 refracted from the lens
as parallel rays
Rays passes undeflected straight through
center of the lens (O)
IMAGING
+
f2 f1
o
2f2
2f1
Image Properties:
1. Real Image
2. Inverted
3. Smaller than Object
Condition: S>2f2
S
IMAGING
+
f2 f1
o
2f2
2f1
Image Properties:
1. Real Image
2. Inverted
3. Same Size as Object
Condition: S=2f2
S
IMAGING
+
f2 f1
o
2f2
2f1
Image Properties:
1. Real Image
2. inverted
3. Bigger than Object
Condition: f2<S<2f2
S
IMAGING
+
f2 f1
o
2f2
2f1
No Image formed, or
Image at infinite distance
Condition: S=f2
S
IMAGING
+
f2 f1
o
2f2
2f1
Image Properties:
1. Virtual Image
2. Upright
3. Bigger than Object
Condition: S<f2
S
SIMULATION
CONCAVE LENS
 If the lens is concave, a parallel beam of light passing
through the lens is diverged (spread); the lens is thus
called a negative (-) or diverging lens. The distance
from this point to the lens is also known as the focal
length.
 Concave lens has negative focal length
 It also usually described as a vertical line with (-) sign.

PROPERTIES OF CONCAVE LENS
-
f1 f2 o
-
f1 f2 o
-
f1 f2 o
When a beam of ray parallel to the axis
passes trough the lens, it will appear
diverge after refraction
Rays converging towards f2 will refracted
parallel to the axis
Rays passes undeflected straight through
center of the lens (O)
IMAGING
_
f1 f2
o
2f1
2f2
Image Properties:
1. Real Image
2. Upright
3. Smaller than Object
Condition: S>2f2
S<2f2
S=2f2
S
Image of concave lens
always virtual, upright, and
smaller than object
SIMULATION
LENS MAKER EQUATION
)
1 1
)( 1 (
1
2 1 1
2
R R n
n
f
+ ÷ =
M2 M1
n2 n1
R2
R1
M2 M1
n2 n1
R2
R1
Rules:
R1 or R2 (+) for convex surface
R1 or R2 (-) for concave surface
R1 or R2 (~) for plane surface

LENS EQUATION
f s s
1 1 1
2 1
= +
1
2
'
s
s
h
h
M ÷ = =
Equation of Object-Image
relationship
Linear and lateral magnification
Rules:
1. S1 has positive value if object located in front of the lens
2. S1 has negative value if object located behind the lens
3. S2 has positive value if image located behind of the lens (real)
4. S2 has negative value if image located in front of the lens (virtual)
5. Convex lens has positive focus (f)
6. Concave lens has negative focus (f)
7. h’ has positive value means image is upright and virtual
8. h’ has negative value means image is inverted and real
2 LENS WITH SAME MAIN AXIS
f1 f1
o
f2 f2
s1 s’1 s’2 s2
d
object
Final Image
2 LENS WITH SAME MAIN AXIS
(EQUATION)
2 1
' s s d + =
1
1
1
1
1
' '
s
s
h
h
M ÷ = =
2
2
2
2
2
' '
s
s
h
h
M ÷ = =
2 1
M M M
t
× =
2 1
2 1
1
2
' ' '
s s
s s
h
h
M
×
×
= =
Image formed by first lens
will be object for second
lens
Total magnification is equal
to multiplication of both
magnification
COMPOUND LENS
f1
f2
2
nd
image
1
st
image
f3
3
rd
image
1 2 3
COMPOUND LENS (EQUATION)
...
1 1 1 1 1
3 2 1
+ + + = =
¿
f f f f f
i
i t
...
3 2 1
+ + + = =
¿
P P P P P
i
i t
Total focus of compound lens
Total optical power of
compound lens
For compound lens d=0
OPTICAL POWER OF THE LENS
 The focal length f is positive for converging lenses, and
negative for diverging lenses. The inverse of the focal length,
1/f, is the optical power of the lens. If the focal length is in
meters, this gives the optical power in dioptres (1/m).

 Convex lens has positive optical power because it has positive
focus, while Concave lens has negative optical power because
it has negative focus.
 We often use this quantity to determine eyeglasses power
f
P
1
=
P is Power of lens
f is focal length (m)
'
1 1
'
1 1
s sn s s
P ÷ = + =
Sn is normal near or far point
S’ is user near or far point
EXAMPLE
Convergent lens
 An object placed 30 cm in front of convergent lens that has focal
length 15 cm. Find: a) Image location (S2), b) Image Magnification,
c) Image properties.

f S S
1
2
1
1
1
= +
15
1
2
1
30
1
= +
S
30
1
15
1
2
1
÷ =
S
30
1
30
2
2
1
÷ =
S
30
1
2
1
=
S
cm S 30 2 =
1
30
30
1
2
÷ =
÷ =
÷ =
M
M
S
S
M a) b) c)
Real Image, S2= (+)
inverted, M= (-)
Same size as object, M=1
Convergent = Convex
EXAMPLE
Divergent lens
 An object placed 30 cm in front of divergent lens that has focal length
15 cm. Find: a) Image location (S2), b) Image Magnification, c)
Image properties.

f S S
1
2
1
1
1
= +
15
1
2
1
30
1
÷
= +
S
30
1
15
1
2
1
÷ ÷ =
S
30
1
30
2
2
1
÷ ÷ =
S
30
3
2
1
÷ =
S
cm S 10 2 ÷ =
3
1
30
10
1
2
+ =
÷
÷ =
÷ =
M
M
S
S
M
a) b) c)
Virtual Image, S2= (-)
Upright, M= (+)
Smaller than object, M<1
Divergent = Concave
EXAMPLE
Optical Power of The Lens
1. Find the optical power of a convergent lens with focal length 50 cm
2. Find the optical power of a divergent lens with focal length 25 cm

1)

2)
m cm f 5 . 0 50 = =
dioptre
f
P 2
5
10
5 . 0
1 1
= = = =
m cm f 25 . 0 25 ÷ = ÷ =
dioptre
f
P 4
25
100
25 . 0
1 1
÷ = ÷ =
÷
= =
THE EYE
Eyes are one of the optical instruments, which are
the most familiar to us . An eye contains a convex
lens with a thickness that can be set . It changes
the focal length so that objects that are either far
away or near can be seen more clearly .

ANATOMY OF THE EYE
EYE OPTICS
 The image formed by eye is real, inverted, and smaller than the object.
 For an object to be seen sharply, the image must be formed exactly at
the retina. The eye adjust to different object distances by changing the
focal length of it’s lens.
 For normal eye, an object at infinite distance sharply focused when
ciliary muscle is relaxed. To form sharp image for closer objects, the
tension of ciliary muscle increase so that the curvature of it’s surface
decrease. This process called accomodation.
 The extremes of over which distinct vision is possible are known as the
far point and the near point of the eye. The far point of a normal eye is
at infinity. The average near point of normal eye is 25 cm.
NEARSIGHTEDNESS (MYOPIA)
Someone who can see objects which has distance
25cm clearly, but can't see objects with far distance
clearly is called nearsightedness. It's also called
far-blurred . This is caused by the eyepiece can't
flat in proper order so the farthest image object
doesn't reach the retina . It can be cured by using
concave eyeglasses . Before the light enters the
eye, it is refracted by concave lens, so the
reflection precise in the retina .
IMAGING
_
Parallel light
FARSIGHTEDNESS (HYPERMETROPIA)
Farsightedness, person can't see clearly close to
the object, but can see clearly far to the object .
This is caused by the eyepiece can't curve in proper
order so the closest reflection object is formed
behind the retina . It can be cured by using convex
eyeglasses. The function of convex lens is to
circumcise the light before it enters the eyes. This is
intended to form a reflection precise in the retina.

IMAGING
+
Near Object
PRESBYOPIA
An old man, usually can't see far object or near
object. This is caused by the near point . Is longer
than the near point of normal eyes and the far point
is shorter than the far point of normal eyes .
Presbyopia can be cured by bifocals lens. The
negative lens is for looking at the far objects . While
the positive lens is for reading or looking at the near
object.

ASTIGMATISM
Is cause by the misdistribution of the curvedness of
cornea. it affects the light that enters the eye don't
refract evenly . it's caused why astigmatic person
can't differentiated the horizontal and vertical lines .
it can be cured by using cylindrical eyeglasses .

LASER CORRECTION
EXAMPLE
m f
cm f
f
f
s s f
1
100
100
1 1
100
1 1 1
'
1 1 1
÷ =
÷ =
÷ =
÷
+
·
=
+ =
 A man suffers myopia has far point 100 cm. He wants to
see far objects. Find the focal length and optical power of
the lens he should use.
Hints: place the object in the man’s far point

dioptre P
P
f
P
1
1
1
1
÷ =
÷
=
=
ANGULAR SIZE
 When you see a ship moving toward a harbor you will realize that at
first the ship looks very small, but when it’s getting closer it will looks
bigger. We can explain this occurrence with angular size concept.
o3 o2 o1
h
A B C
A’ B’ C’
• If the angular magnitude (o) of an object bigger, the image formed
will also looks bigger in the retina.
• o3> o2 > o1 then C’>B’>A’
ANGULAR MAGNIFICATION
 Angular magnification defined as ratio between angular
size of image of an object (|) and angular size of the
object (o).

o
|
=
a
M
• Memorize well…
• With this concept we can derive equations of magnifying glass and
microscope.
MAGNIFYING GLASS
 A magnifying glass is a large convex lens commonly used to
examine small objects. The image is virtual because it is only
perceived by the viewer’s brain, and cannot be captured on a screen.
 Angular size if we see objects using magnifying glass is bigger than
if we see objects directly.
 Magnifying glass has angular magnification, there are 3 conditions of
angular magnification on a magnifying glass:

a. Eye accommodate at x distance
b. Eye at maximum accommodation
c. Eye with no accommodation

EYE ACCOMMODATE AT CERTAIN “X” DISTANCE
'
'
tan
S
h
= |
n
S
h
= o tan
h’
h
S
S’ = -x
h
Sn

|
o
S
S
h
h ' '
÷ =
x f
f x
s f s
s f s
. '
1 1 1
'
1 1 1
+
= + =
÷ =
n a
n
a
S
f x
f x
M
S
S
M
.
.
|
|
.
|

\
| +
=
=
o
|
=
a
M
n
a
S h
x h
M
/
/ '
=
x
S
h
h
M
n
a
.
'
=
x
S
S
S
M
n
a
.
'
÷ =
S
S
M
n
a
=
x
S
S
x
M
n
a
.
) (÷
÷ =
x
S
f
S
M
n n
a
+ =
EYE AT MAXIMUM ACCOMMODATION
 When eye fully accommodate, image formed from magnifying
glass must placed in eye’s near point, so S’=-Sn and x=Sn,
subtitute Sn to x in our previous equation
1 + =
+ =
+ =
f
S
M
S
S
f
S
M
x
S
f
S
M
n
a
n
n n
a
n n
a
h’
h
S
S’ = -x
|
h
Sn=near point

o
EYE WITH NO ACCOMMODATION
 Image formed from magnifying glass must be placed in
eye’s far point, far point = ·, to obtain image at infinite
distance we must place the object in the focal point.

f
S
M
f
S
M
S
f
S
M
x
S
f
S
M
n
a
n
a
n n
a
n n
a
=
+ =
·
+ =
+ =
0
h’
f
EXAMPLE
cm f
m f
f
P
f
5
05 . 0
20
1
1
=
=
=
=
 A magnifying glass with optical
power 20 dioptre used by a
man with near point 30 cm and
far point 200 cm. Find the
location of the image and
magnification of the magnifying
glass when man’s eye at
maximum accommodation.

cm s
s
s
s
s f s
s s f
7
30
30
7 1
30
1
30
6 1
30
1
5
1 1
'
1 1 1
'
1 1 1
=
=
+ =
÷
÷ =
÷ =
+ =
a.
b.
7
5
35
5
5
5
30
1
= =
+ =
+ =
a
a
n
a
M
M
f
S
M

INTRODUCTION

Optics is branch of physics concerns the propagation and behavior of light. In general, light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum that extends from X rays to microwaves and includes the radiation that produces the sensation of vision. The study of optics is divided into geometrical optics and physical optics. Geometrical optics study the application of laws of reflection and refraction of light in the design of lenses, mirrors and other optical instruments. We’ll discuss about how images are formed by lenses. We’ll also discuss about magnifiers and the human eye.

LENSES

Lens in optics is glass or other transparent substance so shaped that it will refract the light from any object, converging or diverging it, and form a real or virtual image of the object. Lenses are classified by the curvature of the two optical surfaces. Each surface of a lens can be convex, concave, or flat. Lens axis is imaginary line perpendicular to both surfaces

axis

CONVEX LENS

 

If the lens is convex, a beam of light traveling parallel to the lens axis and passing through the lens will be converged (or focused) to a spot on the axis, at a certain distance behind the lens (known as the focal length). Convex lens has positive focal length In this case, the lens is called a positive (+) or converging lens. Convex lens usually described as a vertical line with sign (+) on it’s top.

PROPERTIES OF CONVEX LENS + f2 When a beam of ray parallel to the axis passes through the lens. it will converge to a point (f1) f1 o + f2 o f1 Similarly. rays passes f2 refracted from the lens as parallel rays + f2 o f1 Rays passes undeflected straight through center of the lens (O) .

IMAGING Condition: S>2f2 + 2f1 2f2 f2 o f1 S Image Properties: 1. Real Image 2. Inverted 3. Smaller than Object .

Real Image 2. Inverted 3. Same Size as Object .IMAGING Condition: S=2f2 + 2f1 2f2 f2 o f1 S Image Properties: 1.

Bigger than Object . Real Image 2.IMAGING Condition: f2<S<2f2 + 2f1 2f2 f2 o f1 S Image Properties: 1. inverted 3.

or Image at infinite distance .IMAGING Condition: S=f2 + 2f1 2f2 f2 o f1 S No Image formed.

IMAGING Condition: S<f2 + 2f1 2f2 f2 o f1 S Image Properties: 1. Bigger than Object . Virtual Image 2. Upright 3.

SIMULATION .

CONCAVE LENS    If the lens is concave. The distance from this point to the lens is also known as the focal length. a parallel beam of light passing through the lens is diverged (spread). . the lens is thus called a negative (-) or diverging lens. Concave lens has negative focal length It also usually described as a vertical line with (-) sign.

PROPERTIES OF CONCAVE LENS f1 o f2 When a beam of ray parallel to the axis passes trough the lens. it will appear diverge after refraction f1 o f2 Rays converging towards f2 will refracted parallel to the axis f1 o f2 Rays passes undeflected straight through center of the lens (O) .

IMAGING Condition: S>2f2 S=2f2 S<2f2 _ 2f2 2f1 f1 o f2 S Image Properties: 1. Upright 3. Real Image 2. upright. and smaller than object . Smaller than Object Image of concave lens always virtual.

SIMULATION .

LENS MAKER EQUATION 1 n 1 1  ( 2  1)(  ) f n1 R1 R2 M1 R1 R2 Rules: R1 or R2 (+) for convex surface R1 or R2 (-) for concave surface R1 or R2 () for plane surface n2 n1 M2 R1 M1 n2 n1 R2 M2 .

h’ has positive value means image is upright and virtual 8. h’ has negative value means image is inverted and real .LENS EQUATION Equation of Object-Image relationship Linear and lateral magnification Rules: 1. S1 has negative value if object located behind the lens 3. S2 has positive value if image located behind of the lens (real) 4. Concave lens has negative focus (f) 7. Convex lens has positive focus (f) 6. S1 has positive value if object located in front of the lens 2. S2 has negative value if image located in front of the lens (virtual) 1 1 1   s1 s2 f h' s2 M   h s1 5.

2 LENS WITH SAME MAIN AXIS object Final Image f1 o f1 f2 f2 s1 s’1 d s2 s’2 .

2 LENS WITH SAME MAIN AXIS (EQUATION) d  s'1  s2 M1  h'1 s'  1 h1 s1 Image formed by first lens will be object for second lens Total magnification is equal to multiplication of both magnification h'2 s '2 M2   h2 s2 M t  M1  M 2 M h'2 s '1s '2  h1 s1  s2 .

COMPOUND LENS 1 2 3 3rd image 2nd image f1 f2 f3 1st image .

...COMPOUND LENS (EQUATION) 1 1 1 1 1       .. ft f i f1 f 2 f 3 i Total focus of compound lens Pt   Pi  P  P2  P3  . 1 i Total optical power of compound lens For compound lens d=0 .

1/f. If the focal length is in meters. and negative for diverging lenses. while Concave lens has negative optical power because it has negative focus. is the optical power of the lens. The inverse of the focal length. this gives the optical power in dioptres (1/m). We often use this quantity to determine eyeglasses power . P is Power of lens P 1 1 1 1 1 P    f s s' sn s' f is focal length (m) Sn is normal near or far point S’ is user near or far point   Convex lens has positive optical power because it has positive focus.OPTICAL POWER OF THE LENS  The focal length f is positive for converging lenses.

b) Image Magnification. M=1 1 1 1 30   M  Real Image. c) Image properties. S2 1 1 1 a) b) M   c)   inverted. S2= (+) 30 S 2 15 30 1 1 1 M  1   S 2 15 30 1 2 1   S 2 30 30 1 1  S 2 30 Convergent = Convex S 2  30cm . Find: a) Image location (S2). M= (-) S1 S1 S 2 f Same size as object.EXAMPLE Convergent lens  An object placed 30 cm in front of convergent lens that has focal length 15 cm.

c) Image properties. a) 1 1 1   S1 S 2 f 1 1 1   30 S 2  15 1 1 1   S2 15 30 1 2 1   S2 30 30 1 3  S2 30 b) M   S 2 c) S1  10 M  30 1 M  3 Upright. b) Image Magnification. M= (+) Smaller than object. S2= (-) Divergent = Concave S 2  10cm .EXAMPLE Divergent lens  An object placed 30 cm in front of divergent lens that has focal length 15 cm. Find: a) Image location (S2). M<1 Virtual Image.

25 25 2) .EXAMPLE Optical Power of The Lens 1. Find the optical power of a divergent lens with focal length 25 cm 1) f  50cm  0. Find the optical power of a convergent lens with focal length 50 cm 2.5 5 f  25cm  0.5m 1 1 10 P    2dioptre f 0.25m 1 1 100 P    4dioptre f  0.

which are the most familiar to us .THE EYE Eyes are one of the optical instruments. It changes the focal length so that objects that are either far away or near can be seen more clearly . An eye contains a convex lens with a thickness that can be set . .

ANATOMY OF THE EYE .

The eye adjust to different object distances by changing the focal length of it’s lens. To form sharp image for closer objects. the image must be formed exactly at the retina. .EYE OPTICS     The image formed by eye is real. the tension of ciliary muscle increase so that the curvature of it’s surface decrease. This process called accomodation. and smaller than the object. For an object to be seen sharply. inverted. an object at infinite distance sharply focused when ciliary muscle is relaxed. For normal eye. The far point of a normal eye is at infinity. The extremes of over which distinct vision is possible are known as the far point and the near point of the eye. The average near point of normal eye is 25 cm.

it is refracted by concave lens. so the reflection precise in the retina . It's also called far-blurred .NEARSIGHTEDNESS (MYOPIA) Someone who can see objects which has distance 25cm clearly. This is caused by the eyepiece can't flat in proper order so the farthest image object doesn't reach the retina . Before the light enters the eye. It can be cured by using concave eyeglasses . . but can't see objects with far distance clearly is called nearsightedness.

IMAGING Parallel light _ .

This is caused by the eyepiece can't curve in proper order so the closest reflection object is formed behind the retina .FARSIGHTEDNESS (HYPERMETROPIA) Farsightedness. This is intended to form a reflection precise in the retina. . but can see clearly far to the object . It can be cured by using convex eyeglasses. person can't see clearly close to the object. The function of convex lens is to circumcise the light before it enters the eyes.

IMAGING Near Object + .

usually can't see far object or near object. .PRESBYOPIA An old man. The negative lens is for looking at the far objects . While the positive lens is for reading or looking at the near object. Is longer than the near point of normal eyes and the far point is shorter than the far point of normal eyes . Presbyopia can be cured by bifocals lens. This is caused by the near point .

it can be cured by using cylindrical eyeglasses . . it's caused why astigmatic person can't differentiated the horizontal and vertical lines . it affects the light that enters the eye don't refract evenly .ASTIGMATISM Is cause by the misdistribution of the curvedness of cornea.

LASER CORRECTION .

He wants to see far objects.EXAMPLE  A man suffers myopia has far point 100 cm. Hints: place the object in the man’s far point 1 1 1   f s s' 1 1 1   f   100 1 1  f 100 f  100cm f  1m 1 f 1 P 1 P  1dioptre P . Find the focal length and optical power of the lens he should use.

• 3> 2 > 1 then C’>B’>A’ . We can explain this occurrence with angular size concept.ANGULAR SIZE  When you see a ship moving toward a harbor you will realize that at first the ship looks very small. but when it’s getting closer it will looks bigger. A h 3 2 1 B C A’ B’ C’ • If the angular magnitude () of an object bigger. the image formed will also looks bigger in the retina.

ANGULAR MAGNIFICATION  Angular magnification defined as ratio between angular size of image of an object () and angular size of the object (). .  Ma   • Memorize well… • With this concept we can derive equations of magnifying glass and microscope.

The image is virtual because it is only perceived by the viewer’s brain. Eye with no accommodation . there are 3 conditions of angular magnification on a magnifying glass: a. Eye accommodate at x distance b. and cannot be captured on a screen. Eye at maximum accommodation c.MAGNIFYING GLASS    A magnifying glass is a large convex lens commonly used to examine small objects. Magnifying glass has angular magnification. Angular size if we see objects using magnifying glass is bigger than if we see objects directly.

n h x S' S Ma   . f . S x S Ma  n S 1 1  f s' 1 1 x f   f s' f . n S x ( x) S n Ma   .S n    S S Ma  n  n f x .EYE ACCOMMODATE AT CERTAIN “X” DISTANCE tan   h  Sn h Sn h' tan   S' 1  s 1  s h' S'  h S Ma    h’ h  S S’ = -x h' / x Ma  h / Sn h' S Ma  .x Sn Ma  S  x f  Ma    x.

image formed from magnifying glass must placed in eye’s near point. so S’=-Sn and x=Sn.EYE AT MAXIMUM ACCOMMODATION  When eye fully accommodate. subtitute Sn to x in our previous equation h  Sn=near point Sn Sn Ma   f x S S Ma  n  n f Sn  S h’ h Sn Ma  1 f S’ = -x .

to obtain image at infinite distance we must place the object in the focal point. far point = . Sn Sn  f x S S Ma  n  n f  S Ma  n  0 f Sn Ma  f Ma  h’ f .EYE WITH NO ACCOMMODATION  Image formed from magnifying glass must be placed in eye’s far point.

Sn 1 f 30 5 Ma   5 5 35 Ma  7 5 Ma  b.05m f  5cm 1 1 1   f s s' 1 1 1   s f s' 1 1 1   s 5  30 1 6 1   s 30 30 1 7  s 30 30 s  cm 7  A magnifying glass with optical power 20 dioptre used by a man with near point 30 cm and far point 200 cm. . Find the location of the image and magnification of the magnifying glass when man’s eye at maximum accommodation. 1 f  P 1 f  20 f  0.EXAMPLE a.