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ISRAEL Energy Audit

Andreas Iliou - measurements analysis, connectors

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Module Circuit Design
Different strings Iso fault measurements

Powador Inverters modules STP 210 18 Ud It is highly important to measure one module only against frame , either isolated with wood or similar isolator

28,5 V 2,55 A 199 Mohm during dry conditions 820W/m 29,8 V 6,61 A > 199 MOhm @ 500V 29,7 V 6,55 A >199MOhm @ 1000V Module temperature is 51 degrees @ 10:00 am After pouring the water over surface 1000V 500V measured + and combined/ against complete roof/ grounding structure ( not recommended) 26,9 MOhm 37,2 MOhm 30 MOhm 42 MOhm 36,3 MOhm (all values measured are fine ) Powador Inverters modules STP 210 18 Ud It is highly important to measure one module only against frame , either isolated with wood or similar isolator

Measuring + Pole and Pole seperate against frame or/ and structure

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Earthing structure several times earthed towards the roof structure , therefore If the wiring to bond with the earth near inverter is not big enough ,after Kirchhoff s law, current will flow according the lowest resistance.

Module Circuit Design Analysing

Measured 25,9 MOhm with normal Isolationtester Megger ~ok If still mounted on the structure

Module Circuit Design Analysing

Measured (isolated) real values / 1 module but + and - shortcut

Module Circuit Design Isolation fault

Measured 625 MOhm with Isolationtester HT 420

Module Circuit Design Analysing/Impedance

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Impedance
UL = 25V 230V +50A*0,71Ohm~ 0.71 Ohm (RS) 265,5V AC 338 Ik UL = 25V 230V + 50A*1,04Ohm~ 1.04 Ohm (RS) 282 V AC 230 Ik UL = 25V 0.18 Ohm (RS) 1315 Ik -with a existing value of 1,02 OhmRn~ max 10,791 kW 3 phase can be realised 230V + 50A*0,18Ohm~ 239 V AC

Overcoming earthing (Ri)and Impedance (Rn)problemsThe current will flow in any direction, if earth wire (back) is to small

Earthing with Aluminium corrosion protected

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Earthing with Aluminium corrosion protected

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Different clamp variations

Earthing with Aluminium corrosion protected

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Lightning rods can be used to bond , without corrosion- like sample here

Modules checked , earthing concept

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Value to high 13, 79 Ohm measured, flow will divert into the Pillars

Modules checked , earthin concept

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Value to high 4,8 Ohm measured, flow will divert into the Pillars

Modules checked , earthing concept

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Value here 0,08 Ohm measured, flow will divert into the Pillars -The other earthing point not good

Module 816W/m 25degrees angle

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Row 2,4A ~ 7A

816 W 46,4 degree C Cloudy but values ok

2 rows always checked with temperatures 44 degree C

Bypass Diodes

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Bypass diodes getting hotter, heating up- normal values

Conclusion
-During dry period all measurements done showed > 199 Ohm -When we poured water over the surface and tested with PV Benning values stayed longer on safe side because of it s triggering capacity and adjustment regards PV Megger testing device not purely for PV only Earth loop and Neutral Impedance has to be checked on site - Earth Rod has to be done via Tri Pod or 45 degrees angled ( wrong/false readings from Inverter ) During operation the module somehow accumulated static loads. With a massive grounding ( way below 1 Ohm) we can discharge quickly any static or impedance driven faulty readingsand faulty Phantom Iso fault will disappear. The inverter if configured upfront Suisse Mode by that a emf friendly version

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Conclusion I
Equal to the new israely local requirements ( since 2012 ) Earth wiring should be done via a aluminium wire only, - The earthing structure won t corrode over time otherwise we will face the same problem every year once the earth will loose it s conductivity over time. - 10sqmm or 16sqmm are sometimes not enough it should be strong enough to bring any problems ( leakage currents) back to source without stray currents involved direct or indirect. - The surface of the installed m should not exceed 60. Afterwards the structure should be broken to let not to many modules ran parallel over the same area

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Thank you

Andreas Iliou

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