Databases and Database Management Systems

Based on Chapters 1-2 in Fundamentals of Database Systems by Elmasri and Navathe, Ed. 4

NOTES
1 2 3 Basic Definitions Example of a Database Main Characteristics of Database Technology Additional Benefits of Database Technology When Not to Use a DBMS Data Models 6A. History of data Models 7 8 Schemas versus Instances Three-Schema Architecture Data Independence DBMS Languages DBMS Interfaces DBMS Component Modules 13 Database System Utilities Classification of DBMSs

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Types of Databases and Database Applications
 

Numeric and Textual Databases Multimedia Databases(store images, audio clips, and video streams digitally). Geographic Information Systems (GIS) (store and analyze maps, weather data and satellite images) Data Warehouses and Online analytical processing (OLAP) Real-time and Active Databases (control industrial and manufacturing process)
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Database Management System (DBMS)
   

Collection of interrelated data Set of programs to access the data DBMS contains information about a particular enterprise DBMS provides an environment that is both convenient and efficient to use.

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Database Management System (DBMS)

Database Applications:


   

Banking: all transactions Airlines: reservations, schedules Universities: registration, grades Sales: customers, products, purchases Manufacturing: production, inventory, orders, supply chain Human resources: employee records, salaries, tax deductions

Databases touch all aspects of our lives

Purpose of Database System

In the early days, database applications were built on top of file systems Drawbacks of using file systems to store data:
 

 

Data redundancy and inconsistency  Multiple file formats, duplication of information in different files Difficulty in accessing data  Need to write a new program to carry out each new task Data isolation — multiple files and formats Integrity problems  Integrity constraints (e.g. account balance > 0) become part of program code  Hard to add new constraints or change existing ones

Purpose of Database Systems (Cont.)

Drawbacks of using file systems (cont.)

Atomicity of updates  Failures may leave database in an inconsistent state with partial updates carried out  E.g. transfer of funds from one account to another should either complete or not happen at all Concurrent access by multiple users  Concurrent accessed needed for performance  Uncontrolled concurrent accesses can lead to inconsistencies  E.g. two people reading a balance and updating it at the same time Security problems

Database systems offer solutions to all the above problems

1.Basic Definitions

Database :

A collection of related data.

Data :

Known facts that can be recorded and have an implicit meaning.

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Basic Definitions

Mini-world:

Some part of the real world about which data is stored in a database. For example, student grades and transcripts at a university.

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Basic Definitions

Database Management System (DBMS) :

A software package/ system to facilitate the creation and maintenance of a computerized database.

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Basic Definitions

Database System :
 

The DBMS software together with the data itself. Sometimes, the applications are also included.

Database System = Data + DBMS + (Program)

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A simplified database system environment.

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Typical DBMS Functionality (1/2)

Define a database :

in terms of data types, structures and constraints

Construct or Load the Database on a secondary storage medium Manipulating the database :

querying, generating reports, insertions, deletions and modifications to its content

Concurrent Processing and Sharing by a set of users and programs – yet, keeping all data valid and consistent
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Typical DBMS Functionality (2/2)

Other features:

Protection or Security measures to prevent unauthorized access ―Active‖ processing to take internal actions on data Presentation and Visualization of data

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2. Example of a Database (with a Conceptual Data Model)

Mini-world for the example:

Part of a UNIVERSITY environment.
 

Entities Relationships

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2. Example of a Database (with a Conceptual Data Model)

Some mini-world entities:
    

STUDENTs COURSEs SECTIONs (of COURSEs) (academic) DEPARTMENTs INSTRUCTORs

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University database

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2. Example of a Database (with a Conceptual Data Model)

Some mini-world relationships:
     

SECTIONs are of specific COURSEs STUDENTs take SECTIONs COURSEs have prerequisite COURSEs INSTRUCTORs teach SECTIONs COURSEs are offered by DEPARTMENTs STUDENTs major in DEPARTMENTs

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NOTE:

The above could be expressed in the ENTITY-RELATIONSHIP data model.

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3. Main Characteristics of Database Technology
1) Self-contained nature of a database system

2) Insulation between programs and data
3) Data Abstraction 4) Support of multiple views of the data

5) Sharing of data and multiuser transaction

processing

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Self-contained nature of a database system

 

A DBMS catalog stores the description of the database. The description is called meta-data. This allows the DBMS software to work with different databases.

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Insulation between programs and data
 

Called program-data independence. Allows changing data storage structures and operations without having to change the DBMS access programs.

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Data Abstraction

A data model is used to hide storage details and present the users with a conceptual view of the database.

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Support of multiple views of the data

Each user may see a different view of the database, which describes only the data of interest to that user.

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The STUDENT TRANSCRIPT view.

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Internal storage format for a STUDENT record

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Sharing of data and multiuser transaction processing

allowing a set of concurrent users to retrieve and to update the database. Concurrency control within the DBMS guarantees that each transaction is correctly executed or completely aborted. OLTP (Online Transaction Processing) is a major part of database applications.

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4. Additional Benefits of Database Technology

          

Controlling redundancy in data storage and in development and maintenance efforts. Sharing of data among multiple users. Restricting unauthorized access to data. Providing multiple interfaces to different classes of users. Representing complex relationships among data. Enforcing integrity constraints on the database. Providing backup and recovery services. Potential for enforcing standards. Flexibility to change data structures. Reduced application development time. Availability of up-to-date information. Economies of scale.
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Redundant storage of StudentName and CourseNumber in GRADE_REPORT.
(a) Consistent data.

(b) Inconsistent record.

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Actors on the scene
   1.

Person involve day to day use of a database. To define, construct and manipulates the DB. Called as Actors on the scene. DBA (Database Administrator )

 

Many people use the same resources. Chief administrator to overseer's and manages these resources. Primary resource is DB Secondary resource is DBMS and related s/w.
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DBA is responsible to administrate these resources. Responsible for authorizing access to DB, coordinating, monitoring its uses , acquiring s/w and h/w resources.

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Database Designer
 

Identifying the data to be stored in DB. Choosing appropriate structure to represent and store this data. Communicate with DB user to understand their request and create a design that meets these requirement.

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End User

1.

Access DB for querying, updating and generating reports. Casual end user
  

Occasionally access DB Use sophisticated DB query language. Middle or high level mangers or other occasional browser.

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Naive or parametric end user
 

Constantly querying and updating DB. Using standard types of queries and updates called canned transaction

Sophisticated end user

  

Engineers Scientists Business analysts Use DB to implement their applications to meet their computer requirements
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Standalone user
 

Personal DB by using ready made program package. Menu based or graphic base interface.

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System analysts and application programmers (s/w engineers)

System analysts

Determine the requirements of end users especially naïve and parametric end user Develop specification for canned transcation. Implement specification as program. Test, debug, document and maintain these canned transcation.
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Application programmer

Worker Behind the Scene

Work to maintain the DB system environment but not actively interested in DB itself. DBMS system designer and implementers

Design and implement the DBMS modules and interface as s/w packages.

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Tool developers
 

Design and implements tool. s/w packages that facilitate DB modeling and design. Improves performance.
Responsible for actual running and maintenance of the H/W and S/W environments for DB system.

Operators and maintenance personnel

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Historical Development of Database Technology

Early Database Applications:

The Hierarchical and Network Models were introduced in mid 1960’s and dominated during the seventies. A bulk of the worldwide database processing still occurs using these models.

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Historical Development of Database Technology

Relational Model based Systems:

The model that was originally introduced in 1970 was heavily researched and experimented with in IBM and the universities. Relational DBMS Products emerged in the 1980’s.

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Historical Development of Database Technology

Object-oriented applications:

OODBMSs were introduced in late 1980’s and early 1990’s to cater to the need of complex data processing in CAD and other applications. Their use has not taken off much.

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Historical Development of Database Technology

Data on the Web and E-commerce Applications:

Web contains data in HTML (Hypertext markup language) with links among pages. This has given rise to a new set of applications and E-commerce is using new standards like XML (eXtended Markup Language).

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Extending Database capabilities

New functionality is being added to DBMSs in the following areas:
     

Scientific Applications Image Storage and Management Audio and Video data management Data Mining Spatial data management Time Series and Historical Data Management

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5 When not to use a DBMS
  

Main inhibitors (costs) of using a DBMS When a DBMS may be unnecessary When no DBMS may suffice

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Main inhibitors (costs) of using a DBMS:

High initial investment and possible need for additional hardware. Overhead for providing generality, security, recovery, integrity, and concurrency control.

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When a DBMS may be unnecessary:
 

If the database and applications are simple, well defined, and not expected to change. If there are stringent real-time requirements that may not be met because of DBMS overhead. If access to data by multiple users is not required.

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When no DBMS may suffice:

If the database system is not able to handle the complexity of data because of modeling limitations If the database users need special operations not supported by the DBMS.

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6. Data Models

Data Model:

A set of concepts to describe the structure of a database, and certain constraints that the database should obey.

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6. Data Models

Data Model Operations:

Operations for specifying database retrievals and updates by referring to the concepts of the data model. Operations on the data model may include basic operations and user-defined operations

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Categories of data models:

Conceptual data models

(high-level, semantic)
(low-level, internal)

Physical data models

Logical (representational, Implementation) data models

(record-oriented)

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Conceptual data models

Provide concepts that are close to the way many users perceive data. Also called entity-based or object-based data models. Use concepts such as entities, attributes and relationship.

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Physical data models:

Provide concepts that describe details of how data is stored in the computer.

storage structure

Define record formats, record orderings and access path. Structure that makes the search for particular database records efficient.

Access path

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Implementation data models:
 

Also called logical data model Provide concepts that fall between the above two, balancing user views with some computer storage details.

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6A. HISTORY OF DATA MODELS
   

Relational Model Network Model Hierarchical Data Model Object-oriented Data Model(s Object-Relational Models

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Relational Model:

proposed in 1970 by E.F. Codd (IBM), first commercial system in 1981-82. Now in several commercial products
    

DB2, ORACLE, SQL Server, SYBASE, INFORMIX.

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Object-Relational Models :
  

Most Recent Trend. Started with Informix Universal Server. Exemplified in the latest versions of Oracle10g, DB2, and SQL Server etc. systems.

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7. Schemas versus Instances

Database Schema :
 

The description of a database. Includes
 

descriptions of the database structure and the constraints that should hold on the database.

Schema Diagram:

A diagrammatic display of (some aspects of) a database schema.
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Schema diagram for University database

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7. Schemas versus Instances

Database Instance :

The actual data stored in a database at a particular moment in time . Also called database state (or occurrence or snapshot or instances).

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7. Schemas versus Instances

Database State:

Refers to the content of a database at a moment in time.
Refers to the database when it is loaded A state that satisfies the structure and constraints of the database.

Initial Database State:

Valid State:

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7. Schemas versus Instances

Distinction
 

The database schema changes very infrequently. The database state changes every time the database is updated. Schema is also called intension, whereas state is called extension.

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8. Three-Schema Architecture

Proposed to support DBMS characteristics of:
  

Program-data independence. Support of multiple views of the data. Use of catalog to store the database description (schema).

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8. Three-Schema Architecture

Defines DBMS schemas at three levels :
  

Internal schema Conceptual schema External schemas

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The three-schema architecture.

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Internal schema

Internal schema at the internal level to describe data storage structures and access paths. Typically uses a physical data model.

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Conceptual schema

Conceptual schema at the conceptual level to describe the structure and constraints for the whole database. Hide the details of physical structure and concentrates on describing entities, data types, relationships, user operations and constraints. Uses a conceptual or an implementation data model.
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External schemas

External schemas at the external level to describe the various user views. Usually uses the same data model as the conceptual level.

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Three-Schema Architecture

Mappings among schema levels are also needed. Programs refer to an external schema, and are mapped by the DBMS to the internal schema for execution.

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9 Data Independence

Logical Data Independence

The capacity to change the conceptual schema without having to change the external schemas and their application programs.

Physical Data Independence

The capacity to change the internal schema without having to change the conceptual schema.

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Data Independence


When a schema at a lower level is changed, only the mappings between this schema and higher-level schemas need to be changed in a DBMS that fully supports data independence. The higher-level schemas themselves are unchanged. Hence, the application programs need not be changed since the refer to the external schemas.
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10. DBMS Languages
  

Data Definition Language (DDL) Data Manipulation Language (DML) Data Control Language (DCL)

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Data Definition Language (DDL):

Used by the DBA and database designers to specify the conceptual schema of a database. In many DBMSs, the DDL is also used to define internal and external schemas (views). In some DBMSs, separate storage definition language (SDL) and view definition language (VDL) are used to define internal and external schemas.
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Data Manipulation Language
(DML):

Used to specify database retrievals and updates.

DML commands (data sublanguage) can be embedded in a general-purpose programming language (host language), such as C, COBOL, PL/1 or PASCAL. Alternatively, stand-alone DML commands can be applied directly (query language).

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DBMS Languages

High Level or Non-procedural Languages:

e.g., SQL, are set-oriented and specify what data to retrieve than how to retrieve. Also called declarative languages.

Low Level or Procedural Languages:

record-at-a-time; they specify how to retrieve data and include constructs such as looping.

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11. DBMS Interfaces

 


 

Menu-based interfaces for web clients or browsing Forms-based interfaces Graphical user interfaces Natural language interfaces Speech input and output Interfaces for parametric users

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DBMS Interfaces

Interfaces for the DBA:
  

Creating accounts, granting authorizations Setting system parameters Changing schemas or access path

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Component modules of a DBMS and their interactions.

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13. Database System Utilities

To perform certain functions such as:
     

Loading data stored in files into a database. Backing up the database periodically on tape. Reorganizing database file structures. Report generation utilities. Performance monitoring utilities. Other functions, such as sorting , user monitoring , data compression , etc.

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Data dictionary / repository:

Used to store schema descriptions and other information such as design decisions, application program descriptions, user information, usage standards, etc.
 

Active data dictionary is accessed by DBMS software and users/DBA. Passive data dictionary is accessed by users/DBA only.

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14. Classification of DBMSs
 

Based on data model Other classifications

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Based on the data model used:

Traditional:
  

Relational, Network, Hierarchical.
Object-oriented, Object-relational.

Emerging:
 

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Other classifications:

Single-user (typically used with micro- computers) vs. multi-user (most DBMSs). Centralized (uses a single computer with one database) vs. distributed (uses multiple computers, multiple databases)

Distributed Database Systems have now come to be known as client server based database systems because they do not support a totally distributed environment, but rather a set of database servers supporting a set of clients.

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Example of a Database
(with a Logical Data Model)

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