HUN 1201Essentials of Nutrition

Richard T Patton MA, MPH, RD/LN, CHES Biology, Health & Wellness Office 1271-8

Learding Causes of Death in the United States

Table 1-5, p. 24

November. 1993 . JAMA.Actual Causes of Death in the United States (2000)‫‏‬ Tobacco Diet/Activity Alcohol Microbial Agents Toxic Agents Firearms Sexual Behavior Motor Vehicles 0 5 10 15 20 Percent of all causes of death Data Source: McGinnis & Foege.

.On any given day in the United States.. • 815 billion calories are consumed (200 billion more than needed)‫‏‬ 47 million hot dogs  4 million pounds of bacon   60 million pounds of red meat  170 million eggs .

5 ..On any given day in the United States. 3 million gallons of ice cream million pounds of candy  10  16 million gallons of beer and ale million gallons of hard liquor (enough to make 26 million people drunk!)‫‏‬  1..

..240. (23 pounds). of pizza per year).000 slices or about 350 slices per second.On any given day in the United States.  Americans eat approximately 100 acres of pizza = 30.  (Each man. woman and child in America eats and average of 46 slices. .

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Eat More Fruits and Vegetables! .

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 Habits . are comforting and food choices are often just a habit.Food Choices  Personal preferences for flavors of food are the main reason people make food choices and choices can be influenced by genetics.

 Social . customs. Food is often involved.Food Choices  Ethnic heritage or traditions are strong influences on eating. and holidays are shared by groups of people. interactions such as special events.

and the economy are affecting many food choices in‫‏‬today’s‫‏‬world.Food Choices  Food availability. are many positive and negative associations with food that affect what food is chosen to eat. for emotional comfort can be the result of changes in brain chemistry that occur when foods are consumed.  There  Eating . convenience.

Food Choices  Values such as religious beliefs.  Body  The . modified. such as whole. or fortified foods. are becoming more popular. or environmental concerns may affect food choices. weight and image can affect food choices both positively and negatively. nutrition and health benefits of foods. political views.

Nutrient Classification  Carbohydrates--simple.  Fats-- complex essential fatty acids amino acids Water & Fat soluble & trace  Proteins--essential  Vitamins–  Minerals—major  Water – most of the body by weight .

such as fibers. phytochemicals. pigments.The Nutrients  Nutrients in Foods and in the Body  Composition of foods includes the six nutrient classes and can also contain nonnutrients and other compounds. additives. . alcohols and others.  Composition of the human body is made of chemicals similar to food.

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These are also called indispensable nutrients.The Nutrients Nutrients in Foods and in the Body  Chemical composition of nutrients includes both organic (those that contain carbon) and inorganic (those that do not contain carbon) compounds.  Essential nutrients are those the body cannot make or cannot make in sufficient quantities to meet needs. .

and protein are macronutrients because the body needs them in large quantities. micronutrients • Carbohydrate. Fat and Protein measured in Calories  Macro.The Nutrients  Energy-Yielding Nutrients: Carbohydrate. fat.vs. vitamins. . • Water. and minerals do not provide energy and are known as micronutrients because the body needs them in smaller quantities.

Activity in the body is fueled by food as energy is released from bonds within carbohydrate. fat.  Carbohydrate = 4 kcalories per gram. and protein as they are broken down.The Nutrients  Energy-Yielding Nutrients: Carbohydrate.  Protein = 4 kcalories per gram. Fat and Protein Energy from food differs in energy density. . and  Fat = 9 kcalories per gram.

. Fat and Protein  Excess Carbohydrate energy is stored in the body as body fat.  Excess Protein energy is stored in the body as body fat.  Excess Fat energy is stored in the body as body fat.The Nutrients  Energy-Yielding Nutrients: Carbohydrate.

essential nutrients that allow the body to obtain energy from carbohydrate.  Minerals  Water is an indispensable and abundant essential nutrient that participates in many life processes. . fat. teeth. and body fluids. essential nutrients that are found in the bones. and protein.The Nutrients  Vitamins are organic. are inorganic.

The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)  Establishing Nutrient Recommendations  Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) defines the requirement of a nutrient that supports a specific function in the body for half of the healthy population. This recommendation considers deficiencies.  Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) use the EAR as a base and include sufficient daily amounts of nutrients to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy populations. .

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.The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)  Establishing Nutrient Recommendations  Adequate Intakes (AI) reflect the average daily amount of a nutrient without an established RDA that appears to be sufficient.  Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) is a maximum daily amount of a nutrient that appears safe for most healthy people and beyond which there is an increased risk of adverse health effects.

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The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)  Establishing Energy Recommendations  Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) represents the average daily energy intake to maintain energy balance and good health for population groups.  Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) represents the range of intakes for energy nutrients that provide adequate energy and nutrients and reduce risk of chronic disease. .

. Achieved by consuming a variety of foods Apply to average daily intakes Each DRI category serves a unique purpose.The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)  Using   Nutrient Recommendations    Apply to healthy people Recommendations are not minimum and are more likely maximum requirements and can be adjusted for individuals by registered dietitians.

Laboratory tests detect early signs of malnutrition. Physical examinations require skill and reveal possible nutrition imbalances. health status.evaluates the many factors that influence or reflect nutritional health. and socioeconomic status is gathered.     Historical information regarding diet.Nutrition Assessment  Nutrition Assessment of Individuals . . drug use. Anthropometric data measure physical characteristics including height and weight.

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