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Shareholders' Equity

Chapter 10

Corporations
A corporation is an entity which is owned by its shareholders and which raises equity capital by selling shares of stock to investors.

Corporations
Each share of stock represents a fractional interest in the issuing company.

Corporations
Large business firms prefer to organize as corporations.

Corporations
A primary advantage of the corporate form of business organization is the ability to raise large amounts of cash by selling stock to many different individuals and institutions on the major security exchanges.

Corporations
Stockholders expect to receive dividends or to earn capital gains on their investment.

Corporations
Dividends are distributions of corporate assets, usually cash, to shareholders.

Corporations
Capital gains (or losses) occur when the shares of stock increase (or decrease) in price while investors own the shares.

Corporations
Each state has laws governing the formation of corporations.

Corporations
The state issues to a new corporation a charter which lists various items, among them the businesses purpose and the number and types of shares of stock the corporation is allowed to sell.

Corporations
The most basic type of ownership is common stock.

Corporations
Common shareholders are residual owners of a corporation.

Corporations
If a business liquidates, then the order of distribution of assets (if any) is creditors, preferred shareholders, common shareholders.

Shareholders' Equity
Shareholders' equity, or net assets consists of invested capital and retained earnings.

Shareholders' Equity
Invested capital (usually consisting of par value and paid-in capital) is the amount received by the corporation upon the sale of its stock to investors.

Shareholders' Equity
Retained earnings is the amount of prior earnings that the firm has not paid to shareholders in the form of dividends.

Shares of Stock
Shares of stock are classified as authorized, issued, or outstanding.

Shares of Stock
Authorized shares are the shares that the firm is permitted to issue according to its corporate charter.

Shares of Stock
Issued and outstanding shares are those presently held by investors.

Shares of Stock
All issued shares may not necessarily be outstanding.

Shares of Stock
The term "issued" means that the shares of stock have at one time been sold into the marketplace but does not necessarily mean that the shares are currently still in the marketplace.

Shares of Stock
At times, a business may buy back its own shares from investors in the marketplace.

Shares of Stock
For legal purposes, the shares of most firms have a par or stated value.

Shares of Stock
Par value is usually a very small amount, such as $.25, and bears no relation whatsoever to the dollar amount for which the shares are selling in the marketplace (called the fair market value).

Transactions Affecting Shareholders' Equity


Three basic transactions account for most of the changes in shareholders' equity.

Transactions Affecting Shareholders' Equity


Sale of stock to investors Recognition of net income or loss Declaration of cash dividends to shareholders

Sale of Stock to Investors


If a corporation sells 100,000 shares of its $1.00 par value common stock for $5.00 per share, then cash and shareholders' equity both increase by $500,000.

Sale of Stock to Investors


There is a further subdivision within shareholders' equity.

Sale of Stock to Investors


Par value increases by $100,000 while the remaining $400,000 increases capital in excess of par value.

Sale of Stock to Investors


ASSETS = LIABILITIES + OWNERS EQUITY Cash +$700 million Par value +$3 million Additional paid-in capital +$697 million

Sale of Stock to Investors


The corporation may issue stock for noncash assets, too, such as land or equipment.

Recognition of Periodic Net Income or Loss


Net income (loss) represents an increase (decrease) in a firm's shareholders' equity due to its revenues, expenses, gains, and losses during the accounting period.

Recognition of Periodic Net Income or Loss


Firms prepare statements of retained earnings which are reconciliations of the beginning and ending balance in the retained earnings account.

Recognition of Periodic Net Income or Loss


The ending balance reflects the net income earned by the firm less net loss incurred and dividends paid over the entire life of the firm.

Declaration and Payment of Cash Dividends


There are three dates which are important in the declaration and distribution of cash dividends.

Declaration and Payment of Cash Dividends


On the date of declaration, the dividend becomes a liability.

Declaration and Payment of Cash Dividends


Retained Earnings is decreased and Dividends Payable is increased by the amount of the dividend.

Declaration and Payment of Cash Dividends


Shareholders who own the stock on the date of record are eligible to receive the dividend.

Declaration and Payment of Cash Dividends


Shareholders who purchase the stock after the date of record but before the date of payment buy the stock "ex dividend," which means "without the dividend."

Declaration and Payment of Cash Dividends


Shareholders who purchase the stock after the date of record but before the date of payment buy the stock "ex dividend," which means "without the dividend."

Declaration and Payment of Cash Dividends


On the date of payment, both the liability and cash are reduced by the amount of the dividend.

Date of Declaration of Dividends


ASSETS = LIABILITIES + OWNERS EQUITY Dividends payable +$xxxxx Retained earnings $xxxxx

Date of Payment of Dividends


ASSETS = LIABILITIES + OWNERS EQUITY Dividends payable $xxxxx Retained earnings +$xxxxx

Additional Transactions
A variety of less frequent occurrences may affect the amount and composition of shareholders equity.

Stock Dividends
Stock dividends are dividends issued to shareholders in the form of shares of stock, not cash.

Stock Dividends
A corporation has outstanding 10 million shares of common stock and decides to issue a 2% stock dividend when the market price of the stock is $45 per share.

Stock Dividends
The firm will issue 200,000 new shares (10 million shares X 2%), and the total value of the dividend is $9 million (200,000 X $45).

Stock Dividends
Retained Earnings will decrease and Invested Capital will increase by $9 million.

Stock Dividends
Invested Capital will be further subdivided into par value and capital in excess of par value.

Stock Dividends
Only the shareholders' equity section of the accounting equation is affected.

Stock Dividends
A dollar amount is transferred from Retained Earnings into Invested Capital.

Stock Dividends
Since it is the same dollar amount, nothing happens to the total of shareholders' equity because of the stock dividend.

Stock Dividends
ASSETS = LIABILITIES + OWNERS EQUITY Paid-in capital +$9 million Retained earnings $9 million

Stock Dividends
A stock dividend gives nothing of present value to the investor when he receives the shares of stock.

Stock Dividends
However, the investor now has more shares of stock which can appreciate in price in the future.

Stock Splits
Stock splits also increase the number of outstanding shares but, unlike dividends, they do not entail a reduction in retained earnings or an increase in paid-in capital.

Stock Splits
The description of the firm's stock is changed to reflect the new par value and the number of shares authorized, issued, and outstanding.

Stock Splits
If a firm had 500,000 shares of $2.00 par value common stock outstanding when the market price was $100 per share, then the following will happen when the firm declares a 2-for-1 stock split.

Stock Splits
The number of shares will double to 1,000,000, the par value will decrease by half to $1.00, and the market price will decrease by half to $50 per share.

Stock Splits
The description of the firm's stock is changed to reflect the new par value and the number of shares authorized, issued, and outstanding.

Stock Splits
The total of invested capital, $1,000,000, will be exactly the same before and after the split.

Stock Splits
Companies often split their stock when the market price becomes so high that small investors cannot afford to buy the stock.

Stock Splits
Companies usually do not like that only large, institutional investors hold their shares.

Treasury Stock
If a company buys back its own shares of stock, the repurchased shares of stock are called treasury stock.

Treasury Stock
They have issued but not outstanding status.

Treasury Stock
Companies buy back stock for various reasons.
To support the stock price. To have available shares for employee stock option plans. To take off the market shares which could be purchased by a hostile buyer.

Treasury Stock
Wall Street analysts usually view treasury stock purchases very favorably and as a sign of strength for the repurchasing company.

Treasury Stock
The acquisition of treasury reduces cash and shareholders' equity, and treasury stock is a contra-equity account (subtracted from shareholders' equity).

Treasury Stock
Consider the following example of the acquisition of treasury stock.

Treasury Stock
A corporation has repurchased $6,722,000 of its shares.

Treasury Stock
Cash and shareholders' equity have both decreased by $6,722,000.

Purchase of Treasury Stock


ASSETS = LIABILITIES + OWNERS EQUITY Cash Treasury stock -$6,722,000 $6,722,000

Treasury Stock
If the corporation later sells the same stock for $10 million.

Treasury Stock
Cash will increase by $10 million; Treasury Stock will increase by the original $6,722,000; and Paid-in Capital will increase by the difference of $3,278,000.

Sale of Treasury Stock


ASSETS = LIABILITIES + OWNERS EQUITY Cash Treasury stock +$10 +$6,722,000 million Paid-in capital +$3,278,000

Employee Stock Options


Stock options are rights to purchase a firm's stock at a specific price over some designated future period.

Employee Stock Options


Stock options are usually granted as part of the compensation paid to key executives and other employees.

Employee Stock Options


There are several benefits of stock options for employees and firms.

Employee Stock Options


They usually highly motivate option holders to improve the performance of the firm.

Employee Stock Options


Option holders avoid the downside risk of loss if the stock price declines.

Employee Stock Options


Current accounting rules allow firms to choose between two ways to report the cost of employee stock options.

Employee Stock Options


Under the intrinsic value method, companies do not recognize any compensation expense associated with the options.

Employee Stock Options


In the year in which options are granted, no compensation expense is recorded.

Employee Stock Options


When they are exercised, the company increases Cash and Invested Capital for the appropriate dollar amount.

Employee Stock Options


Under the fair value method, compensation expense is measured at the grant date based on the estimated fair market value of the award.

Exercise of Employee Stock Option


ASSETS = LIABILITIES + OWNERS EQUITY Cash Invested Capital +$10 +$10 million million

Preferred Stock
Preferred stock has a priority claim over common stock with respect to dividends and in the event of a liquidation of a company's assets.

Preferred Stock
Preferred stock may be cumulative and/or convertible.

Preferred Stock
Cumulative means that any dividend not paid to preferred shareholders will not be forever lost it will be paid in a year in which the firm has money to pay that dividend.

Preferred Stock
Convertible indicates that preferred shares may be exchanged for common shares at the preferred shareholders' option.

Convertible Debt
Convertible bonds allow the bondholder to exchange bonds for a specified number of shares of stock.

Convertible Debt
Investors usually view this convertibility feature very favorably.

Convertible Debt
Convertible bonds are an example of hybrid securities which are neither clearly debt nor clearly equity.

Convertible Debt
The proper accounting for hybrid securities is a matter of sharp debate.

Conversion to Common Stock


ASSETS = LIABILITIES + OWNERS EQUITY Bonds Payable -$150 million Paid-in Capital +$150 million

Shareholders Equity Ratios


Shareholders equity is used extensively in ratio analysis of financial statements.

Shareholders Equity Ratios


Four widely employed measures are used.

Earnings Per Share


Earnings per share indicates the portion of company income applicable to a single share of common stock.

Earnings Per Share


It is such a highly regarded ratio that it is the only ratio required to be reported on the front of a financial statement (the income statement).

Earnings Per Share


It is computed by dividing net income available to common shareholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding.
Net income available for common shareholders EPS = Weighted average number of common shares

Earnings Per Share


Consider the following example to compute the weighted average number of shares.

Earnings Per Share


A company had outstanding 100,000 shares of stock on January 1.

Earnings Per Share


On July 1 it issued another 20,000 shares of stock, and on October 1 it bought back 30,000 shares.

Earnings Per Share


The weighted average number of shares is computed as follows:
Jan. 1 July 1 Oct. 1 100,000 x 6/12 = 50,000 120,000 x 3/12 = 30,000 90,000 x 3/12 = 22,500 102,500

Earnings Per Share


If net income for the above company is $550,000, then earnings per share is $5.37 (rounded).

$550,000 Earnings per share = 102,500 $5.37

Earnings Per Share


If preferred stock is present in the capital structure, then its dividend must be subtracted from net income before dividing by the weighted average number of common shares.

Earnings Per Share


Using the same example, if the annual preferred dividend is $30,000, then earnings per share is $5.07 (rounded).
$550,000 - $30,000 Earnings per share = 102,500 $520,000 = 102,500 $5.07

Financial Leverage Ratio


The financial leverage, or debt-tototal-assets ratio is computed by dividing total assets into total liabilities.

Financial Leverage Ratio


The financial leverage, or debt-tototal-assets ratio is computed by dividing total assets into total liabilities.

Total liabilities Financial leverage = Total assets

Financial Leverage Ratio


This ratio is widely used by analysts in assessing the risks of debt and equity securities.

Financial Leverage Ratio


High financial leverage is associated with lower bond quality ratings and, therefore, higher borrowing costs.

Financial Leverage Ratio


The share prices of highly leveraged firms tend to be more volatile than the share prices of firms with lower financial leverage.

Financial Leverage Ratio


Just as is true with other ratios, care must be taken when comparing firms in different industries.

Market-to-Book-Value Ratio
The market-to-book-value ratio is computed by dividing book value per share into market price per share.

Market price per share Market to book value ratio = Book value per share

Market-to-Book-Value Ratio
Market price measures the economic value of the stock while book value reflects the methods used to identify and measure assets and liabilities.

Price-to-Earnings Ratio
The price-to-earnings ratio is computed by dividing earnings per share into the market price per share.

Price per share P/ E= Earnings per share

Price-to-Earnings Ratio
This ratio is often used to assess growth, risk and earnings quality.

Price-to-Earnings Ratio
Earnings quality refers to the sustainability of currently reported earnings in future periods.

Price-to-Earnings Ratio
Firms using conservative methods of income measurement are more likely to be viewed as having higher earnings quality than firms using more liberal income measurement methods.

Shareholders' Equity
End of Chapter 10