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McCarl and Spreen Chapter 12

Optimality Conditions

• Unconstrained optimization – multivariate calculus problem. For Y=f(X), the optimum occurs at the point where f '(X) =0 and f‟''(X) meets second order conditions • A relative minimum occurs where f '(X) =0 and f‟''(X) >0 • A relative maximum occurs where f '(X) =0 and f‟''(X) <0

**Concavity and Second Derivative
**

local max and global max local max

f‟‟(x)<0 f‟‟(x)>0

f‟‟(x)<0

f„‟(x)>0

local min

local min and global min

Multivariate Case • To find an optimum point. • Check characteristic roots or apply determinental test to principal minors. . • At the optimum point. evaluate the matrix of second partial derivatives (Hessian matrix) to see if it is positive definite (minimum) or negative definite (maximum). set the first partial derivatives (all of them) to zero.

(matrix positive definite) .Determinental Test for a Maximum – Negative Definite Hessian f11 f12 f13 f21 f22 f23 f31 f32 f33 f11 f12 f21 f22 f11 < 0 <0 >0 These would all be positive for a minimum.

” A univariate function with a positive second derivative everywhere guarantees a global minimum (if there is one) at the point where f‟(X)=0.” .Global Optimum A univariate function with a negative second derivative everywhere guarantees a global maximum at the point (if there is one) where f‟(X)=0. These functions are called “concave up” or sometimes “convex. These functions are called “concave down” or sometimes just “concave.

then any optimum point found will be a global minimum (maximum).Multivariate Global Optimum If the Hessian matrix is positive definite (or negative definite) for all values of the variables. .

Constrained Optimization • Equality constraints – often solvable by calculus • Inequality constraints – sometimes solvable by numerical methods .

ii(gi(X)-bi) . gi(X) = bi Set up the Lagrangian function: L(X.) = f(X) .t.Equality Constraints Maximize f(X) s.

Examine the bordered Hessian for concavity conditions. with respect to . The "border" of this Hessian is comprised of the first partial derivatives of the constraint function. and X2. . Set the partial derivatives equal to zero and solve the simultaneous equation system. X1.Optimizing the Lagrangian Differentiate the Lagrangian function with respect to X and .

Bordered Hessian 0 g'(x1) g'(x2) Note: the determinant g'(x1) f11 f12 is designated |H2| g'(x2) f21 f22 For a max. For a min. For problems with 3 or more variables. and “odd” ones are negative. all are negative. it would be negative. For a min. . the “even” determinants are positive for max. the determinant of this matrix would be positive.

. And you can set these up so that the border runs along the bottom and the right edge. with either positive or negative signs.Aside on Bordered Hessians You can also set these up so that the border carries negative signs. Be sure that the concavity condition tests match the way you set up the bordered Hessian.

Example Minimize X12 + X22 s. = 0 L/ = -(X1 + X2 -10) =0 .(X1 + X2 – 10) L/X1 = 2X1 .t. X1 + X2 = 10 L = X12 + X22 . = 0 L/X2 = 2X2 .

Solving From first two equations: X1* = X2* = */2 Plugging into the third equation yields: X1*=X2*=5 and * = 10 .

Second Order Conditions X1 X2 0 1 1 X1 1 2 0 X2 1 0 2 For this problem to be a min. which it is. (It’s -4) . the determinant of the bordered Hessian above must be negative.

h. 2. 3 . and k 3 variables – 1.Multi-constraint Case 0 0 0 g1 g2 g3 0 0 0 h1 h2 h3 0 0 0 k1 k2 k3 g1 h1 k1 f11 f21 f31 g2 h2 k2 f12 f22 f32 g3 h3 k3 f13 f23 f33 3 constraints – g.

The bordered Principle Minor that contains f22 as the last element is denoted |H2| as before. and so on. they all take the sign (-1)M .Multiple Constraints SOC M is the number of constraints in a given problem. For a min. If f33 is the last element. they alternate in sign. N the number of variables in a given problem. we denote |H3|. For a maximum. Evaluate |Hm+1| through |Hn|.

some problems may arise. (The Jacobian is a matrix of first partial derivatives. If it is not full rank.) .Additional Qualifications Examine the Jacobian developed from the constraints to see if it is full rank.

Interpreting the Lagrangian Multipliers The values of the Lagrangian multipliers (i) are similar to the shadow prices from LP. . except they are true derivatives (i = L/bi) and are not usually constant over a range.

t. g(X) b X0 .Inequality Constraints Maximize f(X) s.

x2 ge 0 .t. 2x1 + 3x2 ge 6 -3x1 – 2x2 ge –12 x1.Example Minimize C = (X1 – 4)2 + (X2 –4)2 s.

Graph 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Optimum: 2 2/13. 2 10/13 .

x2 ge 0 . -x12 + 4x1 .A Nonlinear Restriction Maximize Profit = 2x1 + x2 s.t.x2 le 0 2x1 + 3x2 le 12 x1.

Graph – Profit Max Problem 4 3 2 1 0 F1 F2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 There is a local optimum at edge of F1. . but it isn't global.

* xg(X*)]X* = 0 X* 0 g(X*) b *(g(X*)-b) =0 * 0 xf(X*) represents the gradient vector (1st derivatives) .The Kuhn-Tucker Conditions • • • • • • .* xg(X*) 0 [ xF(X*) .

Because of complementary slackness if j is produced. . The sum-product of the shadow prices of the resources and the amounts used to produce the marginal unit of product j is the imputed marginal cost. i is shadow price of ith resource gij is the amount of the ith resource used to produce the marginal unit of product j.Economic Interpretation fj is the marginal profit of jth resource. the marginal profit must be equal to imputed marginal cost.

) . AX b X0 (Q is positive semi-def. These problems are tractable because the Kuhn-Tucker conditions reduce to something close to a set of linear equations.Quadratic Programming Objective function is quadratic and restrictions are linear.t. Standard Representation: Maximize CX – 1/2X'QX s.

t. X1 + 2X2 30 X1. X2 non-negative C= [15 30] Q = [ 4 -4 -4 8 ] A=[12] b = 30 .Example Maximize 15X1 + 30X2 + 4X1X2 –2X12 – 4X22 s.

5.1 0 X1(15 + 4X2 – 4X1 .Kuhn-Tucker Conditions 1. X2. 15 + 4X2 – 4X1 . 3.2 1 ) = 0 X1 + 2X2 – 30 0 1(X1 + 2X2 – 30) = 0 X1. 7.1 ) = 0 30 + 4X1 – 8X2 . 6.2 1 0 X2(30 + 4X1 – 8X2 . 2. 4. 1 0 .

Reworking Conditions 1. X1 + 2X2 + v1 = 0 Now condition 2 can be expressed as X1s1=0 and condition 4 can be expressed as X2s2 =0 and condition 5 becomes 1v1=0. 4X1 .2 1 + s2 = -30 5. -4X1 + 4X2 . We can make one constraint X1s1 + X2s2 + 1v1=0 .8X2 .1 + s1 = -15 3.

4X1 + 8X2 + 2 1 -s2 = 30 X1 + 2X2 + v1 = 0 X1s1 + X2s2 + 1v1=0 .s1 = 15 .4X2 + 1 .A Convenient Form • • • • 4X1 .

." When choosing an entering basic variable. exclude from consideration any nonbasic variables whose complementary variable is already basic.Modified Simplex Method A modified simplex method can be used to solve the transformed problem. The modification involves the "restricted-entry rule.

Example Maximize 10X1 + 20X2 + 5X1X2 –3X12 – 2X22 s. X2 non-negative .t. X1 + 2X2 10 X1 ≤7 X1.

L = Z (X1. .Kuhn-Tucker Conditions a)Derive the Kuhn-Tucker conditions for this problem. X2) + i gi (X1. X2) L / X1 <= 0 L / X2 <= 0 X1 (L / X1) = 0 X2 (L / X2) = 0 There are two constraints in this problem.

X2.1 .2 <= 0 (these 1 and 2 come from two inequalities) X1 (10 –6 X1 + 5X2 .1 .7) = 0 X1.21 <= 0 X2 (20 –4X2 + 5X1 . F. 1.10) =0 X1 <= 7 or 2 (X1. with respect to X1 and X2: 10 –6 X1+5X2 .C. X1 + 2X2 <= 10 or 1 (X1 + 2X2 .O.4X2 + 5X1 .2 ) = 0 20 .Kuhn-Tucker The Kuhn-Tucker condition for the above problem. 2 >= 0 .21 ) = 0 From the constraint inequalities.

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