THE SIX DAYS OF CREATION

Biblical Wisdom and Scientific Understanding Reunited

Presentation created by Sarah Salviander, Ph.D., © 2013 SixDay Science, LLC Inspired by The Science of God by Gerald L. Schroeder, Ph.D. This presentation may not be copied, in whole or in part, without written permission by SixDay Science, LLC. Image and photo credits appear at the end.

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This is astronomer Edwin Hubble. In 1929 he announced one of the most astonishing discoveries in the history of humankind—that the universe is expanding.

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4 .You may have already heard his name … … the Hubble Space Telescope is named after him.

the faster it appears to be rushing away.Hubble observed that galaxies everywhere appear to be rushing away from one another. 5 . The further away a galaxy is.

An E X P A N D I N G universe suggests that everything must have been closer together in the past. 6 .

the closer everything was.The further we go back in time. 7 . until we arrive at a beginning when everything in the universe was condensed into a tiny point.

matter—careening in all directions. 8 .This tiny point suddenly expanded. sending energy—and later. kind of like an explosion.

We are still experiencing that expansion. 9 .

But what caused the expansion? 10 .

a Jesuit priest and physicist. formulated a theory he called the “primeval atom” a few years before Hubble’s discovery. Lemaître liked the idea because it was consistent with Genesis.Georges Lemaître. Lemaître is referred to as the “father of the big bang. The primeval atom was a precursor to the modern theory of the big bang.” 11 . For that reason.

the term “big bang” was coined by English astrophysicist.By the way… . Fred Hoyle. but the name caught on with physicists and the public. who believed in an eternal steady-state universe.. 12 . He didn’t like the big bang theory..

travelling through the universe today.Lemaître predicted that if the universe was born in a cataclysmic event like a big bang. 13 . there should be leftover radiation—an energy ‘echo’—of the primeval fireball.

That echo was discovered in 1964 by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson of Bell Labs. who later received the Nobel Prize for their discovery. This radiation is called the cosmic background radiation or cosmic microwave background. 14 .

Lemaître learned of its discovery shortly before his death in 1966. 15 .

This is what the sky looks like in microwave light.This is an image of the cosmic background radiation taken with the WMAP satellite. 16 .

If you disconnect from cable or satellite reception and tune to a channel with no station. you will see static or ‘snow’ on the screen. About 1% of the static is the cosmic background radiation. 17 .You can watch the big bang on your television set.

Why should you care about any of this? 18 .

and religious implications of a universe with a definite beginning in time are enormous. The scientific. 19 . philosophical.The big bang has been hailed as the greatest scientific discovery of all time.

no end. Genesis was in conflict with mainstream science (and philosophy) for about two thousand years . So. no need for God. scientists mostly agreed with Hoyle that the universe was eternal—no beginning. 20 .Prior to Hubble’s discovery.

21 .000 years after the Bible first described it. A universe with a beginning is consistent with the Genesis account of the creation of the universe: Genesis 1:1: “In the beginning God created the heavens and the Earth.” Mainstream science reached its current understanding of the beginning of our universe about 3.Big bang theory changed all of this.

The Bible says Adam was the first human. followed by about 6. but science has evidence of humans living long before Adam appeared 6. 2. The Bible has plants growing on Earth before the Sun appears. Science provides evidence that the universe is billions of years old.However.000 years ago. other serious conflicts between scripture and science seem to remain: 1.000 years since Adam. 3. 22 . The Bible claims the universe and all life on Earth was created and developed in six days.

? Is this proof that the Bible is still hopelessly at odds with science? The answer may surprise you. 23 .

it is just taking a long time for science to catch up with the wisdom of the Bible. there is no conflict between science and scripture.The truth is. 24 . As was the case with the big bang.

25 .Let’s start with Problem 1.

The Bible claims the universe was created and developed in six days. Science. however.000 years have passed since the creation of Adam. Can they? 26 . They can’t both be right. and a careful reckoning of the biblical calendar indicates that approximately 6. puts the age of the Universe somewhere between 11 and 17 billion years.

27 . like a watch in the night.The key to resolving this apparent conflict is Psalm 90:4 “For a thousand years in your sight are as a day that passes.” This is our first hint that time described in Genesis may not be the same time as we know it today.

Genesis 1:27: “So God created man in his own image… ” The first six days are not included in the biblical calendar. but with the creation of the human soul at the end of Day Six.The Bible distinguishes the six days of creation from the biblical calendar. which starts. Why? 28 . not with Day One.

The Bible hints that the first six days are not the same as the days that follow for the next 6. 29 . That changes completely with the creation of Adam.000 years. we are told that events occur and that a day has passed. there is no special connection between the events and the passage of time. For each of the first six days. after which the passage of time is tied directly to earthly events.

The flow of time for the first six days is special. But in what way? 30 .

The ancient biblical scholar Nahmanides said that the six days of creation contain “all the secrets and ages of the universe.” How can six days contain all the secrets and ages of the universe? 31 .

The answer is that the Bible was speaking of relativity long before physicists discovered it. 32 .

We’ve all heard the phrase “time is relative,” but what does it mean?
It means that the flow of time isn’t constant, and it’s not the same for everyone.

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Depending on your velocity or how much gravity you’re experiencing, your flow of time will differ from that of a person traveling at a different velocity or experiencing different gravity.

But the difference in the flow of time is only noticeable when compared from one frame of reference to another. That’s why it’s called relativity.

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Let's relate this to Genesis.

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” Genesis 5:1: “This is the book of the generations of Adam in the day that God created Adam.Genesis 2:4: “These are the generations of the heavens and the earth when they were created in the day that the Eternal God made earth and heavens.” 36 .

” The Bible speaks of entire generations in one day.Genesis 2:4: “These are the generations of the heavens and the earth when they were created in the day that the Eternal God made earth and heavens. Sounds a lot like relativity.” 37 . Genesis 5:1: “This is the book of the generations of Adam in the day that God created Adam.

But. what is a day according to Genesis? 38 .

Perhaps each day is actually an epoch. No help there. defined by the length of time the Earth takes to make one complete rotation on its axis. it may be tempting to resolve the confusion by saying that a ‘day’ in Genesis is metaphorical. That’s an actual day. encompassing billions of years. 39 . the ancient biblical commentators were careful to point out that each creation day was 24 hours long. In fact.At this point. 9 10 But there is no biblical basis for that assumption.

Even more confusing. Genesis 1:2: “And the earth was without form and void” 40 . on the first day of Genesis. there was no earth.

Perhaps we're asking the wrong question. We should be asking. “A day according to whom?” 41 .

let’s return to what modern physics has to say about the nature of time. 42 . We now know that time is not absolute. because huge differences in velocity and gravity are needed to produce a noticeable difference in the flow of time. Recall that Einstein demonstrated how differences in velocity and gravity create differences in the flow of time. People are generally not aware of this.To answer that question.

the duration between ticks of a clock will be L – O – N – G – E – R in higher velocity conditions compared to a lower velocity circumstance. The same is true of places with higher gravity compared to lower gravity. So. the passage of time will be slower in the high velocity or high gravity location when it is observed in relation to the low gravity or velocity location.According to relativity. 43 .

High-precision clocks on fast aircraft show a very slight but measurable slowing in time compared to identical clocks on the ground. 44 . it is a very real effect. and though it may sound like science fiction.This results in a stretching of time called time dilation.

Gravity also stretches the flow of time. where gravity is a little weaker. compared to high orbit. For instance. where gravity is stronger. Einstein described gravitational effects on time in his General Theory of Relativity. 45 . time flows just a tiny bit slower on the surface of the earth.

If scientists and engineers failed to account for it. GPS systems would not work.Though the effect is small due to Earth’s modest gravitational field. 46 . gravitational time dilation is not a negligible effect.

Even extremely small differences in gravity. such as that between the top and bottom of a tall building. will cause a difference in the flow of time. Time will flow a tiny bit faster at the top than at the bottom. 47 . but it is real. The difference is extremely small.

The effect is more noticeable in more extreme gravitational scenarios. 48 . While you measure 24 hours passing on your spaceship clock. If you were in close orbit around a black hole. scientists on earth might observe 30 hours passing on their earth-clocks. time would be stretched even more by the extreme gravity near the black hole.

that number is only valid from the Earth’s perspective. except time in each zone flows differently. the age would be measured as a different value.As strange is it sounds. Anywhere else in the universe.7 billion years old. Everything in the universe that has gravity and velocity has its own time zone. So. Einstein's theory of relativity tells us that the flow of time is never the same for any two places in the universe. 49 . It's like having countless cosmic time zones. when scientists say that the universe is 13.

In light of this. can we calculate the flow of time in a way that includes the whole universe? 50 .

It turns out that we can do it by using light as a cosmic clock. 51 .

Light is electromagnetic radiation. Light always travels at the same speed in a vacuum (670 million mph). 52 . and it exhibits both particle and wave behavior. but its energy can change. The wave aspect— the frequency—is what allows us to measure time over cosmic distances. The energy of light depends on the frequency of the light wave.

Waves 101 wavelength Wavelength is the distance from crest to crest or trough to trough. Frequency is the number of crests or troughs that pass a given point per second. 53 .

the other gets larger. This is because their product must always be equal to the speed of light: wavelength × frequency = speed of light 54 .Waves 101 This wave has a short wavelength and a high frequency… … compared to this wave. which means when one gets smaller. which has a long wavelength and a low frequency. Wavelength and frequency are inversely proportional.

55 . The frequency of light is the beat of our cosmic clock.We can use the frequency of the light wave to calculate the passage of time.

. the clock beats once. 56 .tick.... The frequency of light is the beat of the cosmic clock: tick.tick..tick.tick. We use the frequency of the light wave to calculate the passage of time..tick..Every time a wave crest passes this point.tick.tick..

.tick....tick. the lower the frequency and the more slowly the clock will tick: tick... 57 ...Every time a wave crest passes this point.. the clock beats once.....tick............tick.. The greater the wavelength.

Let’s put all this together with Genesis. 58 . Humans don’t appear until Day Six. God is the observer measuring the ticks on the Genesis clock He created. so it’s God alone who is observing the events during the first six days. and for whom a day is 24 hours.

make this claim. so we will proceed with this assumption. 59 . Rashi and Nahmanides.How do we know each day is literally 24 hours from God’s perspective? We don’t know this with certainty. but two of the great ancient biblical scholars.

so we need some physical way to consider the universe as a whole. must have a perspective that encompasses the entire universe. 60 . This will form the basis of the Genesis clock. as the creator of the universe.God.

It starts ticking on Day One. It must relate the passage of time between different moments in the universe as it developed after the big bang. when humans first appear. 2. when the universe is created. and stops ticking at the end of Day Six. 61 .We have two requirements for the Genesis clock: 1.

with only a tiny bit of lumpiness. 62 . so the flow of time was nearly the same throughout. and very compact.Just after the big bang. Energy and matter were distributed very evenly. the universe was hot. dense.

63 .As the universe expanded. therefore. however. different flows of time. those tiny bits of lumpiness were amplified into regions with concentrated matter and vastly different gravities—and. So our Genesis clock can’t be tied to any one place in the universe.

therefore. Does such a thing exist? 64 . What we need for our Genesis clock is some aspect of the universe that’s uniform.Since regions of the universe differ in their gravities—and. flow of time—we can’t use anything that’s in just one place in the universe for our Genesis clock.

Yes. We’ve already encountered it: the radiation remnant of the big bang in the form of the cosmic background radiation. It’s also called the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Recall that this was the predicted energy ‘echo’ of the big bang.

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The CMB has been around since the beginning, and it is uniformly everywhere in the universe.

How uniform? Though the contrast is turned up very high in this image, the WMAP satellite has measured the CMB to be the same intensity in every direction in the sky to one part in 100,000. That’s perfect for our purpose.

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This is an all-sky view of the CMB as measured by WMAP. The yellow and red spots correspond to regions of higher intensity while the darker spots correspond to regions of lower intensity.

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As the only source of light that has existed since the big bang. we will use the CMB as the basis of the Genesis clock. 68 .

This means the flow of time measured by a cosmic clock can speed up or slow down— including the Genesis clock. 2. The frequency of light can change—it can increase or decrease. The frequency of light is the beat of any cosmic clock. 69 .Keep this in mind: 1. 3.

Two we’ve already discussed: velocity and gravity. For the Genesis clock it is only the stretching of space that is important. The third is the s – t – r – e – t – c – h – I – n . and therefore our measure of the flow of time.Three things affect the frequency of light.g of space as the universe expands. 70 .

71 .Recall Hubble’s discovery … … the universe is stretching.

not matter.Space. is what stretches as the universe expands. 72 .

When light waves are stretched. their frequency decreases. 73 . A decrease in the frequency of light means a slowing of the perceived passage of time as measured by a cosmic clock.The stretching of space stretches the light waves traveling through it.

Let's test this idea by applying it to very distant sources of light. Astrophysicists routinely observe distant supernovae—exploding stars—that occurred when the universe was much younger. Because supernovae are extremely bright. 74 . they can be observed at great distances. even billions of light-years away.

Let's say an astrophysicist observes a supernova that occurred when the universe was half its present age. the universe has doubled in scale since the supernova occurred. 75 . If we assume the universe expands at a roughly constant rate.

we expect the frequency of light from the supernova to be halved by the time it reaches us. Thus.Let's say an astrophysicist observes a supernova that occurred when the universe was half its present age. Is this what is actually observed? 76 . If we assume the universe expands at a roughly constant rate. the astrophysicist should perceive that the flow of time today is half compared to the flow of time when the supernova occurred. With this stretching of space. the universe has doubled in scale since the supernova occurred.

Supernovae at great distances appear to take twice as long to fade as similar supernovae that explode relatively nearby. astrophysicists have observed the predicted time dilation effect from the stretching of space. 77 .Yes.

So what does the stretching of space mean for our cosmic clock? 78 .

That tiny speck suddenly expanded in an enormous burst of energy.At the instant the big bang occurred. The stretching of space as the universe expanded stretched the energy left over (the energy ‘echo’) from the big bang. the entire universe was packed into a tiny speck of space. 79 .

80 .The light waves traveling through space since the big bang (the CMB) have been stretched by the same amount that the universe has stretched since the beginning.

Time has been stretched by the same amount that space has been stretched. 81 .The light waves traveling through space since the big bang (the CMB) have been stretched by the same amount that the universe has stretched since the beginning.

82 .Consider what happened every time the universe doubled in scale...

Consider what happened every time the universe doubled in scale... 83 .

…the distance between waves crests of light—and hence the duration between the ticks of the Genesis clock—also doubled. 84 .

Every time the universe quadrupled in scale. time passed at one-quarter its initial rate.Every time the universe doubled in scale. time passed at half its initial rate. 85 .

time was passing at one-millionth its initial rate.According to this Genesis clock. You get the idea. when the universe increased in scale by a million. 86 .

” 87 .We’re now ready to understand how the six days of creation contain “all the secrets and ages of the universe.

88 . let’s map Genesis time onto time as we perceive it looking back from our earthly perspective.To do this.

However. 89 . The quick answer is: with the big bang.But first we must decide when time actually began. time couldn’t have ‘grabbed hold’ until matter formed.

can never travel at the speed of light. Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity says that any particle that travels at the speed of light experiences no time at all. there was only energy (light) throughout the universe. So it seems scientifically sound to mark the beginning of time at the moment when matter first appears.A peculiar property of time is that it is only experienced by things that have mass. Immediately after the big bang. so they always experience time. Particles with mass. Such particles live in an eternal state of ‘now. on the other hand.’ Particles of light (called photons) are massless and thus experience no time. 90 .

matter formed according to Einstein's famous equation. dense soup of energy. Once the universe expanded and cooled enough for matter to remain—a condition physicists refer to as quark confinement—time ‘grabbed hold. matter could just as easily turn back into energy. which says that matter and energy are interchangeable. E = mc2. First we had a hot.Matter was not created directly by the big bang. But when the universe was still very young and hot. From this energy soup.’ 91 .

unlike particles such as protons and neutrons. They comprise. This means that. they can’t be broken down into smaller pieces. the protons and neutrons that all visible matter is made of. proton quarks 92 . among other things. Quarks were the first particles to be made from the energy of the big bang. fundamental particles—the basic building blocks of matter.Quarks are tiny.

93 .Let’s relate this to what the Bible says.

” The “of” is usually left out of English translations of the Bible.The first word in the Bible is B’raisheet ‫בְּראשית‬ ִׁ֖ ֵ Hebrew for “in the beginning of. we must ask. 94 . but its presence is important. in the beginning of what? In the beginning of time … which grabs hold when matter forms. So.

Now the earth was formless and empty… ” 95 .Let's take a closer look at Genesis 1:1-2: “In the beginning [of time] God created the heavens and the earth.

it could have come from a modern textbook on particle physics. The Genesis clock therefore starts ticking at the moment that prime matter is created. Physicists have identified quarks as the “prime matter” or building blocks of matter. 96 .” Even though Nahmanides wrote this statement over 700 years ago using nothing but his understanding of the Bible.Nahmanides commented that Genesis 1:1-2 means the universe was initially filled with “the prime matter of the heavens and all it would contain and the prime matter of the earth and all that it would contain. the moment of quark confinement.

000. its frequency has decreased by a factor of almost a trillion since quark confinement. So space has been stretched to about 1.000.000. Therefore.000 times its original scale since time began.Scientists calculate that space has expanded by a factor of almost one trillion since quark confinement. That means the frequency of the CMB has been stretched by the same amount. 97 .

98 .So. the Genesis clock now ticks about a trillion times slower than at the beginning of Genesis Day One.

But. the Bible takes the earthly view of time only after the creation of Adam on Day Six.From our perspective looking backward in time from an earthly perspective. the age of the universe is billions of years old. 99 .

but to the universe as a whole.Before Adam. the Genesis clock was not tied to any one place in the universe. 100 .

What does all this mean for the age of the universe? 101 .

14 billion years ÷ 1,000,000,000,000 ≈ six days

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14 billion years ÷ 1,000,000,000,000 ≈ six days
Actually, 14 billion years divided by one trillion equals 5.1 days. The Genesis clock should stop ticking with the creation of Adam about halfway through Day Six, so it should be about 5.5 days total. The math involved in relating universal time to earthly time is more complicated than the simple division operation above, because the rate of expansion of the universe has not been entirely constant. When corrected for acceleration in the rate of expansion, the result works out to almost exactly 5.5 days. (There is also some discrepancy that results from not knowing the exact age of the universe in Earth years.)

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That is a rather amazing claim by itself. But our ultimate goal is to map cosmic time onto the Genesis account of creation. To do this, we first need to brush up on some math.

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Working from the simpler assumption that the universe has expanded at an approximately constant rate. this is expressed as an exponential relationship: A = Ao e-kt This is the well-known compound interest formula.As the universe expanded after the big bang. each doubling of the scale of the universe took twice as long as the one before it. Mathematically. 105 . its scale and the ticks of the Genesis clock were becoming ever closer to those of the present time.

following the simplified assumption that the universe has been expanding at a roughly constant rate. A more detailed mapping is shown on the slide after the next. It does not take into account the acceleration in the expansion rate discovered by cosmologists. Keep in mind that the next slide shows only an approximate mapping of Genesis time onto cosmic time.Let's apply this formula to Genesis and cosmic time. 106 .

000 250.750.750.000 1.000.000 3.A.000.000.000 750.000. = Before Adam 107 .000.000 End of Day (years B.000.000 750.A.000 Earth-time (years) 8 billion 2 3 4 5 6 7.000 250.750.000.750.A.750.000.000 ~ 6.000.) 7.000 1.000.750.000.000 4 billion 2 billion 1 billion 500 million 250 million Earth-time is the duration of the Genesis Day from our earthly perspective B.) 15.000 3.750.Genesis time and Earth time (without acceleration): Genesis Day 1 Start of Day (years B.

000 230.000.1 billion 2 3 4 5 6 6.6 billion 1.970.000.000 3.370.000 3.A.000.) 6.570.A.Genesis time and Earth time (including acceleration): Genesis Day 1 Start of Day (years B.000.000.000.000 3.8 billion 890 million 450 million 230 million Earth-time is the duration of the Genesis Day from our earthly perspective B.000 Earth-time (years) 7.000.) 14.000 230.000 680.000.000 ~ 6.000 End of Day (years B.570.370.070.000.000 1.A. = Before Adam 108 .000.000 680.000.970.000 1.

How much agreement is there between science and the Bible about what happened on each of the Genesis days? 109 .

110 .Day One: Genesis 1:1-5 The Bible says: God creates the universe. galaxies start to form. God separates light from dark. Science says: The big bang marks the creation of the universe. light breaks free as neutral atoms form.

a disk star.Day Two: Genesis 1:6-8 The Bible says: The heavenly firmament forms. 111 . Science says: The disk of the Milky Way galaxy forms. forms. the Sun.

8 billion years ago followed almost immediately by the first forms of life. 112 . Science says: The Earth has cooled and liquid water appears 3. the first life.Day Three: Genesis 1:9-13 The Bible says: Oceans and dry land appear. plants appear. Kabbalah holds that this is only the start of plant-life. bacteria and photosynthetic algae. which develops further during the following days.

and stars become visible in heavens. Moon. Science says: Earth’s atmosphere becomes transparent when photosynthesis produces an oxygenrich atmosphere. Moon.Day Four: Genesis 1:14-19 The Bible says: The Sun. 113 . Once Earth's atmosphere is transparent. the Sun. and other celestial objects are visible from the surface of the earth.

But the Sun only became fully visible on Day Four along with the Moon and the rest of the stars in the sky. It provided light to the Earth’s surface as soon as the Earth formed. 114 . The important word here is appear. when the Earth’s atmosphere became transparent. The Talmud explains that the Sun was created on Day One with the other stars in the firmament. the Bible has plants (which need light) growing on Earth before the Sun appears.This brings us to Problem #2: On Day Four.

and winged insects appear. the waters swarm with animal life having the basic body plans of all future animals. followed by reptiles and winged animals. 115 .Day Five: Genesis 1:20-23 The Bible says: The first animal life swarms abundantly in waters. Science says: The first multicellular animals suddenly appear.

and humankind. followed by humans. The land is repopulated by mammals. hominids appear. mammals. Science says: A massive extinction destroys 90% of life.Day Six: Genesis 1:24-31 The Bible says: The appearance of land animals. 116 .

Part II: Chapter VII] 117 . who were physically identical to Adam and his sons but lacked one all-important feature: the human soul.” *The Guide for the Perplexed. The great biblical commentator.We can now address Problem #3: The Bible says Adam was the first human. Maimonides. The ancient biblical commentators accepted the existence of hominids. the Bible has no problem with the fossil records of early humankind. Day Six is often confusing to readers who assume that human and hominid are synonymous. Contrary to what its critics say. but science has convincing evidence for human-like creatures before Adam. These hominids possessed the animal spirit (nefesh in Hebrew) but not the human soul (neshama). called these beings “mere animals in human shape and form.

.. 118 . The human spirit is in God’s image. In other words. it doesn’t matter if human bodies are biologically related to those of cavemen or apes. This implies that humans are distinguished from the hominid animals by their ability to communicate spiritually with their Creator. Genesis 2:7 says “. and the adam became to a living soul." Nahmanides argued that the grammatically superfluous “to” is an important clue: God chose a pre-existing hominid life form and endowed it with a neshama— Hebrew for “communicating spirit”—to make it fully human.In the original Hebrew language.

The spiritual did not come first. the second man is of heaven. and after that the spiritual. 1 Corinthians 15:42-49 119 . but the natural. The first man was of the dust of the earth.The New Testament confirms this view of the natural existing prior to the spiritual: So it is written: “The first man Adam became *to+ a living being”. a life-giving spirit. and as is the heavenly man. so let us bear the image of the heavenly man. As was the earthly man. the last Adam. And just as we have borne the image of the earthly man. so also are those who are of heaven. so are those who are of the earth.

500 years before the dawn of modern science. however. Genesis 1 makes at least 26 scientifically testable statements about the origins of the universe and the emergence of life. All 26 are compatible with modern science and in the correct order. show two important things… 1. This amazing feat was accomplished 2. 2.) 120 .None of the preceding scientifically proves God’s existence. (See the SixDay Science website for a discussion of this. The atheist claim that science and the Bible are at odds is completely false. It does. Genesis 1 is the greatest scientific document of all time.

121 . Science is still catching up. but the truth of Genesis should support our faith in the written word of God.It has taken many centuries for science to catch up to the wisdom of the Bible. We may not currently understand the basis for everything in scripture.

how majestic is your name in all the earth! The Astronomer’s Psalm (Psalm 8:3-9) 122 . and the fish of the sea. our Lord. all that swim the paths of the seas. what is man that you are mindful of him. the work of your fingers. and the beasts of the field.When I consider your heavens. the birds of the air. you put everything under his feet: all flocks and herds. which you have set in place. O LORD. the moon and the stars. the son of man that you care for him? You made him a little lower than the heavenly beings and crowned him with glory and honor. You made him ruler over the works of your hands.

Slide 7: Wikipedia entry for expansion of the universe. R. Smith (University of California. Slide 32: Photo of Albert Einstein from his Wikipedia entry. Credit: NASA. Credit: NASA. Credit: Ferdinand Schmutzer. and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA). Credit: NASA. Credit: NASA. Slide 27: HST image of newly forming stars in galaxy NGC 602. Credit: unknown. Slide 14: Photo of Penzias and Wilson with the horn antenna that detected the CBR. N. Slide 16: Cosmic microwave background map. Acknowledgment: D. Support for LAMBDA is provided by the NASA Office of Space Science. Slide 9: HST image of the Coma Cluster of Galaxies. Slide 3: Photo of Edwin Hubble. ESA. Credit: the Legacy Archive for Microwave Background Data Analysis (LAMBDA). Italy). O'Connell (University of Virginia. Berkeley). Carter (Liverpool John Moores University) and the Coma HST ACS Treasury Team Slide 11: Photo of Georges Lemaître. and the Wide Field Camera 3 Science Oversight Committee. ESA.Image and Photo Credits Slide 1: HST image of the Carina Nebula. Credit: the archives of the Catholic University of Leuven. Bologna. Charlottesville). and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) . and F. Credit: NASA. and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA). Slide 4: Photo of the HST in orbit. ESA. Credit: the Edwin Hubble Biography at the Western Washington University Planetarium. Paresce (INAF-IASF.ESA/Hubble Collaboration. 123 . Slide 31: Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image of star-forming region 30 Doradus. ESA. Credit: Bell Labs. Slide 12: Photo of Fred Hoyle.

124 . Slide 109: (right) Hubble image of galaxy M74. Acknowledgment: R. Hurt (SSC). Credit: NASA. Slide 74: Supernova remnant in the Pencil Nebula (NGC 2736). J. compositing. Hester and A. Credit: NASA.” Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Image by Reto Stöckli (land surface. and the Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA)ESA/Hubble Collaboration. Slide 63: Computer-simulated image of dark matter clumping by Andrey Kravtsov. Data and technical support: MODIS Land Group. clouds). Illustration Credit: R. Chandar (University of Toledo) and J. MODIS Atmosphere Group. MODIS Science Data Support Team. (right) Image of the sun courtesy of SOHO/EIT consortium. Acknowledgment: W. Image Credit: NASA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA). Loll (Arizona State University). Miller (University of Michigan). Blair (JHU) and D. MODIS Ocean Group Additional data: USGS EROS Data Center (topography). Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (city lights). SOHO is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA. Credit: NASA. Enhancements by Robert Simmon (ocean color. Slide 87: Hubble image of NGC 6302. the Bug Nebula. ESA. JPL-Caltech. Slide 112: (left) Artist’s conception of the Milky Way galaxy based on telescopic surveys. 3D globes. shallow water. Malin (David Malin Images) Slide 75: Hubble image of the supernova remnant M1 (Crab Nebula).Image and Photo Credits Slide 40: Earthrise photo taken by Apollo 8 crewmember Bill Anders. December 24. 1968. NASA. USGS Terrestrial Remote Sensing Flagstaff Field Center (Antarctica). ESA. and the Hubble SM4 ERO Team. Slide 45: “The Blue Marble. ESA. animation). Survey Credit: GLIMPSE.

Slide 113: (right) Hubble image of ancient white dwarf stars in the Milky Way galaxy.S. Image based on data from the NASA/GSFC/METI/ERSDAC/JAROS. Richer (University of British Columbia). Berkeley). Slide 119: Image of The Creation of Adam fresco by Michelangelo from its Wikipedia entry.Image and Photo Credits Slide 112: (left) NASA image of the earth and sun. Slide 122: Hubble image of the great clouds in the Carina nebula. ESA. 125 . Smith (University of California. Berkeley) and NOAO/AURA/NSF. Credit for CTIO Image: N. Credit for Hubble Image: NASA. (right) Image of Adam and Eve by Jan Gossaert from The National Gallery online. Credit for Hubble telescope photos: NASA and H. Instrument: Terra . (middle) Wikipedia entry on captorhinidae (early reptiles). Smith (University of California. (right) Image of green algae by Simon Andrews. (middle) Image of cyanobacteria bloom captured by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA’s Terra satellite. Slide 115: (left) Wikipedia entry on multicellular organisms./Japan ASTER Science Team. (middle) Image of Stone Age: The Feast by Viktor Vasnetsov from the Wikipedia entry on Cro Magnon.ASTER. N. Slide 116: (left) Photo of early mammal model from the Wikipedia entry on Megazostrodon. and U. (right) Image of Rhyniognatha hirsti from Natural History Museum Nature online. and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA).