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# Propositional

## Logic Propositional Equivalences Predicates and Quantifiers

[Exclusive Or] [disjunction(or)] [conjunction(and)] [not] [ifthen] [if and only if]

Proposition Sentence that declare fact either true or false but not both. Examples: / 1. F and S are alphabet. 2. They are beautiful. x (is not proposition because is not declarative) 3. 2 + 1 = 10 / 4. x + y = 6 x (is not proposition because it is neither true or false)

## We use letters to represent propositions such as p,q,r,s

Truth Table
-display relationship between truth values of propositions Types of truth tables: 1. the Negation of a Proposition. 2. Conjunction of Two Propositions. 3. Disjunction of Two Propositions. 4. Exclusive Or of Two Propositions. 5. Conditional Statement p q. 6. Biconditional p q. 7. The Truth Table of (p q) (p q). 8. Precedence of Logical Operators.

p T F

p F T

T T F F

T F T F

T T T F

## Table 4: Truth table for the Exclusive Or of two Propositions

p T T F F q T F T F p F T T F q

1
2 3 4 5

## Table 6: Truth table for The Biconditional p q p T T F F q T F T F p q T F F T

Tautology : a compound proposition that is always true no matter what the truth values of the propositional occurs in it. Example: pp Contradiction : a compound proposition that is always false. Example: pp Contingency : a compound proposition that is neither a tautology nor a contradiction.

pp

pp

T
F

F
T

T
T

F
F

## pp is always true pis always false

Compound

propositions that have the same truth values in all possible cases Example: p q = -p -q
a) b)

If it rains then, I stay at home If I dont stay at home, then it thus not rain

predicate or propositional function is a description of the property (or properties) a variable or subject may have. A proposition may be created from a propositional function by either assigning a value to the variable or by quantification.

In

general, the set of all x in the universe of discourse having the atribute P(x) is called the truth set of P(x). That is, the truth set of P(x) is : { x U |P(x) }

where

the truth value can be whether true or false... See more at: http://weartificialintelligence.blogspot.com /#sthash.DyhdBMPq.dpuf

Suppose P(x) is the predicate x + 2 = 2x, and the universe of discourse for x is the set f1;2;3g. Then... xP(x) is the proposition For every x in {1,2,3} x + 2 = 2x." This proposition is false. xP(x) is the proposition There exists x in {1,2,3} such that x + 2 = 2x. This proposition is true.

Example 1 : The propositional function P(x) is given by "x > 0". The universe of discourse for x is the set of integers.To create a proposition from P, we may assign a value for x. For example, setting x = -3, we get P(-3): "-3 > 0", which is false. setting x = 2, we get P(2): "2 > 0", which is true.

Example 2 :

Suppose P(x) is the predicate x has fur ". The universe of discourse for x is the set of all animals.

## P(x) is a true statement if, x is a cat. P(x) is false if, x is an alligator.

Example 3 : There also involve 2 or more variable. consider "x = y + 3" and we can denote it as Q(x , y). Q is a predicate and the question is what is the truth value for Q(1,2) and Q(3,0) ?

for Q(1,2),set x = 1 and y = 2 and substitute into "x = y + 3",which u get false. Same as Q(3,0),which u get true. Answer must be shown in table.

quantifier turns a propositional function into a proposition without assigning specific values for the variable. There are primarily two quantifiers:

## the universal quantifier the existential quantifier

The

universal quantification of P(x) is the proposition P(x) is true for all values x in the universe of discourse. : "For all x P(x)" or "For every x P(x)" is written xP(x).

Notation

example 1 :
Let

P(x) be the statement x+1>x. What is the truth value of the Quantification xP(x) where the universe of discourse consist of all real numbers ? : Since P(x) is true for all real numbers x, the quantification xP(x) is true.
x 1 x+1>x 2>1 x P(x) true

solution

2 3

3>2 4>3

True true

example 2 :
What

is the truth value of x P(x), where P(x) is the statement "x < 10" and the universe discourse consist of the positive integers not exceed 4 ?

Solution:

the statement x P(x) is the same as the conjunction P(1) ^ P(2) ^ P(3) ^ P(4), since the universe discourse consist of the integers 1,2,3 n 4. Since P(4) which the statements "4 < 10 " is false, it follows that x P(x) is false.

The

existential quantification of P(x) is the proposition "There exists an element x in the universe of discourse such that P(x) is true."
"There exists x such that P(x)" or "There is at least one x such that P(x)" is written x P(x).

Notation:

Example 1 :

Let P(x) denote the statement "x >3" What is the truth value of the quantification xP(x), where the universe discourse consist of all real numbers ? solution : Since "x>3" is true--for instance , when x = 4--the existancial qualification of P(x),which is xP(x) is true.

x 1 2 4

## x P(x) true true false

Example What

2:

is the truth value of xP(x), where P(x) is the statement "x > 10" and the universe discourse consist of the positive integers not exceed 4 ?

Solution:

Since

the universe of discourse is {1,2,3,4}, the proposition xP(x) is the same as the disjunction P(1) v P(2) v P(3) v P(4), Since P(4) which the statements "4 > 10 " is true, it follows that xP(x) is true.

TABLE 1 QUANTIFIERS
Statement When True ? When False ?

x P(x)

x P(x)

Hard

## versus soft science

The ease of quantification is one of the features used to distinguish hard and soft sciences from each other. sciences

Social