You are on page 1of 39

by

Antarip Chatterjee

COMPETENCY MAPPING
◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ DEFINTION, OBJECTIVES AND NEEDS STEPS IN COMPETENCY MAPPING EFFECTS ON OTHER HRD SYSTEMS COMPETENCY MAPPING AT DIFFERENT LEVELS ASSESSMENT AND FEEDBACK BASED ON COMPETENCY MAPPING ◦ TOOLS FOR DEVELOPING COMPETENCIES

United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (2002) “A competency is a set of skills, related knowledge and attributes that allow an individual to successfully perform a task or an activity within a specific function or job.” RANKIN (2002) “Competencies are definition of skills and behaviors that organizations expect their staff to practice in work.” MANSFIELD (1997) “Underlying characteristics of a person that results in effective a superior performance.”

Any underlying characteristic required for performing a given task, activity or role successfully can be considered as competency.

Observable Behavior

Knowledge

Attitudes

Skills

Motives, Values , Traits, Self Concept

Competency may take the following forms:  

Knowledge Attitude Skill

Other characteristics of an individual including:   

Motives Values Traits Self Concept

It is a process of identification of the competencies required to perform successfully a given job or role or a set of tasks at a given point of time. It consists of breaking a given role or job into its constituent tasks or activities and identifying the competencies
(technical, managerial, behavioral, conceptual knowledge and attitude and skills, etc) needed to perform the same

successfully.

Competency Map. A competency map is a list of an individual’s competencies that represent the factors most critical to success in given jobs, departments, organizations, or industries that are part of the individual’s current career plan. Competency Mapping. Competency mapping is a process an individual uses to identify and describe competencies that are the most critical to success in a work situation or work role Competency profiling It is the process of identifying the knowledge, skills, abilities, attitudes, and judgment required for effective performance in a particular occupation or profession. Competency profiling is business/company specific.

Competency mapping serves a number of purposes. It is done for the following functions:       Gap Analysis Role Clarity Succession Planning Growth Plans Restructuring Inventory of competencies for future planning

Training and Development Replacement Planning Recruitment and Selection

Competency Mapping Compensation

Career Planning

Succession Planning

Performance Appraisal

The following steps may be followed in competency Mapping: 1) Decide the positions for which the competencies need to be mapped. 2) Identify the location of the positions in the organizational structure. This needs the clarity of organizational structure, defining the position relationships (reporting authority, subordinates, peers etc.). 3) Identify the objectives of the function or the department or the unit or section where the position is located.

4) Identify the objectives of the role. Why does the position exist? What are the main purposes of the role etc. details. 5) Collect the Key Performance Areas (or KRAs, Tasks, etc.) of the position holder for the last two to three years from the performance appraisal records. Alternately, collect the job descriptions of any of the position to make a list of all tasks and activities to be performed by that position holder.

6) Interview the position holder to list the Tasks and activities expected to be performed by the Individual. Group them into a set of tasks. The tasks list may be as many as 15 to 20 for some positions and as Competency Mapping few as five to six for other positions. There is no rigid rule about the number of tasks. It depends on how complex the position is. It is useful to start with as many tasks as possible.

7)

Interview the position holder to list the actual knowledge, attitude, skills, and other competencies required for performing the task effectively. The position holder should be asked questions like: “If you are to recruit some one to perform this task what qualities or competencies would you look for in him/her? What competencies do you think are required to perform this well? 8) Repeat the process with all the position set members. 9) Consolidate the list of competencies from all the position holders’ by each task. 10) Edit and finalize. Present it to the supervisors of the position holder and the position holder for approval and finalization.

Effects on the following HRD systems: Recruitment & Selection  Performance Management System  Training  Development  Compensation Management

Competency-based recruitment is a process of recruitment based on the ability of candidates to produce anecdotes about their professional experience which can be used as evidence that the candidate has a given competency.

A competency based approach to recruitment and selection of staff can help an organization, to make it an effective and successful investment of time, money and expertise. Such an approach will help to ensure that: i. The organization is clear regarding the competencies and skill sets required by the job; ii. Selection processes encourage a good fit between individuals and their jobs, managers and staff have the required skills and competencies; iii. Individual skills and abilities are matched to the requirements of the job; and iv. Evaluation of work demands and staffing are accurate

Integrating competencies within the performance management process supports the provision of feedback to employees not only on “what” they have accomplished (i.e., performance goals), but also “how” the work was performed, using competencies for providing feedback.

Integrating competency with PMS helps:i. Employees in understanding performance expectations and enhancing competencies. ii. To provide a mechanism for providing positive feedback about an employee’s training achievements and on-the-job performance iii. To provide job standards for performance appraisal iv. To provide clear direction for learning new job skills

Competency Based Training focuses on what the participant is expected to be able to do in the workplace as opposed to just having theoretical knowledge. An important characteristic of Competency Based Training is that it is focused not only on the actual jobs that are required in the workplace, but also the ability to transfer and apply skills, knowledge and attitudes to new Situations and environments. The advantages of competency based training(CBT) are:i. Participants will achieve competencies required in the performance of their jobs. ii. Participants build confidence as they succeed in mastering specific competencies. iii. Participants receive a transcript or list of the competencies they have achieved.

All businesses are based on some key competencies. The main reason for an organization to create a competency-based development system that focuses on having the right people with Right skills at the right time is that it helps in accomplishing business targets. Competencies are the need of the hour and designing appropriate competency development models is a necessity. Advantages of competency based development:i. Improvement in productivity, performance and profitability ii. Identify employee’s capabilities for an organization’s future needs iii. Analyzing capability gaps

Competency-based pay fits this new environment. It provides an ongoing incentive to employees to enhance their ability to perform their jobs. Employees are rewarded with salary increases when they add new knowledge or skills or when they demonstrate higher level competence on existing capabilities. Advantages of competency based compensation:i. Provides a basis of deciding on the compensation. ii. Encourages employees to develop their competencies further. iii. Lead to a focus on totality of job rather than just what is achieved. iv. This system fits every job.

The 11 qualities separated into three groups, as shown in the following slide, it represent three different levels. The first level forms the foundation level, and comprises of two kinds of basic knowledge and information a manager may need to use in decision making and action taking.

The Lancaster (Burgoyne) Model of Managerial Competencies

A Competency Mapping can address many of the issues related to performance appraisal:
◦ This ensures agreement on performance criteria, what is accomplished and what is not accomplished, collecting relevant and sufficient data ◦ It also ensures opportunity to supervisors to observe behaviour, specificity and concreteness in discussions about performance deficiencies

Provides a shared understanding of what will be monitored and measured—A Competency Mapping integrated with performance appraisal ensures a balance between what gets done and how it gets done. The skills, knowledge and characteristics that are important to success are clearly described. It provides a roadmap of where to begin the discussion and what areas to focus on.

Provides focus for gaining information about behaviour—An appraisal process includes a simple, accurate method for a boss to assess job performance. But what happens when the boss is new or he/she controls a number of different locations? By identifying the specific behaviours crucial for effective performance, Competency Mapping offer bosses a starting point.

The 360-degree Feedback Process is being increasingly used in organizations for development, appraisal and compensation purposes. It involves a collection of perceptions about an individual’s behaviour and its impact on bosses, colleagues, subordinates as well as internal and external customers. Competency Mapping help to ensure that such feedback relates specifically to the competencies crucial to individual or organizational success.

Literature Review: A preliminary approach for defining job content and identifying required competencies is to conduct a review of the literature to learn about previous studies of the job or similar jobs. Focus Groups: In focus groups, a facilitator works with a small group of job incumbents, their managers, supervisees, clients, or others to define the job content or to identify the competencies they believe are essential for performance.

Structured Interviews: In structured interviews, carefully planned questions are asked individually of job incumbents, their managers, or others familiar with the job. Benchmarking interviews with other organizations are especially useful in achieving a broader view of the job or determining which competencies are more universally deemed necessary for a particular job.

Behavioral Event Interviews: In behavioral event interviews (BEI), top performers are interviewed individually about what they did, thought, said, and felt in challenging or difficult situations. The competencies that were instrumental in their success are extrapolated from their stories. Often, average and low performers are also interviewed to provide a comparison.

Surveys: In surveys, job incumbents, their supervisors, and perhaps senior managers complete a questionnaire administered either in print or electronically. The survey content is based on previous data collection

Observations: In this data collection method, the research team visits high-performing incumbents and observes them at work. The more complex the job and the greater the variety in job tasks, the more time is required for an observation.

    


 

Once a buyer has decided what to look for in a car, he or she must decide how to assess specific cars to identify the one best suited to his or her needs. There is a number of assessments the car buyer can make to help with the selection decision: Look at its general appearance Use a checklist of essential characteristics Ask how good the owner thinks the car is Question previous owners on the history of the car Look at the handbook and service history Ask for specific examples of the car’s performance Take it for a test-drive Make predictions based on technical characteristics of the car.

The car buyer may undertake more than one of the above assessments before making a decision on whether to purchase the car or not. Some assessments will not provide the best measure of a car’s suitability. For example, buying a car because it looks OK and the owner says it is a great car to drive is at best going to leave the car buyer unprepared for what is wrong with the car, and at worst leave him or her having made a very expensive mistake. Short of taking a car away for a few months to try it out, a test-drive is probably the most accurate means of assessing of its suitability. It enables the car to be driven in realistic situations while undertaking tasks that represent the everyday operations the car will be required to perform. For example, if the car is to be used for long motorway journeys with a full load as well as for trips around town, then these conditions should be part of the test-drive.

The car buyer may undertake more than one of the above assessments before making a decision on whether to purchase the car or not. Some assessments will not provide the best measure of a car’s suitability. For example, buying a car because it looks OK and the owner says it is a great car to drive is at best going to leave the car buyer unprepared for what is wrong with the car, and at worst leave him or her having made a very expensive mistake.

Short of taking a car away for a few months to try it out, a test-drive is probably the most accurate means of assessing of its suitability. It enables the car to be driven in realistic situations while undertaking tasks that represent the everyday operations the car will be required to perform. For example, if the car is to be used for long motorway journeys with a full load as well as for trips around town, then these conditions should be part of the test-drive.

There are some assessments that a buyer may wish to make before he or she undertakes a test-drive. These assessments will prevent the buyer from viewing a car which does not meet certain basic requirements. For example, he or she may wish to check that the car has a certain number of seats because, however suitable the car is in other ways, without the right minimum number of seats there would be no point in viewing it. There are also some assessments the car buyer may wish to make after taking it for a test-drive. For example, the car buyer may wish to check the car’s history by looking at the service book.

 The

Handbook of Competency Mapping, Understanding, Designing & Implementing competency models in Organization, Seema Sanghi, 2004,pg.20-28, Response Books.  http://www.iqpc.com/uploadedFiles/Training/Asia_ Training/The_Gateway/competency.pdf [Accessed on 25th February, 2012]  www.citehr.com  The Competencies Handbook, 2005, Steve Whiddett & Sarah Hollyforde, Jaico Publishing House