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BULDING TECHNOLOGY 1

TIMBER
LOCAL TIMBER THEORY AND PRACTICAL OF TIMBER WORK APPLICATION OF TIMBER IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

DILLA 2013 @DELLA


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Types Of Wood
Wood is broadly classified into 2 categories that is:

a) Hardwood - trees with broad leaves that are shed in winter.

b) Softwood - Any species that have needlelike leaves and that are generally evergreen.

Hardwood Trees

Softwood Trees

Local Timber
Hardwood can be categories into 3 groups:
Heavy hardwood (density >880 kg/m3)
example: Cengal, Tembusu, Balau, Merbau and Resak

Medium hardwood (density 720 - 880 kg/m3)


example: Kapor, Keledang and Keruing.

Light hardwood (density <720 kg/m3)


example: Nyatoh, Jelutong, Pulai and Terap

Annual Rings Cambium Layer Bark

Pith

STRUCTURE OF WOOD

STRUCTURE OF WOOD
Bark is a thin, rough and dense covering that surrounds the trunk. Cambium is a thin (microscopic) layer of wood cells exists inside the bark. The growth of wood takes place continuously under the bark in the cambium layer resulting ring knowns as Annual ring. Width of ring depends on the rate of growth of the tree.

Heartwood & Softwood

Pith is the center of the log surrounded by the annual rings. The number of rings approximately represents the age of the tree. Heartwood is the inner part of the trunk is made of dead tissue which primary function is to provide mechanical support to the tree. Heartwood that is the older wood is darker, drier and harder than the outer part. Sapwood is the outer part and it contains living cells.

The trunk place the role to convey a solution called sap to the leaves & also to support the crow at such a height as to ensure a sufficiency of air & light. As one layer of woods succeeds another, the cell in the layers die, cease to function for food storage and only useful to give the tree stiffness.

Physical & mechanical properties of wood differ from species to species & also within species. Among the factor influencing its properties are climate, density of the surrounding forest, character of the soil, moisture content, defects and the area in the log from which the lumber is derived.

FACTORS AFFECTING STRENGTH OF TIMBER


Density Moisture Content Temperature Grain structure Position in tree Condition of growth Defects Creep

DENSITY Density of wood is defined as the mass or weight per unit volume. Moisture in wood has a very large effect on the specific gravity as well as the density. Timbers of young tree has a very low density, therefore reduced stresses used for such material. Weight of timber reduced by drying while most strength properties are increased. The higher the density, so the higher its mechanical properties.

MOISTURE CONTENT Moisture content in a living tree varies with the species. Even in the same species, variation in moisture content depends on the age & size of the tree and its location. Mechanical properties of wood influenced by moisture content but modulus elasticity is less affected by changes in moisture Strength of wood increase as the moisture content decreases

Moisture content determined by oven-dry method or by electric moisture-meter method Drying of timber from the green condition as cut to constructional usable content of say, 18% moisture content will cause shrinkage.

TEMPERATURE Strength of timber decreases, together with increasing temperature Permanent loss of strength may happen if wood is held at high temperature for a long period.

POSITION IN TREE In the early trees life, wood often tends to become stronger with increasing distance from the pith

CONDITION OF GROWTH Environmental factor such as height above the sea level, temperature, type of soil, rainfall, spacing between the trees have effect on the strength of the properties of the timber

DEFECTS Two main factor of timber defects:


Nature (chemical, wind, rain, etc) External agents such as fungus attack and dredging insects
1. Fungus attack i. Decompose the wood: wood cells around the infected dissolved and absorbed by fungus. Fungus that only changes the color of timber: fungus is just absorbing food in the cells of wood. It doesnt decompose the wood but changes the physical appearance of wood. Severe conditions reduce the strength of up to 30%.

ii.

2. Dredging Insects
i. can happen when the wood is still alive
ii. during the drying process or have dried up and the savings (if not cured)

iii. Create defects with holes of 5mm to 25mm in size - dwelling insect larvae that eat the wood.
iv. Termites, beetles, horns, furniture beetles, powder post beetles.

Common defect are cracks, knots and slope of grain and occur principally during the growing period and the drying process.

Knots It is a cross-section or longitudinal section of a branch that was cut with the lumber It could affect the mechanical properties of wood Also allow stress concentration to occur Effect of knots depends on their position in the section. Knots are harder, denser and possess different shrinkage characteristics than those of wood tissue.

Live Knots

Dead Knots

Shake Shakes are lengthwise separations in the wood occurring between and parallel to annual rings

ADVANTAGES OF TIMBER a. simplicity in fabrication (easy to cut, trim, nail and screw) b. lightness (high speed construction) c. reusability (recycle material) d. insulation from heat. sound & electricity e. aesthetically pleasing appearance f. resistance to oxidation, acid attack & salt attack and salt water g. environmental compatibility

CLIMATIC DESIGN OF THE MALAY HOUSE

DISADVANTAGES OF TIMBER a. b. c. d. Easy to get burnt and spread fire Easy to shrink and wrap Easy to be attacked by termite and insect Hard to determine a good timber for construction e. Not suitable for long span structure f. Unstable pricing

FLOOR SYSTEM

ROOF SYSTEM

APPLICATION OF TIMBER IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY


Construction Industry
Roof structure, wall structure, wall, beam, timber floor, door and window frame, framework

Timber industry
Plywood production, glue-laminated timber, furniture, etc.

Transportation system
Jetty, bridge, boat, ship, railway, etc.