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Reported by: Carmela Joyce S.

Atto

 Filiariasis
-is the name for a group of tropical diseases caused by various thread-like African eye parasitic round worms (nematodes) and their larvae. -the adult worm can live only in the human lymphatic system. -The larvae transmit the disease to humans through a mosquito bite. -The dse is rarely fatal; however, it causes extensive disability, gross disfigurement and untold suffering in millions of men, women, and children.

-affects: lymph nodes. an infection of the lymphatic system. arms vulva and breasts. Wuchereria bancrofti -a parasitic filarial nematode (roundworm) spread by a mosquito vector. lymph vessels of the legs. . It is one of the three parasites that cause lymphatic filariasis.

. Brugia Malayi-results in swelling of the extremities confined to areas below the knees and below the elbows.

.” -rarely affects the genitals.is a human nematode (roundworm) which causes the disease "Timor Filariasis. Brugia timori.

. Loa loa -is another filarial parasite in humans transmitted by the deer fly.

 The parasites that cause lymphatic filariasis are transmitted from human to human through the bites of Culex and Anopheles mosquitoes. .

 Persons with chronic filarial swelling suffer severely from the dse but no longer transmit the infection In India.6% of the problem  .4% cases are caused by the species Wuchereria bancrofti. whereas Burgia malayi is responsible for 0. 99.

Mosquito bites a person with lymphatic filariasis Microscopic worms circulating in the person’s blood enter and also infect the mosquito Worms pass from the mosquito through human skin and travel to the lymph vessels where they grow into adults. .

reach sexual maturity and the cycle is completed .(7 years) They mate and release millions of microfilaria into the bloodstream Once the person has the worms in his/her blood. the dse is transmitted to another person by larvae. Larvae migrates to the lymph nodes. biting mosquito when it feeds.

the genital area. legs and for men.A person needs to get many mosquito bites over several months/years to get filariasis No symptoms will show until the adult worms die The dses damages the kidneys and the lymph system. fluid collects and causes swelling in the arms. breasts. .

thus. (elephantiasis) Advance Stages: worms obstruct the vessels causing the surrounding tissues to enlarge. skin hardens and thickens. . Person tends to have more bacterial infection in the skin.The swelling and decreased function of the lymphatic system make it difficult for the body to fight the infection.

Conjuctival filariasis: larvae may migrate to the eyes and can sometimes be seen beneath the conjunctiva Untreated conjunctival filariasis : results to onchocerciasis .

 Symptoms vary depending on the type of parasitic worm involved. On and off chills Headache Fever that lasts between 3 mos. And 1 year after the insect bite    .

    Swelling Redness Pain in the arms. legs or scrotum Areas of abscesses may appear as a result of dying worms or a secondary bacterial infection .

and breasts. and amputation stumps are affected less frequently. different species of filarial worms tend to affect different parts of the body: ''Wuchereria bancrofti'' can affect the legs. arms. while . mucus membranes. However. vulva. while the ears. Elephantiasis affects mainly the lower extremities.

decreased peripheral temperature may attract more microfilariae. Filariasis is usually diagnosed by identifying microfilariae on a Giemsa stained thick blood film. Also. Blood must be drawn at night. when their mosquito vector is most likely to bite. . since the microfilaria circulate at night(nocturnal periodicity).

  Circulating filarial antigen (CFA) -performed on a finger-prick blood droplet taken anytime of the day. Results available in a few minutes Pt. . History must be taken and the pattern of the inflammation and signs of lymphatic obstruction must be observed.

although re-treatment is required at three to 12 month intervals until the adult worms have been eradicated. due to its effect on the adult worms. necessitating repeated doses. -Diethylcarbamazine rapidly clears microfilaremia for a long time. though not used for onchocerciasis. .Ivermectin used as a single dose reduces microfilarial levels over a long period. but has a slower effect on the adult worms. diethylcarbamazine or ivermectin with albendazole. may be effective as an adjunct for other filarial infections. . -Albendazole.

 . Surgery may be performed to remove surplus tissue and provide the way to drain the fluid around the damaged lymphatic vessels. Elephantiasis of the legs can be also be eased by elevating the legs and providing support with elastic bandages.

Person hygiene .    Health education Environmental sanitation Psychological and emotional support to the ct.

Breathing exercises have not traditionally formed part of the LF programme. 2003). . movement of the whole limb is beneficial. however Vaqas and Ryan note that the breathing taught to lymphoedema patients in resource rich countries is similar to that used in some Asian traditional systems of medicine (Vaqas and Ryan. Movement. While movement is focused on the foot. for example. movement should be gentle yet deliberate and carried out on a regular daily basis. Walking and foot exercises are probably the most effective ways of promoting lymph flow (Vaqas and Ryan. Therefore.exercises that stimulate lymphatic flow are effective ways of helping individuals to manage lymphoedema. circling and flexing it. 2003).

. If you live in an area with lymphatic filariasis: at night  sleep in an air-conditioned room or  sleep under a mosquito net between dusk and dawn  wear long sleeves and trousers and  use mosquito repellent on exposed skin. The mosquitoes that carry the microscopic worms usually bite between the hours of dusk and dawn.   The best way to prevent lymphatic filariasis is to avoid mosquito bites.

This is the basis of the global campaign to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. Annual mass treatment reduces the level of microfilariae in the blood and thus. diminishes transmission of infection. . Another approach to prevention includes giving entire communities medicine that kills the microscopic worms -and controlling mosquitoes.