Discrete Fourier Transform using DIT FFT algorithm

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

134 views

Discrete Fourier Transform using DIT FFT algorithm

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- upcatmathreviewer-noanswer
- FFT Matlab Tutorial
- Radar Signal Detection Using TMS320C50
- Dsp 1recordprophes
- MA2213 Summary
- ECE567_16F_hw1soln.pdf
- Cited-E0241022026
- GATE 2018 CS Paper Answer Key & Analysis (Memory based)
- Lecture1.pdf
- ECE567_16F_hw1soln
- M Tech Syllabus Instrumentation free
- cosine_filter_theory.pdf
- SIPIJ 030608
- Discrete Mathematics
- Digital Image Processing Tutorial Questions Answers
- DSP Lab 1-5.docx
- Fft
- darts.pdf
- Fourier Basics
- CAD Tool Autogeneration of VHDL FFT for FPGA ASIC Implementation.pdf

You are on page 1of 18

V. R. Gupta

Department of Electronics and Telecommunication, YCCE, Nagpur

DFT pairs:

kn X [k ] x[n]WN , n 0 N 1

k 0,1..., N 1

kn N

1 x[n] N

X [k ]W

k 0

N 1

n 0,1..., N 1

WN = ej2/N is Twiddle factor or Nth root of Unity. It requires N2 complex multiplications and (N1)N complex additions for computation. Each complex multiplication needs four real multiplications and two real

requires 4N2 real multiplications and N(4N2) real additions.

In 1965, Cooley and Tukey developed very efficient algorithm to implement the DFT. This algorithm is called as Fast Fourier Transform i.e. FFT.

computations.

operations involved in the computations of DFT are greatly reduced

The direct computations of DFT is primarily inefficient as it does not exploit the Symmetry and Periodicity properties of the twiddle factor WN . Symmetry property:

W

Periodicity property:

kN 2 N

kN N

W

W

k N

k N

We always compute N- point DFT. The number N can be factored as

N r1 x r2 x r3

If

x ..............x v

r (a)

r1 = r2 = r3

= ..............= v

r (b)

Then

N = r v (c )

v indicates the no. of stages in the FFT

algorithm

If , r =2 then it is called as radix-2 FFT algorithm. Thus when r=2 equation (c) becomes

N 2v

If you want to compute 8-point DFT then

8 2 v3

algorithm.

Let x(n) represents a N-point sequence; where, N is an integer power of 2 . i.e. N = 2v

Since N is an even integer, we can consider computing X[k] by separating x[n] into two (N/2)-point sequence consisting of the even numbered point in x[n] and the odd-numbered points in x[n].

X [k ]

nk x [ n ] W N n even

nk x [ n ] W N n odd

or, with the substitution of variable n=2r for n even and n=2r+1 for n odd ( N / 2 ) 1 ( N / 2 ) 1

X [k ]

r 0 ( N / 2 ) 1 r 0

2 rk x [ 2 r ] W N

( 2 r 1) k x [ 2 r 1 ] W N r 0 ( N / 2 ) 1 r 0

2 rk k x [ 2 r ]( W ) W N N

2 rk x [ 2 r 1 ]( W N)

Since

2 WN e 2 j ( 2 / N ) e j 2 /( N / 2 ) WN / 2

( N / 2 ) 1 r 0 2 rk k x [ 2 r ]( W ) W N N ( N / 2 ) 1 r 0 2 rk x [ 2 r 1 ]( W N)

X [k ]

k G[k ] WN H [k ], k 0,1,..., N 1

Both G[k] and H[k] can be computed by (N/2)-point DFT, where G[k] is the (N/2)-point DFT of the even numbered points of the original sequence and the second being the (N/2)-point DFT of the odd-numbered point of the original sequence. Although the index ranges over N values, k = 0, 1, , N-1, each of the sums must be computed only for k between 0 and (N/2)-1, since G[k] and H[k] are each periodic in k with period N/2.

Decomposing N-point DFT into two (N/2)-point DFT for the case of N=8

We can further decompose the (N/2)-point DFT into two (N/4)-point DFTs. For example, the upper half of the previous diagram can be decomposed as

Hence, the 8-point DFT can be obtained by the following diagram with four 2-point DFTs.

Finally, each 2-point DFT can be implemented by the following signal-flow graph, where no multiplications are needed.

In each stage of the decimation-in-time FFT algorithm, there are a basic structure called the butterfly computation:

r X m [ p] X m1[ p] WN X m1[q] r X m [q] X m1[ p] WN X m1[q]

1

1

A

1

1 1

A

1

1 1

1 1

X(0) X(1)

W8 1

B

-1

1 1 1

B C

1

C D

1 W80

-1

X(2)

W8 1

W8 2

1

-1

D E

1 W80

-1

X(3) X(4)

x(1)

x(5)

1

1 1 -1

0

E F G

1

-1

1

W8

1

0

F

1

-1 -1 -1

X(5)

x(3)

x(7)

1 W8

0

1 1 -1

W8 W8

G H

X(6) X(7)

1

2

-1

In the above, we have introduced the decimation-in-time algorithm of FFT. Here, we assume that N is the power of 2. For N=2v, it requires v=log2N stages of computation. The number of complex multiplications and additions required was N+N+N = Nv = N log2N. When N is not the power of 2, we can apply the same principle that were applied in the power-of-2 case when N is a composite integer. For example, if N=RQ, it is possible to express an Npoint DFT as either the sum of R Q-point DFTs or as the sum of Q R-point DFTs. In practice, by zero-padding a sequence into an N-point sequence with N=2v, we can choose the nearest power-of-two FFT algorithm for implementing a DFT. The FFT algorithm of power-of-two is also called the CooleyTukey algorithm since it was first proposed by them.

- upcatmathreviewer-noanswerUploaded byJan Crezul Balodong
- FFT Matlab TutorialUploaded byichwan13
- Radar Signal Detection Using TMS320C50Uploaded bymgitecetech
- Dsp 1recordprophesUploaded bykattaswamy
- MA2213 SummaryUploaded byKhor Shi-Jie
- ECE567_16F_hw1soln.pdfUploaded bySähilDhånkhår
- Cited-E0241022026Uploaded bySenthil Sivakumar
- GATE 2018 CS Paper Answer Key & Analysis (Memory based)Uploaded byNishit kumar
- Lecture1.pdfUploaded bySon T. Nguyen
- ECE567_16F_hw1solnUploaded byaaymysz
- M Tech Syllabus Instrumentation freeUploaded byAnup Bhowmick
- cosine_filter_theory.pdfUploaded byDung Le
- Discrete MathematicsUploaded byMuhammad Ijaz Khan
- SIPIJ 030608Uploaded bysipij
- Digital Image Processing Tutorial Questions AnswersUploaded byanandbabugopathoti
- DSP Lab 1-5.docxUploaded bySmit Majithia
- FftUploaded byParamesh Waran
- darts.pdfUploaded byjuan perez arrikitaun
- Fourier BasicsUploaded byKamalakannan Shanmugam
- CAD Tool Autogeneration of VHDL FFT for FPGA ASIC Implementation.pdfUploaded byilg1
- An Integrated Skew Detection and Correction Using Fast Fourier Transform and DctUploaded byIJSTR Research Publication
- Paper for Karoake generationUploaded byAshwath Manimudi
- azdezUploaded bytnorton
- 01FfinalUploaded bykamran_4507704
- Course Plan Image ProcessingUploaded byAllayya
- 20121108_quiz_6aUploaded byPaul Jones
- MDA1.pdfUploaded byRoshan Prizak
- MISCELLANEOUS RESULTS AND THEOREMS ON SMARANDACHE TERMS AND FACTOR PARTITIONSUploaded byMia Amalia
- Division Long 1dd3dq Nr OldUploaded byctk2hood
- m-116sUploaded byTech with You And Me

- Scope for Biomedical EngineersUploaded byguptavikas_1051
- MFCEUploaded byguptavikas_1051
- PPT Template for UG & PGUploaded byguptavikas_1051
- Electromagnetic_Field_Theory_Fundamentals.pdfUploaded byguptavikas_1051
- UNIT_3_PIPUploaded byguptavikas_1051
- unit2Uploaded byguptavikas_1051
- [James H. McClellan, Ronald W. Schafer, Mark a. Yo(BookZZ.org)Uploaded byguptavikas_1051
- Integrated Electronics- Analog and Digital Circuits and Systems_J. Millman and C. C. HalkiasUploaded byguptavikas_1051
- ENT555-2 _New S & S 2016-17Uploaded byguptavikas_1051
- Image CompressionUploaded byguptavikas_1051
- Introduction 2 DSPUploaded byguptavikas_1051
- Unit 3Uploaded byguptavikas_1051
- Digital Signal ProcessingUploaded byVikas Gupta
- DIP-UNIT-1Uploaded byguptavikas_1051
- DSP IntroductionUploaded byVikas Gupta
- PresentationUploaded byguptavikas_1051
- Karnan and LogeswariUploaded byguptavikas_1051
- SFR OF 8051Uploaded byguptavikas_1051

- Binary Tree Print SequenceUploaded bysapaaa01
- analogousUploaded bysirisiri100
- Image Processing in Frequency Domain Using Matlab a Study for BeginnersUploaded byD Rajasekar
- Unit Test Paper of Digital ElectronicsUploaded byabhijit_jamdade
- Matlab Tutorial Derivatives, Filtering, PyramidsUploaded byBlack Fenix
- Algorithms Lab ManualUploaded byPrem Kumar
- Avdeev_2004HyderabadReview_SG_2005.pdfUploaded byjuvitoQQ
- AlgoUploaded byMike Doley
- NotationsUploaded by87aditya87
- Fundamentals ofAlgorithmUploaded bylegharimehjabeen
- Single Layer PerceptronUploaded byVinod kumar
- OBJECT DETECTION AND RECOGNITION: A SURVEYUploaded byJournal 4 Research
- Image CompressionUploaded bySyed Emad
- Digital Signal Processing- A Computer Based Approach_S. K. Mitra.pdfUploaded byGiry Makond
- Simulation of Switched Capacitance CircuitsUploaded bynivia25
- Biomedical Signal Processing(1)Uploaded byShafayet Uddin
- Full Text 01Uploaded byAnonymous mWTB5TaMAN
- Digital%2520Signal%2520ProcessingUploaded byapi-26581966
- Intro to SpeechUploaded byKarim Shahbaz
- Digital Signal Processing Two Mark Question With Answer Unit IIIUploaded bysarathbabumj
- Complex Base Band RepresentationUploaded byTri Minh Duong
- Histogram EqualizationUploaded bycontraster
- Linear ProgramUploaded bySoumya Bsoumya
- Sheet #1 SolutionUploaded byسام النعمان
- Median FiltersUploaded bysridharnag
- 7. Electronics - Ijece - Feature Region Selection Based on - Vivek r. NagreUploaded byiaset123
- ECE612_Lecture4Uploaded byAjlouni Moatas
- Numan Chap2Uploaded byHaseeb Nawaz
- Improvements to the Or-opt Heuristic for the Symmetric Traveling Salesman ProblemUploaded byShashank Katiyar
- Apr7 Iir Fir FiltersUploaded bySally Nahumury