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Standards

1a. Students know how to relate the position of an element in the periodic table to its atomic number and atomic mass.
1b. Students know how to use the periodic table to identify metals, semi-metals {metalloids}, nonmetals, and halogens 1e. Students know the nucleus of the atom is much smaller than the atom yet contains most of its mass.

Purpose
We will use this information to build our chemistry

knowledge. We will use this information as the foundation to calculate limiting reagent problems. The standardized exams in the spring will test you on this information.

Objectives
Know the 3 particles of the atom and where they reside
Know the difference between atomic number and mass number Know how to write nuclide symbols Know the three isotopes of hydrogen Know how to calculate atomic mass Know how to calculate percent composition

First Some Questions


What are atoms made up of? Protons, Neutrons and Electrons Where do you find these particles? Protons and Neutrons are located in the nucleus Electrons are located in the outer rings, outside the nucleus.

Vocabulary
Atom- from the Greek atomos=indivisible. The atom is the

smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of that element. Nucleus: the center of the atom; composed of neutrons and protons. Because the mass of the proton and the neutron is much larger than that of electrons, almost all the mass is located in the nucleus. Ion: a charged particle; # protons # electrons Electrons occupy most of the volume of an atom outside/around the nucleus.

Fundamental Particles
Proton A positively charged particle located in the nucleus. Neutron A neutral particle located in the nucleus. Electron A negatively charged particle located outside the nucleus.

Question
What differentiates one atom from another atom?
The number of PROTONS

Atomic Number (Z)

A Z

El

Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom This number is found on the Periodic Table Atomic Number identifies an element Always a positive number (b/c it is a counting

#) Tells number of electrons in a neutral atom An atom is electrically neutral

What does it mean to be electrically neutral?


The atom has no charge
The number of protons = the number of electrons

Question
What observations can you make about atomic

numbers on the periodic table?


Atomic Number increases as you go across the rows from

left to right.

Questions
What is the atomic number of Chlorine? What can you tell me about its protons and electrons? What element has 20 protons?
What is the relationship between the # protons and

the atomic number?


Theyre equal.

Complete the Chart


Element
Potassium Boron Sulfur Yttrium

Symbol
K B S Y

Atomic #
19 5 16 39

# Protons
19 5 16 39

Mass Number (A)


Always a positive number

A Z

El

Total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom You can determine the nuclear composition of an atom from its mass number and atomic number

Question
What do the atomic number and the mass number

have in common?
Both Positive integers Both have the same # of protons

How to find # of Neutrons


Mass # - Atomic#= # Neutrons
Or # protons + # neutrons= Mass # (atomic number + # neutrons)=Mass #

Complete the Chart


Atomic# 9 14 22 25 6 Mass# 19 29 47 55 12 #Protons 9 14 22 25 6 #Neutrons #Electrons Chemical Symbol 10 15 25 30 6 9 14 22 25 6 F Si Ti Mn C

Isotopes
Atoms of the same element with differing numbers of

neutrons Atoms with the same atomic number but different mass number Isotopes of an element have different masses Chemical properties of different isotopes are virtually the same

Nuclide Symbol
A Z
A=Mass # Z= Atomic #

El

Nuclide
A specific kind of atom Specification of an element in terms of its nuclear composition/structure Tells number of protons and number of neutrons
# protons Chemical Symbol Nuclide Symbol C 6 # neutrons [6, 7, 8] # electrons 6

13 6

Complete the Chart


Atomic# 9 14 22 25 6 Mass# 19 29 47 #Protons 9 14 22 #Neutrons #Electrons Chemical Symbol 10 15 25 30 6 9 14 22 25 6 F Si Ti Mn C Nuclide Symbol

19 9

29 14
47 22

Si
Mn

Ti

55
12

25
6

55 25

12 6

3 Isotopes of Hydrogen
Isotope Of Hydrogen Protium Deuterium Tritium Nuclide Symbol
1 1

# protons

# neutrons # electrons

1 1 1

0 1 2

1 1 1

2 1

3 1

Nuclides
By specifying the nuclear structure, then you call it a

nuclide.
But if you say Carbon atom, you do not know which

Carbon atom it is, therefore you dont know how many neutrons it has

Example: Brothers and Sisters You are members of the Jones family, but you have not specified which Jones member you are referring to.

Write the nuclide name and nuclide symbol


# protons # neutrons # electrons Nuclide Name
17 20 18

Nuclide Symbol
37 17

Chlorine-37 Anion
Calcium-40 Cation Uranium-238

Cl

20

20

18

40 20

Ca

92

146

92

238 92

Atomic Mass
A weighted average of the atoms in a naturally

occurring sample of the element.


Naturally occurring: no matter where you get the sample

from, it will have the same percentages of isotopes.

Construct a Fruit Basket


Fruit Type

Weight of Each Piece 2 grapefruit 14 oz 4 apples 10 oz 3 pears 7 oz 1 kiwi 3 oz What is the Average Weight?

Fruit Basket
Average weight=9.2oz Each type of fruit makes a different contribution to the overall weight How many pieces of fruit actually weigh 9.2 ounces? None! What does 9.2 oz mean? Fictitious non-existent piece of fruit

Atomic Mass
If you have a recipe, you could count items to put in, say 200 chocolate chips, 3 eggs, etc. But suppose I have a recipe to make a compound.
I need 100 hydrogen atoms and 50 oxygen atoms-you

cannot count atoms or pluck them out with atomic tweezers!

So instead they mass them (weigh them)


Careful here, the mass of an object is completley

different from the weight of an object.

Question
What accounts for the mass of the atom? # protons & # neutrons in the nucleus

Atomic Mass
Know that 1.0 amu is defined as exactly 1/12 the mass of a 12 6 C atom. Carbon-12 has 6 protons and 6 neutrons, therefore 1 proton or 1 neutron = ~1 amu 1 amu = 1.6606 x 10 -24 grams Since the mass mostly depends on # protons and # neutrons, youd think atomic mass would be a whole number, but it isnt. How come?

Atomic Mass
In nature, most elements exist as a mixture of 2 or more isotopes.
Each isotope of an element has a fixed, constant mass and fixed constant

relative abundance.

Relative abundance(amount) X 100= (how much of each isotope is present) Virginia or Pennsylvania %

Sample of carbon from anywhere in the world; coal from S. Africa, W.

99% C-12 and 1% C-13

Atomic Mass of periodic table takes into account the larger and smaller

masses of the isotopes, just like the average piece of fruit accommodated the larger and smaller masses. Idea of weighted average

Calculating Atomic Mass


To calculate atomic mass you need to know 3 things: # of stable isotopes Mass of each isotope % abundance of each isotope Each isotope is a piece of fruit and the isotopes mass is

the weight of each piece of fruit.

Example: Chlorine Calculation


mass of isotope X relative abundance

+ mass of isotope X relative abundance =_______amu


Isotope Mass of Isotope Relative Abundance Atomic Mass

Cl-35

34.969

75.77%

Cl-37

36.935

24.23%

(34.969)(.7553) + (36.935)(.2447) =

35.4500amu Thats the same value on the periodic table!

Question
How many chlorine atoms actually have a mass of

35.45 amu?
NONE

So the atomic mass, in amu, is the average of a

fictitious non-existent atom of an element.

Example: Copper Calculation


Isotope Cu-63 Mass of Isotope 62.9298amu Relative Abundance 69.09% Atomic Mass Cu-65 64.9278 30.91%

(62.9298)(.6909)+(64.9278)(.3091)= 63.5464 amu

Calculating Relative Abundance


To Calculate % Abundance: Make a Chart
Isotopic Mass X %Abundance of each isotope
Set-up equation Solve for x Plug in x value to solve for y

Example
Isotope
B-10

Mass of Isotope
10.013

Relative Abundance

Atomic Mass

B-11

11.009

1- x

10.103 (x) + 11.009 (1 x) = 10.811 10.103x + 11.009 -11.009x = 10.811 -0.996x = -0.198 x = .1987 y= 1-.1987 y= .8013 B-10 = 19.87%

1.00 x + y = 1.00 y=1x

B-11 = 80.13%

The End