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By G.

MAURYA 1210410120

NSIC provides technical support to MSMEs through 'NSIC Technical Services Centers and a number of extension and sub center’s spread across the country. The range of technical services provided through these centre’s include training in HiTech as well as conventional trades, testing, common facilities,toolkits, energy audit environment management etc. In addition to this access to latest information in connection with technology up gradation and its transfer is provided to MSMEs through the 'Technology Transfer Centre' at New Delhi.

 Parking Sensor visual System is a high technology product. . and REMINDS the driver of safe distance accurately when reversing a car.  This circuit was designed as an aid in parking the car near the garage wall when backing up.  In this manner we are alerted when approaching too close to the wall. It adopts infra-red light sensors to measure the distance between the car and the obstacles.

Circuit diagram for the image transmitter .

Basic components 1. 7812 12V 1A Positive voltage regulator IC 4. Infra Red Photodiode & Receptor . LM324 Schmitt trigger 3. IC555 2.

pulse generation. the standard 555 package includes over 20 transistors. 2 diodes and 15 resistors on a silicon chip installed in an 8-pin mini dual-in-line package (DIP-8). Depending on the manufacturer. missing pulse detection. logic clocks. • Monostable mode: in this mode. and TR falling edge sensitive instead of level sensitive). Uses include LED and lamp flashers.Variants available include the 556 (a 14-pin DIP combining two 555s on one chip). • Bistable mode or Schmitt trigger: the 555 can operate as a flip-flop.free running mode: the 555 can operate as an oscillator. frequency divider. etc. The IC design was proposed in 1970 by Hans and Jim Ball. Applications include timers.The 555 monolithic timing circuits is a highly stable controller capable of producing accurate time delays or oscillations. the 555 functions as a "one-shot". and the 558 (a 16-pin DIP combining four slightly modified 555s with DIS & THR connected internally. if the DIS pin is not connected and no capacitor is used. Used in bounce free latched switches Pin-out diagram for the IC555 timer . pulsewidth modulation (PWM) etc • Astable .

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amps in one package) and became an industry standard. The LM324 series consists of four independent. Pin-out diagram for LM324 . internally frequency compensated operational amplifiers which were designed specifically to operate from a single power supply over a wide range of voltages. high gain.LM324 Schmitt trigger The LM324 (released in 1972) was an op-amp that came in a quad package (four separate op.

A Photodiode . That is light. which can exhibit wave behaviour and particle-like behaviour. Photodiodes are quantum detectors.Infra Red Photodiode: A photodiode is simply a semiconductor p-n junction. delivers its energy in a bundle (or quanta) proportional to the frequency of that light.

There are pictures on the IC1 NE555 is the cable as astable multivibrator increase IR diode D1 to emit IR pulses.5. The IR pulses transmitted by D1 will be reflected on the obstacles and received by D2 (infra red).2. Circuit diagram for the image transmitter . Fig. That operates at a frequency transmitter must be set 120Hz.

A series of pulses which are generated by IC555 timer has very less amplitude. . which will be attenuated down to less than 20 mV when received by the receiver circuit.

Circuit diagram for the image receptor .

LM324 was used instead of regular operational amplifier since it has faster switching speed. The IR photodiode converts the voltage signal to IR light.5V. The voltage comparator compares the input pulse generated by the IC to 2.LM324 voltage comparator was used for signal amplification before transmitting the signal.5V it outputs 15V drawn from the power supply and drives the IR photodiode. Hence the input pulses are amplified to 15V pulses. otherwise it outputs zero. . If the voltage level of the input pulse is greater than 2.

IC2c and IC2d the IC2 LM324. R5 and R6 compensates the forward voltage drop of D4. Received signal amplified by IC2a.  The comparators switch status LEDs according to their input voltage inverting input and the reference voltage at the non-inverting input.  Output from the peak detector is given to the input from three other comparators IC2b.The peak amplified signal is detected by diode D4 and capacitor C4. Resistances R7 to R10 are used to set the reference voltage for the comparators. .The output voltage from the peak detector will be proportional to the distance between the bumper cars and obstacles.

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By counting the elapsed time between the ping and the pong.29 m/s . The transmitted signal is also known as the “ping‟ and the received signal is known as the “pong‟. Distance = (Time elapsed / 2) * 340. The basic theory behind this is the Sound Navigation and Ranging (SONAR) technique that is used for finding the distance and direction of a remote object underwater by transmitting sound waves and detecting reflections from it . the distance between the device and an object can be easily calculated by multiplying the elapsed time with the speed of sound.

. For distances between 50-46 cm. 2 LEDs should glow.As per the observations. 1 LED should glow. the actually expected results fall out in the following ranges:  For distances>65 cm there should be no LED glowing For distances between 65-51 cm. 3 LEDs should glow.  For distances between <45 cm.

(A)Distance>60 No LED‟s glow .

B) Distance between 60-51cm One LED glow .

(C) Distance between 50.46cm Two LED‟s glow .

(D) Distance <45cm All the three LED‟s glow .

A car parking sensor is very beneficial for your as well as your car’s safety. . In these accidents you may get you car damaged or you may damage anybody else’s vehicle. It detects and indicates objects coming closer the front or rear bumper of your car. A sensor parking system wards off the tragic accidents that are very common while reversing your cars. Car parking sensors have been proven proved to be cutting the chances of tragic reversing accidents by up to 75%. a parking senor is also termed as car parking sensor or car reverse sensor or garage car parking sensor. Commonly used in cars and other vehicles. and thus it saves you from reversing accidents. The sensor helps you park your vehicle in highly vehicle-choked areas.A parking sensor is a useful gadget that helps you reverse your car safely. You may have to face unnecessary hassles due to these accidents. A sensor parking system in your car or vehicle saves you from reversing accidents and numerous parking headaches.