SHARP FORCE TRAUMA

CLASIFICATION Sharp edged weapon caused cutting or stabbing 1) Incised Wound (2) Stab Wound (3) Chop Wound

INCISED WOUNDS (Syn: cuts, slashes) From Latin incidere- to cut into. Surgical term incision with scalpel. Definition: Clean division of the full thickness of skin (or other tissue) under the pressure of a sharp-edged instrument. An incised wound is LONGER THAN IT IS DEEP due to swipe action. Instrument is sharp-edged, such as: knife (linear, clean), jagged metal, broken glass, razor. Force is delivered over a very narrow area, corresponding with the cutting edge of the blade

Sharp-edged objects: knife, jagged metal, broken glass, broken bottle, razor.

Characters of Incised Wounds
Margins-Clean cut well defined Width-Greater than the width of cutting edge Length is more than depth of Incised Wounds –The length, width & depth of Incised Wound usually do not correspond to the length, thickness & width of the
cutting object.

Shape-Spindle, zigzag, Cresentric Hemorrhage-bleed more. When The Weapon enter oblique, it give one upper under-cut edge

FORENSIC IMPORTANCE
●Point to the use of a cutting weapon ● Profuse external haemorrhage and air embolism ● Danger to life depends on site and depth ● Incised wounds may be self-inflicted, assault or accident.
The length, width & depth of Incised Wound usually do not correspond to the length, thickness & width of the cutting object. Tailing indicates the direction of movement of the cutting edge.

Defense and Hesitation Wounds ● Defense: -Often on fingers. often parallel or close to fatal wounds. ● Hesitation: -Shallow wounds made before deeper fatal wounds in a suicide. forearms of victim acquired in attempt to ward off the blows or to grab the weapon. hands. .

Deep and superficial wounds of the wrist end arm. becoming shallower and finally tailing off towards the end. This tailing indicates the site of withdrawal of the weapon from the body. . The commencement of the wound is usually deep.

. hesitation wounds). Superficial wound is “(hesitation marks.Deep and superficial wounds of the wrist.

Incised wounds heals by scarring. .

.Multiple incised wounds-suicide.

.Multiple deep incised wounds-homicide.

(see next slide) .dismembered body.Incised wounds.

(see previous slide). .Incised woundsdismembared body.

Deep incised wounds to the neck may be either suicidal or homicidal. In this case. . hesitation wounds) are signs of a suicide. the multiple superficial incised wounds (hesitation marks.

hesitation wounds) are signs of a suicide. .Deep incised wounds to the neck the multiple superficial incised wounds (hesitation marks.

There are no hesitation marks. .Deep incised wounds of the neck. This was a homicide.

This was a homicide.Deep incised wounds of the neck. . There are no hesitation marks.

. This was a homicide.Deep incised wounds of the neck. There are no hesitation marks.

caused by broken glass (door)accident (see next slide).Deep incised wound to the left thigh. .

.Cuting left femoral artery (1)(arrow) and left femoral vein (2)(headarrow) (see previous slide).

Deep incised wound to the neck caused by broken bottle (arrow). Homicide. .

arrow.Incised wound on the neck . Suicide (see next slide). .

. Suicide (see previous slide).Incised wounds oh the left and the right wrists –arrows.

.Deep incised wounds on the beck.

or by grasping the weapon. . Defence wounds result due to the immediate & instinctive reaction of the victim to save himself. These are incised wounds.DEFENCE WOUND. either by raising the arm to prevent the attack.

… raising the arm to prevent the attack … .

.Defence incised wounds on the left hand.

… raising the arm to prevent the attack … .

.Defence incised wounds on the left hand.

. grasping the weapon (knife) … ...

Defence incised wounds on the left hand. .

.Defence incised wounds on the left hand.

Defence incised wounds and cutting third finger – arrow.Defence incised wounds. .

sexual-related attack… absent . rape. revenge.Differences between Suicidal and Homicidal incised wound Feature Site of Incised wound Location Weapon at the scene Defense Wounds Suicidal Neck or/and wrists Usually home present absent Homicidal Usually on neck Anywhere absent present Hesitation Wounds Motive Dying note present Depression present absent Robbery.

Margins-sharp. Chopping wounds results from hacking or chopping motion made with a fairly sharp & relatively heavy cutting weapon like axe. amputation. Medico-legal importance -mostly homicidal . abraded or contused. hatchet. cleaver. If extremities are attacked.Chop wound is a variant of an incision. saber etc. Lower end of axe (heel) strikes first and deeper than upper end (tail).

sword. shovel. hatchet. adze. cleaver. etc.Chop objects (instrument): axe. .

.A blow with an axe causes a sharp cut with fine abrasion (arrow) of the wound edges due to the thickness of the blade.

.Chopping wounds on the head. Homicide.

Chopping wounds on the head. Homicide. .

Chopping wound on the left ankle. .

Chopping wounds on the head. Homicide. .

Chop wounds. Crime scene investigation. Homicide. .

.Chopping wounds on the head.

Defence wound. Chop wound on the left elbow. .

Defence chop wounds on the right hand. .

. Homicide (see next slide).Chopping on the head and skull.

. (see previous slide).Chopping on the skull.

e. long and rigid. tooth PUNCTURE WOUND. e.g. . Caused by thrusting of (or falling onto) 3 types of instrument: (1) Sharp and flat. wooden stake.PENETRATING WOUNDS (Syn: Stab & Puncture wounds). needle PUNCTURE WOUNDS. (3) Blunt.g. knife STAB WOUNDS. Definition: Penetrating injuries caused by separation of the skin and soft tissues under the pressure of a sharp or blunt pointed instrument. the greatest dimension being its depth. e. spike. screwdriver. (2) Sharp and thin.g.

i) Effects : external & internal hemorrhage. air embolism. oblique). trace evidence). g) Depth. . bloodflow & drip patterns. d) Alignment (horizontal.STAB WOUNDS Descriptors of penetrating wounds: a) Damage to clothing (slashes. midline. e) Size : length & width with edges opposed. heel. vertical. c) Shape. pneumothorax. f) Direction :in 3 planes. b) Site in relation to anatomical landmarks. h) Damage to tissues along track. stabs through folds.

5) Direction of thrust (f). 8) Likely effect on victim (h. . 7) Amount of force used. i). 6) Depth of thrust (g). 2) Dimensions of the weapon (e). 4) Movement of knife in wound (c). 3) Taper of blade (e).Adequate description may provide vital information about : 1) Type of weapon (c): usually a knife.

(2) tapered blade not fully inserted Wound length > blade width -when blade does not pass straight in and out . Wound length and width must be assessed with the edges taped together because the wound is often shortened and widened into an ellipse by skin elasticity (Langer's lines of tension) and underlying muscle tone.entry and withdrawal at angle. deepest wound (weapon fully inserted). -"Rocking" of knife on withdrawal.WOUND LENGTH: A straight in and out stab wound is slightly shorter than the width of the blade due to stretching of the skin over the point of the knife on insertion and elastic recoil on withdrawal. Wound length < blade width (1) stretching of skin over point on insertion and subsequent recoil on withdrawal. the best indicator of blade width is the shortest (least rocking). Cutting edge extends wound Length. .

bevel of lower edge.B. single edged knife may give similar wound due to clean splitting over blunt end . (3) Movement of instrument on withdrawal Small change in angle —> notch Twisting --> crescentic wound . with the body lying flat on its back. .SHAPE OF WOUND may indicate: (l) Cross-sectional shape of knife blade e. single-edged blade —> Slit with one sharp and one 'fishtail' end due to stretching & laceration over blunt edge Stab wounds are typically elliptical with clean cut edges and no bruising or abrasion of margins (incision) (2) Direction of insertion overhang of upper edge. N. N. The position of the internal organs is different in life.Thin. when standing. sitting and breathing. single edge blade --> Triangular slit.B. one sharp end -Thick.Double-edged blade --> Slit with two sharp ends.g. The direction of the wound track through the tissues is assessed at post mortem.

chest. >length of instrument if fully inserted and body surface compressed e.g.WOUND TRACK DEPTH: < length of instrument if not fully inserted. abdomen. . A small penknife can perforate heart or abdominal aorta.

STAB WOUNDS CASES .

knifes.Stab objects. .

The length of the wound in the skin is therefore not necessarily indicative of the width of the blade that caused the injury. .Stab wounds are often a combination of stabbing and some cutting.

.Stab wound.

► Organs may retain shape of blade. if perforated. . retains shape of blade.Stab Wounds – Bone/Soft Tissue ►The bone.

.Stabbing on the skull -arrow.

.Stabbing on the sternum.

.arrow.Stabbing on the heart.

.Stab wound on the liver.

Other. . .Abrasions.Hilt .Stab wounds.

.

.

Only the lower part of the hilt is imprinted on the skin if the knife slants in the manner shown. .

… also … .

especially when across skin or muscle planes.A stab wound gapes across its width and shortens in length. .

The wound on the left is considerably longer. (see next slide) . indicating the thickness of the blade (arrow).Stab wound of the chest: On the right the injury is gaping and boat-shaped. on the left it is reconstructed with adhesive tape.

… also … .

Both wounds represent a combination of stabbing and some cutting. The dimensions of the gaping wound before such restoration are useless. . each of different length. Twisting of the edges of the lower wound while at the same time approximating the edges reestablishes anatomical relationships that existed before the injury and permits assessment of the thickness of the blade.Two gaping stab wounds of the chest caused by the same knife.

Forcible stabbing indent the body surface so that deep structures can be injured appear to be beyond the reach if the knife. .

.Stab wound on the left breast.

.Langers lines – lines of elastic fibers within dermis.

.Homicide.Multiple stab wounds.

Multiple stab wounds. Suicide. Multiple stab wounds. Homicide. .

Note the straight. . as well as the thin and delicate bridges of soft tissue within the latter type of wound. clean. non abraded edges of the cut (1) compared to the abraded and irregular undermined margins of the laceration (2).1 2 Distinction of sharp from blunt force injury.

2.COMPARISON ! 1. 1 2 . Lecerated wound. Stab wound.

. Crime scene investigation (see next slide).Homicide.

Multiple stab wound. .Homicide.

Knifes. .Defence stab wound -arrow.

laceration-like wound. split. Greater force needed to penetrate skin. . Crushing and stretching of the tissues causes bruising of the margins.PUNCTURE WOUNDS (due to blunt instruments) Blunt instrument typically —> Irregular. Inversion of skin on entry causes abraded margin.

: Hayfork —> Elliptical Ice pick —> Round Wooden stake —> Cruciate Poker —> Stellate laceration File —> Triangular laceration Scissors —> Depends on degree of closure.Shape may indicate cross section of instrument.―Z‖ . e.g.

animal tooth etc. . ice pick.Objects (instruments) causing puncture wounds: fork. scissors. screwdriver.

.Different objects (instruments) causing puncture wounds.

.Scraping of the edges of the puncture wound along the surface of a blunt implement produces marginal abrasion of the injury.

Puncture wound by screwdriver. .

The distance of each injury from the other differs. .Puncture wounds by a meat or barbeque fork are paired. and their edges are abraded. depending on the angle of stabbing.

Multiple paired puncture wounds produced with a barbecue fork. .

.Puncture wounds.

.Puncture wounds on the beck.

Each wound is oblique and somewhat above the other.Characteristic puncture wounds with scissors are paired. . abraded injuries.

Puncture wounds on the face of a scissor. .

Crime scene investigation .Suicide by scissor (right up).

Puncture wound on the thorax and scissor. .

the scissors is placed in wound that explains form of wound .

.Multiple puncture hesitation wounds – arrows.

Hemothorax –blood accumulating in the left pleural cavity. .arow.

arrows. .Puncture wound on the heart.

it was a cheap and practical method of execution in early times when a sword or an axe was always readily available. Beheading was widely used in Europe and Asia until the 20th century. because like hanging. but now is confined to Saudi Arabia.Beheading with a sword or axe goes back a very long way in history. It remains a lawful method in the other two countries. although no executions by this method have been reported. Qatar and Yemen and Iran. . One man was reportedly beheaded in Iran in 2003 – the first for many years.

before approaching the prisoner from behind and jabbing him in the back with the tip of the blade. An Interior Ministry official reads out the prisoner's name and crime to the crowd. The executioner is handed the sword by a policeman and raises the gleaming scimitar. causing the person to raise their head. Then with a single swing of the sword the prisoner is decapitated.Dressed in their own clothes. often swinging it two or three times in the air to warm up his arm muscles. barefoot. Saudi Arabia uses a traditional Arab scimitar which is 1000-1100 mm long. the prisoner is led by a police officer to the centre of the sheet where they are made to kneel facing Mecca. with shackled feet and hands cuffed behind their back. .

Normally it takes just one swing of the sword to sever the head, often sending it flying some two or three feet. Paramedics bring the head to a doctor, who uses a gloved hand to stop the fountain of blood spurting from the neck. The doctor sews the head back on, and the body is wrapped in the blue plastic sheet and taken away in an ambulance. Burial takes place in an unmarked grave in the prison cemetery.

Beheading in Saudi Arabia

However, it was Dr. Guillotin (Deputy of Paris) who on October the 10th, 1789 proposed to the Constituent Assembly that all condemned criminals should be beheaded on the grounds of humanity and egalité (equality). Beheading was seen as by far the most humane method of execution at the time and was allowed to people of noble birth in many countries. Ordinary prisoners were slowly hanged, broken on the wheel (an horrendously cruel form of execution) or burnt at the stake. The idea of a standardised, quick and humane death was much more in line with revolutionary thinking.

but no doubt. It was initially known as the louisson or louisette. the Secretary of the Academy of Surgery. such a machine was devised and built. Antoine Louis. much to the relief of the good surgeon took on the name of its proposer and became known as the guillotine. .It was clear that some sort of machine was required and after consultation with Dr.

250 mm) in around one 0. The substantial frame is set perfectly level using spirit levels after the guillotine is erected. about 300 mm deep and is weighted with lead to give a total weight of approximately 40 Kgs.French guillotines had two uprights of approximately 14 feet 9 inches (4500 mm) high and 15 inches (370 mm) apart. It falls just over 7 feet (2. The blade is of high quality steel.75 of a second before being brought to rest by a spring mechanism in the block beneath the lunette. to prevent the blade jamming. . with metal lined grooves to ensure free movement of the triangular shaped weighted blade which ran on a 4 wheeled carriage.

CAUSE OF DEATH “Was the coroner able to establish the cause of death. constable ? “ .

Expectation of the examination .

A final result of the examination …. .