OBJECTIVES

At the end of this presentation, you will be coming to know about, • What are Bio-materials? • What for they have been used? • Their vast application in Bio-medicine • Evolution of Bio-materials since 19th century • Implement of advance technologies in medicine

HISTORY
•Romans, Chinese, and Aztecs used gold in dentistry over 2000 years ago, Cu not good. •Ivory & wood teeth •Aseptic surgery 1860 (Lister) •Bone plates 1900, joints 1930 •Turn of the century, synthetic plastics came into use •WWII, shards of PMMA unintentionally got lodged into eyes of aviators •Parachute cloth used for vascular prosthesis •1960- Polyethylene and stainless steel being used for hip implants

BIO-MATERIAL A bi subs or c synt orig for whol syst augm tiss omate tance ombin hetic in, w any p e or em wh ents, ue, o rial (oth ation or n hich eriod as a ich t or r rgan,

-

Definition ny an dr ubsta l in e use ime, of a , es an uncti

is "a er th of s atura can b of t part reats eplac or f

ugs) nces d as a

y on

Drug Delivery Devices

Skin/cartilage

Polymers
Orthopedic screws/fixation

Ocular implants

Bone replacements Heart valves

Metals

Synthetic BIOMATERIALS

Ceramics

Dental Implants

Dental Implants

Implantable Microelectrodes

Semiconductor Materials

Biosensors

APPL ICAT IONS
•Bio-sugery(Implantation) •Tissue Engineering •Bio-aesthetics •Drug delivery •Bio-mechanics •Immunology •Skin grafting

Why Bio-materials?
• • • • Bio-compatible Bio-resorbable Bio-degradable Bio-inert (donot provoke harmful immune response) • Bio-active (in replacing tissues and cells) • Similar chemical structures • Less Fatigue Fever

Bioco mp ati bili ty i s primar ily a s ur face phe no meno n …
• The material does not

Bulk Material

Surface Layer of Material

Adsorbed layer of water, ions & proteins

Cells in biological fluid

provoke rejection by the surrounding tissues and body as a whole. • Defined as the ability of a material to perform with an appropriate host response in a specific application.

BI O-ACT IVE

The mechanism of new bone formation an bone bonding to a bioactive ceramic implant is illustrated at left. Immediately following implantation, an ionexchange reaction takes place between the implant and the surrounding body fluid during which chemical species from the ceramic diffuse into the fluid and vice versa. Over time, this results in the formation of chemically graded layers that become hydrocarbonate apatite, or new bone.

HOW D OES FA TIGUE OCC URS

• Fatigue

failure occurs

through: – 1. Crack initiation – 2. Crack growth or propagation – 3. Final failure • Most components show no signs of change or damage prior to failure.

An Interdisciplinary Field
Bioengineers Material Scientists Immunologists Chemists Biologists Surgeons ...

So me C ommo nl y Used B iomat er ials
Material Silicone rubber Dacron Cellulose Poly(methyl methacrylate) Polyurethanes Hydogels Stainless steel Titanium Alumina Hydroxyapatite Collagen (reprocessed) Applications Catheters, tubing Vascular grafts Dialysis membranes Intraocular lenses, bone cement Catheters, pacemaker leads Opthalmological devices, Drug Delivery Orthopedic devices, stents Orthopedic and dental devices Orthopedic and dental devices Orthopedic and dental devices Opthalmologic applications, wound dressings

FIRST GENERATION
• “ad hoc” implants • specified by physicians using common and borrowed materials • most successes were accidental rather than by design EXAMPLES: • gold fillings, wooden teeth, PMMA dental prosthesis • steel, gold, ivory, etc., bone plates • glass eyes and other body parts • dacron and parachute cloth vascular implants

INTRA-OCULAR LENS
3 basic materials used are – PMMA, acrylic, silicon

Vascular Grafts

SECOND GENERATION
•engineered implants using common and borrowed materials •developed through collaborations of physicians and engineers •built on first generation experiences •used advances in materials science (from other fields)

EX AM PLE :
• titanium alloy dental and orthopaedic implants

• cobalt-chromium-molybdinum orthopaedic implants • UHMW polyethylene bearing surfaces for total joint replacements • heart valves and pacemakers

Artificial Hip Joints

THIR D GEN ERATI ON
•bioengineered implants using bioengineered materials •few examples on the market •some modified and new polymeric devices •many under development

EXA MPLE:
•tissue engineered implants designed to regrow rather than replace tissues •Integra LifeSciences artificial skin •Genzyme cartilage cell procedure •some resorbable bone repair cements •genetically engineered “biological” components (Genetics Institute and Creative Biomolecules BMPs)

Substitute Heart Valves

Evolution of Biomaterials
STRUCTURE

SOFT TISSUE REPLACEMENT

FUNCTIONAL TISSUE ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTS

Growth with Nerve Cells Out of scientific curiosity, Zhang asked Holmes to test one of his se lf- as se mbl ing p ep tid es for toxicity to nerve cells. Not only they were not toxic, they seemed to thrive in culture in t he pr ese nc e o f a sa lt . With the salt, the peptides self-assembled into thin, wavy films that look a little like Saran Wrap. Under a microscope, the film contained a ne tw ork o f f ib res . Further tests showed that ne rv e cel ls ha pp ily gr ew on these fibres. While no i mm une re sp on se or in fl amm at ion was seen when the peptides were injected into rat muscle tissue, th ey ha ve no t yet te st ed in th e bra in , s pi nal c ord a nd pe ri phe ra l n er ves .

1 - Body Wide

2 - Body Nerve

3 - Nerve Damage

4 - Severed Nerve

5 - Mesh in Place

6 - Mesh in Place Cut

7 - Nerve Growth 1

8 - Nerve Growth 2

9 - Nerve Growth 3

10 - Nerve Growth 4

Biomaterials - An Emerging Industry
• Next generation of medical implants and therapeutic modalities • Interface of biotechnology and traditional engineering • Significant industrial growth in the next 15 years -- potential of a multi-billion dollar industry

What are some of the Challenges?
• To more closely replicate complex tissue architecture and arrangement in vitro • To better understand extracellular and intracellular modulators of cell function • To develop novel materials and processing techniques that are compatible with biological interfaces • To find better strategies for immune acceptance

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