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CHAPTER 6: Classroom Assessments Checklists, Rating Scales, and Rubrics

Assessment In Early Childhood Education


Fifth Edition

Sue C. Wortham

Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Chapter Objectives
1. Describe the purposes for using checklists, rating scales and rubrics for informal assessments 2. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using checklists, rating scales and rubrics

3. Explain the differences between the uses of checklists in preschool and primary-grades
4. Discuss how rubrics are used with preschool and primary children 5. Identify the four basic steps in checklist design
Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Checklists
Checklist: a list of sequential behaviors arranged in categories used to determine whether the child exhibits the behaviors or skills listed

Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Developmental Checklists Used With Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers


Establish developmental indicators for children at different stages and ages Monitor development Screen to identify children with special needs for additional assessment Plan experiences to meet the childs developmental needs

Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Using Checklists With School-age Children


Curriculum checklists focus on academic objectives Assess childrens learning strengths and weaknesses in curriculum objectives and document progress in learning Checklist items may be representative of achievement test objectives, state-mandated objectives, textbook objectives, and locally selected objectives Checklist objectives may appear on report cards
Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Evaluating and Assessing With Checklists


Curriculum objectives are used to plan instruction and to evaluate childrens performance on the same objectives After the planned activities, children are assessed to determine how well they learned Evaluation is achieved through observation during the activities, and through specific assessment tasks
Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Steps in Checklist Design


To determine the major categories to be included: 1. Identify the skills to be included 2. List target behaviors separately 3. Organize the checklist sequentially 4. Determine how record keeping will be done
Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Advantages of Using Checklists


Easy to use and update Require little training Available whenever evaluation is needed Flexible and can be used with a variety of assessment strategies Behaviors can be recorded frequently

Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Disadvantages of Using Checklists


Can be time consuming Teachers find it difficult to adapt teaching and evaluation behaviors to include checklists If there are too many checklists, the teacher can be overwhelmed with assessment and record keeping Teachers may not consider assessments with checklists as valid measures Checklists do not indicate how well a child performs
Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Developing Quality Checklists


1. Identify each action desired in the performance. 2. Add actions that are common errors (if they are useful, limited in number, and clearly stated). 3. Arrange the desired actions (and likely errors, if used) in the order they are expected to occur. 4. Provide a simple procedure for checking each action as it occurs.

Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Rating Scales
Rating scale: used to determine the degree to which the child exhibits a behavior or the quality of that behavior; each trait is rated on a continuum, the observer decides where the child fits on the scale

Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Rating Scales
Make a qualitative judgment about the extent to which a behavior is present Consist of a set of characteristics or qualities to be judged by using a systematic procedure Numerical and graphic rating scales are used most frequently

Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Types of Rating Scales


Numerical Rating Scales: a sequence of numbers is assigned to descriptive Categories; the rater marks a number to indicate the degree to which a characteristic is present Graphic Rating Scales: a set of categories described at certain points along the line of a continuum; the rater can mark his or her judgment at any location on the line

Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Advantages of Using Rating Scales


Used for behaviors not easily measured by other means Quick and easy to complete User can apply knowledge about the child from other times Minimum of training required Easy to design using consistent descriptors (e.g., always, sometimes, rarely, or never) Can describe the childs steps toward understanding or mastery
Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Disadvantages of Using Rating Scales: Reliability


Highly subjective (rater error and bias are a common problem) Raters may rate a child on the basis of their previous interactions or on an emotional, rather than an objective, basis Ambiguous terms make them unreliable: raters are likely to mark characteristics by using different interpretations of the ratings (e.g., do they all agree on what sometimes means?)

Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Developing Quality Rating Scales


1. Identify the learning outcomes that the task is intended to assess. 2. Determine what characteristics of the learning outcomes are most significant that are directly observable; and scale clearly define points on the scale. 3. Select the scale that is most appropriate for the purposes of the assessment. 4. Provide between three and seven ratings to the scale (the number of points will depend on how many levels of accomplishment are needed).

Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Checklists and Rating Scales


Child Behavior Checklist Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) Connors Rating Scales Brown ADHD Scale

Projective Tests

Sentence Completion
Drawing Tests Rorschach Apperception Tests

Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC -2)


Administration: Administration Time: 1020 minutes (TRS and PRS), 30 minutes (SRP) Scores: Scores/Interpretation: T scores and percentiles, for a general population and clinical populations Ages / Grades: Ages: 2:0 through 21:11 (TRS and PRS); 6:0 through college age (SRP
Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Projective Tests
Sentence Completion
Drawing Tests Rorschach Apperception Tests

ersonality
Unique and stable ways people think, feel, and behave

Rorschach Inkblot Test


10 inkblots - designed by Hermann Rorschach. It seeks to identify peoples inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.

Lew Merrim/ Photo Researcher, Inc.

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Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)


Developed by Henry Murray, TAT is a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes.

Lew Merrim/ Photo Researcher, Inc.

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Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank


1) If only I could...feel more hopeful about things. 2) People I know...are usually fair and honest. 3) I can always...talk things out with someone. 4) I think guys...are less emotional than girls. 5) What makes me sad is...not being able to see my kids. 6) I think girls...were mysterious to me in High School. 7) My father...would always listen to what I had to say. 8) Where I live...is quiet and peaceful. 9. My mother was the type . . .who always took care of her family. 10) My health is...generally very good.

Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank


Complete these sentences to express your real feeling. Try to do every one. Be sure to make complete sentences. 1. I like.... 2. The happiest time.... 3. I want to know........ 4. Back home.. 5. I regret. 6. At bedtime.. 7. Boys.... 8. The best... 9. What annoys me.. 10. People.... 11. A mother... 12. I feel...... 13. My great fear. 14. In high school.... 15. I cant.... 16. Sports.... 17. When I was child.. 18. My nerves.. 19. Other people.. 20. I suffer... Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 21. I failed.

Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank


Complete these sentences to express your real feeling. Try to do every one. Be sure to make complete sentences. 21. I failed... 22. Reading. 23. My mind.... 24. The future.. 25. I need. 26. Marriage.... 27. I am best when.. 28. Sometimes. 29. What pains me... 30. I hate.. 31. This school.... 32. I am very... 33. The only trouble.... 34. I wish. 35. My father... 36. I secretly.... 37. I. 38. Dancing. 39. My greatest worry is. 40. Most girls.. Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e.
2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Person
Self-portraits depict what patients feel themselves to be. Abstract ability allows the non-mirror image depiction (e.g. the patients right side to be portrayed by the drawn persons right side).

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Person
In addition to the physical self, the patient projects a picture of the psychological self into the drawing of the person. For example: Patients of adequate or superior height may draw a tiny figure with arms dangling rather helplessly away from the sides and a beseeching facial expression.

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Other examples of person drawings


Aggressive, devil like person Toppling person losing equilibrium Mannequin-like clothes dummy Adolescents drawn person carrying a baseball bat in one hand, a tennis racket in the other, and wearing a mustache on his lip.
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Other examples
A drawn woman who exposes a good deal of her drawn persons skirt up. Drawing of a clown.

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Other Examples
Drawing of a person slumped into an arm chair rather than standing on feet (statistically norm). Drawing of a woman with her hands thrust ecstatically in her hair wile dancing alone to music. Man with rigidly erect body with the absolute side view presenting.
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Other Examples
Adolescent boys frequently draw muscular athletes attired in bathing suits, while adolescent girls draw female movie star figures wearing evening gowns Ego-ideal Draw ego-ideal better prognosis.

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Size
Typically the size tells about the patients self-esteem.

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Size
May also be related to self-confidence. Unusually large drawings indicate aggressive and acting-out tendencies. May also mean manic or expansive tendencies, anxiety/conflict. Unusually small.

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Pencil Pressure
Patients energy level. Heavy pressure = high energy. Light pressure = low energy Heavy pressure. Unusually light.

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Stroke & Line Quality


Long pencil strokes. Short strokes. Horizontal movement emphasis. Vertical movement emphasis.

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Line Quality
Discontinuous line quality, e.g. many breaks in the outside boundary of the figures. Drawings, where the outline of the figure seems to be so discontinuous that it appears as a series of disconnected dashes. Straight, uninterrupted strokes.
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Lack of Detail
Indicates withdrawal tendencies with an associated reduction of energy. Excessive detailing.

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Placement
Placement in the middle of the page= typical of most normal patients. On the right side of the page. On the left side of the page.

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Placement
Orientation and concern with the past. High on the page. Low on the page. Upper left-hand corner. Upper right-hand corner.

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Erasure
Excessive erasure.

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Shading
Excessive shading. Some shading (& erasure) is an adaptive mechanism an attempt to give the drawing a sense of 3 dimensionality.

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Distortions and Omissions


Gross distortion. Moderate distortions and omissions.

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Transparency
Transparency can indicate poor reality ties, except, of course in the drawings of young children who are typically normal.

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Sex of First Drawn Figure


Most drawn same sex first (85 95%). What if they dont?

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Interpretations concerning body parts


Head:
Symbol of intellectual & fantasy activity Symbol of impulse & emotional control Symbol of socialization and communication Unusually large? Unusually small?

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Hair
Hair
Overemphasis Absent?

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Facial Features
Omitted? Over-emphasis of facial features. Unusually large or strongly reinforced eyes. Unusually small or closed eyes.

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Nose
Considered a phallic symbol or a symbol of power motive. Large nose. Omitted?

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Nose
Nose drawn as a button or a triangle. Sharply-pointed. Shaded, dim, or truncated.

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Mouth
Regressive defenses; oral emphasis in the personality. What if the mouth was omitted?

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Other features of the mouth


Slash line? Tiny mouth. Mouth with large grin. Teeth (adult)?

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Ears
Ears are often omitted by normal subjects. What if they are drawn in?

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Chin
Over-emphasized chin.

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Neck
Link between intellectual life and affect. Unusually short, thick neck. Unusually long neck. Neck omitted?

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Shoulders
Well-drawn and neatly rounded shoulders typically normal. Broad shoulders. Absence of shoulders. Tiny shoulders. Large or broad shoulders.

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Breasts
Unusually large breasts drawn by male. Unusually large breasts drawn by females.

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Waistline
A heavy line separating the lower body from the rest of the body. Unusually high or low waistline. Excessively tight waist. Elaborate belt.

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Trunk
Body symbolizes basic drives and therefore, attitudes related to the development and integration of these drives in the personality indicated by the manner in which the trunk is drawn. If body drawn in fragmented fashion?

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Trunk
How do children typically draw the trunk? Large trunk. Trunk omitted by an adult. Small trunk.

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Genitalia
Genitalia = rarely drawn. What does it mean if it is drawn? Normal for art students and persons in psychoanalysis & sex therapy patients.

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Arms, Hands, Fingers


Arms = type and quality of the patients contact with environment. Arms relaxed & flexible. Arms folded. Arms behind the back.

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Hands
Hands placed behind the back. Large hands. Small hands.

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Hands
Hands drawn as mittens suggest repressed or suppressed aggressive tendencies with the aggression expressed indirectly. Clenched figures = aggression and rebelliousness, or conscious attempts to control anger. Fingers without hands, or large fingers in adult drawings indicate regression; or infantile aggressive assaultive tendencies.

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Hands
Long figures. Omission of fingers. Talon-like fingers or spiked fingers.

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Legs
Legs or feet. Crossed legs. Long legs. Short legs.

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Feet
Elongated or large feet Emphasis on feet Omission of feet Small feet

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Rubrics
Qualitative instruments used for assessing student progress in development and learning, or scoring student work Provide guidelines and descriptors to distinguish performance from one level to another Criteria for scoring or indicators of performance also describe dimensions of performance
Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Holistic Rubrics
Assign a single score to a students overall performance Usually have competency labels that define the level of performance The quality of work or performance at each level described by a number of indicators

Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Analytic Rubric
Describes and scores each of the task attributes separately Uses limited descriptors for each attribute Uses a narrow and broad scale Allows for specific diagnostic feedback

Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Developmental Rubric
Serves a multiage group of students or to span several grade levels
Assesses student on a continuum that shows developmental progress

Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Scoring Criteria in the Design of a Rubric


1. One or more traits or dimensions that serve as the basis for student response 2. Definitions and examples to clarify the meaning of each trait or dimension 3. A scale of values (or a counting system) on which to rate each dimension 4. Standards of excellence for specified performance levels accompanied by examples of each level

Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Scoring Criteria in the Design of a Rubric


Levels of performance or dimensions cannot always be predetermined when the rubric is designed Dimensions of performance must be based on reasonable expectations of the students to be assessed, using existing samples of student work with the criteria revised as necessary

Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Advantages of Using Rubrics


Provide guidelines for quality student work or performance Flexible; can be designed for many uses and ability levels Easily modified Can be used by both teacher and student to guide the students efforts prior to completion of a task Can be translated into grades and can be used to discuss with parents and students
Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Disadvantages of Using Rubrics


Some difficulty in determining scoring criteria Teachers may focus on excessively general or inappropriate scoring criteria Teachers might use predetermined criteria, rather than basing scores on examples of student work Teachers might inappropriately focus on the quantity of characteristics, rather than the indicators of quality work Holistic rubrics might lack validity and reliability
Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Developing Quality Rubrics


1. Do descriptions focus on important aspects of the performance? 2. Does the rating match the purpose? 3. Are the traits directly observable? 4. Are the criteria understandable? 5. Are the traits clearly defined? 6. Is scoring error minimized? 7. Is the scoring system feasible?

Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Consistency in Conducting and Scoring Assessments to Improve Reliability


1. Before using, review items and indicators; reach agreement on what each is to measure. 2. Pilot the instrument to determine if there are unclear or difficult to assess items. 3. Review scoring instructions prior to conducting the assessment. 4. Scoring instructions should be made according to the purposes of the assessment--a score/grade or more written information.
Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Checklist for Ensuring Reliability in a Rating Instrument


Documented, field-tested scoring guide Clear, concise criteria Annotated examples of all score points Ample practice and feedback for raters Multiple raters with demonstrated agreement prior to scoring Periodic reliability checks throughout Retraining when necessary Arrangements for collection of suitable reliability data

Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.