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UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK, 94300 KOTA SAMARAHAN, SARAWAK

SSA2024: FOREIGN POLICY ANALYSIS AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
DECISION MAKING MODEL: STRATEGIC PLANNING

Prepared by:

Bil. 1. 2. 3.

Name AKMAL IZZATI BT. ABU BAKAR FATIN SYAMIMI BT IMRAN IRNI MARFUZAH BT ISMAIL

Matric No. 29491 30203 30442

4.
5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

NUR ASMILA SYAZWANI BT AHMAD SUKRI
NUR DINNI BT ISMAIL NUR ELIA BT. ABDULLAH SHUHIMI NURSYAZANA BT ABDULLAH SHUHIMI SITI NUR ALLAIYAH BT ROSLAN SITI SUHANA BT. MOHD YUSOF ZARIDA BINTI ZANILABDDIN

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Prepared for: Miss Lee Pei May

 One of the element that exist in a decision making is a strategic planning  Decision making model is the process for concluding which decisions need to be made and how to find alternatives for each decision.INTRODUCTION:DECISION MAKING Everyday we are involve in making a decision in order to achieve our vision and mission  Making a decision not only occur in organizations but also in a personally that have interest to get what they want  The output of decision making can be an action or an opinion of choice.  .

vision to achieve their goal  There are three ways which strategic planning can affect foreign policy:     through the plans the planning the planners.  It is about top-down implementation and can also be about reinterpreting past and current actions. .DECISION MAKING MODEL : STRATEGIC PLANNING Be applied to regional and crisis situations.  Processes of creating that consist of mission.

if the planners are thought to be capable and strategically minded.Planning is not just limited to plans but also about the patterns of thinking that best match resources and capabilities to achieving the desired policy ends. direction and resource to achieve  .  Decision maker need to identify its strategy.  In other words. they will be more likely to influence responses to new and unanticipated events.

 The operating units—the geographical and functional units—will not take interference from any unit outside the line of command.The challenge for policy planning is the ability of these units to balance planning and operational roles.  .  The fundamental constraint on policy planning was “the impossibility of having the planning function performed outside of the line of command.

 Every decision maker to perform a highly intelligent cooperation in way to establish state foreign policy.  . clear and smooth role for the foreign policy decision making process.IMPACT OF STRATEGIC PLANNING POSITIVE:  It brings a systematic.

 .  There may be irrelevant for sometimes in implementing the strategic planning.  Lack of objectives (means that does not have a specific set of tasks it is competent in and it has no vision for the future).NEGATIVE  There are too many interference that may result misunderstanding for the existence of think tank and NGO.

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CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS (1962) The closest the world has come to a nuclear exchange occurred  President John F. Kennedy and Premier Krushchev face each other over Cuba   To deter a US invasion of Cuba  To counter American superiority in nuclear missile strength. secretly began by placing intermediate-range missile in Cuba .

14 1962: U-2 spy plane flew over Cuba and revealed that several missile sites were under construction. 4 1962:First nuclear warhead arrived in Cuba  Oct.THE EVENT OF CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS Oct 22: President Kennedy announced on television that a nuclear attack on the US from Cuba would be respond to as an attack from the Soviet Union  Oct.  The presence of nuclear missile in Cuba was an unacceptable threat to US national security interest  .

Formation of Ex Com (special national security advisor) 4. Insisted on negotiation rather than unilateral action Decision making 2. Decided a naval quarantine.1. Ignoring the missile to a fullscale invasion 3.the best way to confront and as an initial step that would not close-off options .

STRATEGIC PLANNING: PRES. KENNEDY ACTION Emphasized flexibility in the negotiation  Controlling the escalation of the Crisis-both side had several option  Careful not to act precipitously  Resisted the temptation to strike out at Castro and Krushchev  Designed Executive Committee (ExComm)  Ensured that all options. favor or unfavoured were thoughtfully scrutinized  Insist on negotiation rather than unilateral action  .

.FORMATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE(EX-COMM)  a team of special national security advisors  important factor: the fact that a high percentage of the Ex-Comm members were lawyer  tended to approach the whole problem within the context of international law  tend to overvalue legal consideration and view policy issues as question of law  Ex: the legality figured prominently in the discussion over how to approach the missile crisis.

A.N .S authorizing resolution  The manner of approach to the U.provide invaluable insight and commentary by working out the various alternatives and option  the nature and direction of entire decisionmaking process was shaped by the individual and collective personalities involved  3 important decisions:   To use a blockage as opposed to an air strike  To seek an O.

MORAL REASONS FORMATION OF EXCOMM Concerned about the human costs inherent in such a course of action  Blockage: offered more flexibility and fewer liabilities than a military attack  .

President John F. Kennedy .

Just over a month after the Cuban Missile crisis began. 1962. Kennedy lifted the naval blockade after hearing that Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev had ordered the Soviet missile bases in Cuba be dismantled within 30 days. President John F. Kennedy also agreed to the removal of US missiles from the Soviet border in Turkey.On November 20. .

Soviet Premier Nikita Krushchev .

 But strategic planning may have positive and negative impacts.CONCLUSION Strategic planning is more like a planning to a state to make the decision. Its also a plan for making a best solution for certain crisis. Due to human beings that are imperfect.  .  Strategic planning is one of the option for a state in order to make a decision for foreign policy.

diverse and far-ragging in its political orientations. maintaining the prestige of U.S. the nature of their interaction and the advice they offered to the President.  For Ex-Comm: The members were saddled with a great responsibility during those days of the Cuban Missile Crisis The composition of group. The balance between the aggressive and the more conciliatory element within the group produced a creative tension that resulted in a successful plan of action They succeeded in both. and in preventing the escalation of a conflict which held the potential for nuclear war. determined to a large degree.    .

htm on 12 November 2013 .edu/~history/journal/1983-4/pavy.com/Smart.pdf on 8 November 2013 Strategic-Planning Process accessed at http://www.brookings.com/2011/11/naval-blockade-ended-on-this-day-in1962/ on 11 November 2013 The Role of the Executive Committee in the Cuban Missile Crisis.loyno.edu/~/media/press/books/1/1/avoidingtriv ia/avoidingtrivia_chapter. Accessed at http://www.REFERENCES The Challenging Fututre of Strategic Planning in Foreign Policy.html on 8 November 2013 Naval Blockade Ended on this Day in 1962.sergaygroup. Accessed at http://www.Talk/Strategic-Planning-Process. available at http://pdxretro.