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# Internal Flow

Chapter 8
Section 8.1 through 8.9
Lecture 13
1. Flow in Tubes
Hydrodynamics Entrance & Fully Developed Regions
Hydrodynamic Entrance

D u
m
D
Re
Re
D,c
< 2300, Laminar Flow
D lam
h fd
D
x
Re 05 . 0 ) (
,
~
60 ) ( 10
,
s s
turb
h fd
D
x
Mean Velocity
tD
m
D
-
=
4
Re
}
=
-
c
A
c
dA x r u m ) , (
c m
A u m =
-
}
}
= =
0
0
2
0
) , (
2
) , (
r
c
A
c
m
rdr x r u
r A
dA x r u
u
c

Velocity Profile
] ) ( 1 [ ) (
4
1
) (
2
0
2
0
r
r
r
dx
dp
r u =

) (
8
2
0
dx
dp r
u
m

=
] ) ( 1 [ 2
) (
2
0
r
r
u
r u
m
=
Friction Factor & Pressure Drop
f
m
C
u
D dx dp
f 4
2 /
) / (
2
=

D
f
Re
64
=
Moody Factor:
Re
D
2300
25 . 0
Re 316 . 0

=
D
f
2300Re
D
20000
Re
D
>20000
2 . 0
Re 184 . 0

=
D
f
Friction Factor & Pressure Drop
3000 Re
D
< 5x10
6
2
) 64 . 1 Re ln 79 . 0 (

=
D
f
) (
2
1 2
2
x x
D
u
f p
m
= A

Friction Factor & Pressure Drop
Thermal Entrance
Thermal Entrance
Pr Re 05 . 0 ) (
,
D lam
t fd
D
x
~
10 ) (
,
~
turb
t fd
D
x
Mean Temperature
m p c
A
p t
T c m dA T uc E
c
- -
=
}

}
}
= =
-
0
0
2
0
2
r
m
p
c
A
p
m
uTrdr
r u
c m
dA T uc
T
c

) (
"
m s s
T T h q =
Fully Developed Conditions
0 ]
) ( ) (
) , ( ) (
[
,
=

c
c
t fd
m s
s
x T x T
x r T x T
x
) (
/
] [
0
x f
T T
r T
T T
T T
r
m s
r r
m s
s
=

c c
=

c
c
=
0
"
r r
s
r
T
k q
=
c
c
=
) (
"
m s s
T T h q =
) (
/
"
"
x f
k
h
h
q
k
q
T T
r T
s
s
m s
= = =

c c
Fully Developed Conditions
t cons q
dx
dT
x
T
s
t fd
m
t fd
tan
"
, ,
= =
c
c
t cons T
dx
dT
T T
T T
x
T
s
t fd
m
m s
s
t fd
tan
) (
) (
,
,
=

=
c
c
2. Energy Balance
m p m v conv
dT c m pv T c d m dq
- -
= + = ) (
Energy Balance
) (
, , i m o m p conv
T T c m q =
-
Energy Balance
) (
"
m s
p p
s m
T T h
c m
P
c m
P q
dx
dT
= =
- -
For constant heat flux:
x
c m
P q
T T
p
s
i m m
-
+ =
"
,
) (
"
m s s
T T h q =
Pdx q dT c m dq
s m p conv
"
= =
-
Energy Balance
) (
) (
"
m s
p p
s m s m
T T h
c m
P
c m
P q
dx
T T d
dx
dT
= =

=
- -
For constant T
s
:
) exp(
) (
,
h
c m
Px
T T
x T T
p
i m s
m s
-
=

)] /( ) ln[(
) ( ) (
, ,
, ,
i m s o m s
i m s o m s
s lm s conv
T T T T
T T T T
A h T A h q

= A =
Energy Balance
lm s
T A U q A =
) / ln(
i o
i o
lm
T T
T T
T
A A
A A
= A
)
1
exp(
tot p
i
o
R c m
T
T
-
=
A
A
tot
lm
R
T
q
A
=
1
)
1 1
(

+ =
o i
h h
U
i m i
o m o
T T T
T T T
,
,
= A
= A

## 3. Laminar Flow in Circular Tubes

) (
r
T
r
r r r
T
v
x
T
u
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c o
t cons q
s
tan
"
=
t cons T
s
tan =
For fully developed conditions
36 . 4 =
k
hD
Nu
D
66 . 3 =
k
hD
Nu
D
3. Laminar Flow in Circular Tubes
Laminar Flow in Circular Tubes
14 . 0 3 / 1
) ( )
/
Pr Re
( 86 . 1
s
D
D
D L
Nu

=
For the entry region:
T
s
=Constant
0.48 < Pr <16,700
0.0044 < ( ) < 9.75
[Re
D
Pr/(L/D)]
1/3
(/
s
)
0.14
2
All properties at average T
m
s

## 4. Turbulent Flow in Circular Tubes

3 / 1
Pr Re 023 . 0
5 / 4
D D
Nu =
Colburn Equation
3 / 2
3 / 2
Pr
Pr Re
Pr
8 2
D
D
f
Nu
St
f
C
= = =
2 . 0
Re 184 . 0

=
D
f
Turbulent Flow in Circular Tubes
n
D D
Nu Pr Re 023 . 0
5 / 4
=
Dittus-Boelter Equation
n = 0.4 for heating, T
s
> T
m
n = 0.3 for cooling, T
s
< T
m
0.7 < Pr <160
Re
D
10,000
L/D 10
5. Flow in Noncircular Tubes
Effective Diameter
P
A
D
c
h
4

## For turbulent flow, correlations for circular tubes can be used.

For laminar flow, Nu values can be found in Table 8.1, page519
6. Convection Mass Transfer
c
A
A c m m A A
dA u A u m
c
}
= =
-
) (
,

}
}
= =
-
0
0
2
0
,
) (
2
) (
r
A
m
c
c
A
A
m A
dr ur
r u
A m
dA u
c

0 ]
) (
) , (
[
,
, ,
,
=

c
c
c fd
m A s A
A s A
x
x r
x

Fully Developed Conditions
) (
, , , i A o A lm A s m A
m
A h n

= A =
-
) (
, ,
"
m A S A m A
h n =
) / ln(
, ,
, ,
,
i A o A
i A o A
lm A

A A
A A
= A
) exp(
) (
, , ,
, ,
x
m
P h
x
m
i m A s A
m A s A
-
=

Fully Developed Conditions
66 . 3 =
D
Sh
4 . 0 5 / 4
Re 023 . 0 Sc Sh
D
=
Laminar Flow:
Turbulent Flow:
Correlations for Nu can be used for Sh by replacing Pr with Sc
7. Methodology for Convection Calculation
Identify the flow geometry, calculate D
h
Specify reference T for fluid properties
Calculate Re, laminar or turbulent ?
Flow entrance or fully developed region?
Select appropriate correlation
Example 1
Steam condensing on the outer surface of a thin-walled circular
tube of 50-mm diameter and 6-m length maintains a uniform
surface temperature of 100C. Water flows through the tube at a
rate of =0.25 kg/s, and its inlet and outlet temperatures are
T
m,i
=15C and T
m,o
=57C. What is the average convection
coefficient associated with the water flow?
-
m
Example 1
Known: Flow rate and inlet and outlet T of water flowing
through a tube of 100 C
Find: Average convection heat transfer coefficient
Schematic:
Example 1
Assumptions:
1. Negligible outer surface resistance and tube wall conduction;
2. Negligible kinetic and potential energy and flow work change;
3. Constant properties.
Properties: Table A.6, for water at (15+57)/2=36 C, c
p
= 4178 J/kgC
Analysis: For constant T
s
, Eqn. 8.42b

) exp(
,
,
h
c m
PL
T T
T T
p
i m s
o m s
-
=

Example 1
Analysis:

PL
c m
T T
T T
h
p
i m s
o m s
-

= * ) ln(
,
,
P = tD
m m
kgK J s kg
h
6 * 05 . 0 *
/ 4178 * / 25 . 0
* )
15 100
57 100
ln(
t

=
= 756 W/m
2
K
h
Example 2
Freon is being transported at 0.1 kg/s through a Teflon
tube of inside diameter D
i
=25mm and outside diameter
D
o
=28 mm, while atmospheric air at V=25 m/s and
300K is in cross flow over the tube. What is the heat
transfer per unit of length of tube to Freon at 240K?
Example 2
Known: Flow rate and temperature of Freon passing
through a Teflon tube of prescribed inner and outer
diameter. Velocity and temperature of air in cross flow
over tube.
Find: Heat transfer per unit length of tube
Schematic:
Example 2
Assumptions:
(1) Steady-state conditions,
(2) One-dimensional radial conduction,
(3) Constant properties,
(4) Fully developed flow.
Properties:

Example 2
Analysis:

Example 2
Analysis:

Lecture 13