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CISC 1480 UNIX 1

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CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R. Frazer

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Unix History
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In early „60s, computers were expensive, had minimal memory and were single user
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All activities were designed to make things easy for the computer

In the mid „60s, MIT, Bell Labs, and General Electric teamed to build an OS for a large computer, the GE-645 that would accommodate 1,000 simultaneous users q Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) q In March „69, Bell pulled out of the project
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“Three people could overload it.”
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CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R. Frazer

The Roots of Unix
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Ken Thompson had been using Multics to run Space Travel but it cost $70 a run Thompson found a cast-off PDP-7 with the intent to write a file system This file system became the roots of Unix Unix was originally called UNICS, a pun on Multics (Uniplexed Information and Computing Service) Unix struggled along on an obsolete, underpowered machine until the PDP-11 was released

CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R. Frazer

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Frazer 4 .Space Travel CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.

identifiable program to do command interpretation (the shell) Structure files with no structure except as a sequence of bytes. and a count. thus concealing the underlying structure of the device 5 CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R. in most cases with no interpretation by the OS Text files as simple sequences of characters separated by new-lines Semantics of I/O operations (read and write) as referring to a file handle. Frazer .Lessons Learned From Multics q q q q q Tree-structured file system Separate. buffer.

Frazer 6 . Thompson and Ritchie convinced the Bell Labs Patent department to fund purchase of a PDP-11/20 for use in text processing q This ruse allowed them to develop Unix q “We knew there was a scam going on--we‟d promised a word processing system. taking over the machine but giving Thompson and Ritchie enough funds to purchase a PDP-11/45 q CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.” Dennis Ritchie q BTL Patent department became first users of Unix.The Birth of Unix In 1970. not an operating system.

Ritchie with PDP-11 CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.Thompson. Frazer 7 .

because that is a universal interface q Don‟t hesitate to build new programs to do a job CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.Unix Philosophy Write programs that do one thing and do it well q Write programs that work together. Frazer 8 . allowing the output of one to become the input of another q u Write programs that handle text streams.

Unix took off q In 1983. they shared the ACM‟s Turing Award for their work q CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R. along with a C compiler and debugger q Thompson and Ritchie submitted an abstract for a presentation to the ACM Symposium on Operating Systems Principles q When the paper was published in Communications of the ACM in July 1974.The Unix Explosion February 1973. Frazer 9 . the Third Edition of the UNIX PROGRAMMER‟S MANUAL appeared.

. Frazer . 1956.The Law January. a “consent decree” was entered q u u u AT&T and Western Electric were enjoined “from commencing . 1949 DOJ filed an antitrust complaint against Western Electric and AT&T q In January. manufacture for sale or lease any equipment [other than that used in providing telephone or telegraph services].. in any business not of a character or type engaged in by Western Electric or its subsidiaries” AT&T was enjoined “from engaging in any business other than the furnishing of common carrier communications services” 10 CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R...” “from engaging .

Frazer .Results of Consent Decree AT&T was required to reveal what patents it held and to license to anyone at nominal fees q The lawyers at Bell Labs. a wholly owned subsidiary of AT&T and Western Electric were conservative q u “No business but phones and telegrams” q Thompson‟s presentation at the ACM SOSP put them in a quandary u u Suddenly requests started flowing in for Unix licenses Computers weren‟t “phones and telegrams” thus putting them in danger of antagonizing the Justice Department 11 CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.

AT&T Unix Policy To preclude any conflict with the Consent Decree. Frazer 12 . AT&T would license Unix but make it clear that it had no intention of pursuing software as a business q Bell System support policy: q no advertising no support no bug fixes payment in advance CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.

“plus 20 new installations” October „75 .80 installations September „76 .138 installations • Canada 13 • Great Britain 10 • Australia 4 • Israel 3 • The Netherlands 3 • Austria • Belgium • Germany • Venezuela • United States 1 1 1 1 101 13 CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.“nearly a dozen” Spring „75 .The Growth of Unix q q q q q q May 1974 . Frazer .“three dozen” June „75 .60 installations March „76 .

Berkeley Unix Robert Fabrey. Frazer 14 . he purchased a PDP-11/45 and had Unix running by Jan „74 q By „78 Bill Joy had produced a Pascal compiler and began producing the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) for $50 containing: q Unix Pascal System u Ex Text Editor u CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R. was on the SOSP program when Thompson presented his paper q Together with the Math department. of UC Berkeley.

Why Was BSD So Important? q q q q q q Something was created at BTL and distributed in source code form A user in the UK created something from it A user in California improved on both the original and the UK version It was distributed to the user community at cost The improved version was incorporated into the next BTL release There was no way BTL Patent and Licensing could control this! 15 CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R. Frazer .

was added to BSD 4. Bill Joy convinced DARPA that the software platform should be Unix.2 at DARPA‟s request. DARPA had already decided on the DEC VAX for the hardware q TCP/IP. along with the Berkeley Fast File System q Unix emerged from this as the machine that fueled the original internet (ARPANET) q CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R. the language of the internet.BSD Unix and the Internet DARPA wanted its contractors on a common computer system q In late 1980. Frazer 16 .

both were a success but were not totally compatible with each other q This led to the formation of the Open Software Foundation and the competing Unix International q CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R. Unix meant AT&T‟s operating system q After this. Frazer 17 . there were two principle flavors of Unix q u u BSD System V Commercially.Dueling Unixes Up until „78.

Frazer .Early Unix Vendors BSD q AT&T System V Interactive q Masscomp q Microport q Microsoft q Motorola q NCR q SCO q Silicon Graphics q Tandy q Sun (Solaris) q 18 Apollo q AT&T q DEC q Altos q Eakins q Apollo q Gould q Compaq q Integrated Solutions q Convergent q Masscomp q HP q mt Xinu q Honeywell q NSC q IBM q Wollongong q ITT q Sun (SunOS) q Intel q Sperry CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.

minis.Why Unix Instead of Other OSs? q Portability u u Written in C. Frazer . main frames. only a small portion is in assembly Runs on micros. and super computers q q q q q Ran on (relatively) inexpensive hardware Designed to be adaptable to changing user environments It was inexpensive Source was available Permits access to its operating features u Wonderful programmer‟s environment 19 CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.

terse.Challenges of Unix q q Powerful system with many tools and capabilities u Takes considerable effort and time to master Most commands are short. Frazer 20 . and nondescriptive q Relatively unforgiving of user mistakes CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.

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vi. Frazer . ex.Major Personalities Ken Thompson q Co-Inventor of Unix q Dennis Ritchie q Co-Inventor of Unix q Joe Ossanna q Author of troff q Rudd Canaday q Original file system collaborator q Robert Fabrey q Obtained DARPA funding for BSD q Steve Johnson q Author of lint and yacc q Stephen Bourne q Author of the Bourne shell. and much of BSD 24 q CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R. termcap. sh q Doug McIlroy q Originator of pipe concept q Kirk McKusick q Wrote Berkeley Fast File System q Armando Stettner q Got DEC to acknowledge Unix q Heinz Lycklama q Chaired first Unix standards group q Bill Joy q Author of csh.

Frazer 25 .Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.

Evolution of Modern Computing CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R. Frazer 26 .

the hardware interface unique to a platform the shell and other system utilities the application programs 27 CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.What‟s An Operating System? A program that acts as an intermediary between the computer hardware and the user q Primary goal is to make the computer system convenient to use q Secondary goal is to use the hardware resources efficiently q Unix can be divided into roughly four components q u u u u the hardware the kernel. Frazer .

The System View of Unix CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R. Frazer 28 .

Frazer 29 . process can seemingly be in simultaneous execution q Hardware specific kernel means that a small core piece of functionality is coded specifically for the platform u All the rest of Unix remains unchanged CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R. program.So Why Unix? q Unix is a multi-tasking operating system based around a hardware specific kernel u Multi-tasking/multi-processing means more than one command.

Frazer .Unix Shells A shell is the user interface or set of programs user to interact with Unix and process commands q Common shells are: q u u u Bourne C Korn inherits environmental variables set by the previous shell stops the previous shell becomes the current shell 30 q When a shell is executed. it u u u CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.

Bourne Shell (sh) Written by Dr Steven Bourne of Bell Labs q Both a command interpreter and a high-level programming language q Typically the default Unix shell q Fast q u Approximately 20 times faster than C shell because it is simpler and doesn‟t carry as much baggage CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R. Frazer 31 .

but has facilities to make it more user friendly q u u u u alias history job control filename completion CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R. Frazer 32 .C Shell (csh) Written by Bill Joy at University of California at Berkeley q Slower and more complex than Bourne shell.

Korn Shell (ksh) Written by David Korn of AT&T. released in 1986 q Includes features of both the Bourne and C shell q Introduces several new user interface features including command line editing q Adds features that improve its usefulness as a programming language q u u u report formatting capabilities built-in arithmetic data types CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R. Frazer 33 .

all the Unix built in protections are by-passed CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.Superuser q q A user with essentially all privileges u Often referred to as root privileges Allowed access to all files q Allowed to run all commands q System administrator has superuser privileges q Can be very dangerous. Frazer 34 .

password security is a necessity q Good passwords have several characteristics q u u u u Minimum of six (6) characters Mixture of alpha and numeric characters Mixture of upper and lower case No real words l Susceptible to a dictionary attack q It is also good practice to avoid: Family names u Birthdates u Pet‟s names u Any other personal data u CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R. Frazer 35 .Password Security Unfortunately.

Frazer 36 .Logging In and Out login: username q password: your_password q u To change your password l clyde% passwd l Changing password for ??? on clyde. l Old password: your_current_password l New password: your_new_password l Retype new password: your_new_password l clyde% q To logout clyde% exit u or clyde% logout u CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.

..To connect via internet telnet your.3_U1 (GENERIC) . yof% CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R..0. Frazer 37 ..computer q or telnet 127..1.0 q Your favorite computer may respond with something like: q SunOS UNIX (yof) login: username Password: your_password Last Login: Sat Aug 7 10:15:50 on ttyp0 SunOS Release 4...favorite...0.

login is executed only at login . . Frazer .cshrc is executed every time a new shell is spawned 38 CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.login script is executed Then the shell specified in /etc/passwd is executed and user is placed in his HOME directory u If it exists.What happens when you login? q q Unix runs the login program u If it exists.cshrc (if csh is your default shell) is executed q So what‟s the difference? Why two initialization files? u u . .

~ $lpath ~/bin /usr/local /usr/ucb /usr/bin /usr/etc) set noclobber # aliases for all shells 'cd \!*..cshrc set path = (. Frazer 39 .echo $cwd' 'cp -i' 'mv -i' 'rm -i' 'echo $cwd' 'rm -i' alias cd alias cp alias mv alias rm alias pwd #alias del set history=40 set ignoreeof #set notify #set savehist=40 #set prompt="% " #set prompt="`hostname`{`whoami`}\!: " #set time=100 CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.

exit or logout q q exit terminates your current shell u if it is also your login shell. Frazer 40 . exit will exit and logout logout terminates a login shell CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.

allowing multiple programs to be loaded and executed concurrently This requires more control of programs.Process Concepts q q q q q Early or simple (DOS) computer systems allowed only one program to be executed at a time Modern computer systems like Unix are multitasking. leading to the notion of a process A process is a program in some stage of execution A modern computer system is a collection of processes u Operating system processes and User processes 41 CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R. Frazer .

Frazer 42 .Unix Processes Every command executed on Unix is a process q Unix processes are hierarchical q u Parent and child processes q Every process is automagically assigned three standard files u u u input output error CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.

Process Blocks q Each process has a process block that includes u u u u a process identifier the process state the value of the process‟s program counter other information specific to the process such as l memory limits l files in use l processor time used l . CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.... Frazer 43 .

Frazer . virtual memory map l Swapping is the process of moving a process out of memory to disk to free memory for another process 44 CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.Unix Process Management Processes are managed and executed by a scheduler q Scheduler simulates simultaneous process execution by: q u u Sharing CPU by time-slicing and giving each active process a time slot May require paging and swapping as processes are activated or de-activated l Paging is a function of virtual memory that simulates a large.

or flags Arguments Arguments are the “things” that the command will operate on q Options modify the behavior of the command q CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.Command Components q Commands consist of: u u u Command name Options. Frazer 45 .

] arg1 | arg2 q | is an OR condition u CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.. Frazer 46 ..Command Notation command name q [ ] optional arguments or options q u can be nested l [ arg1 [ arg2 ] ] l [.

ne) am i option lists requestor info only q Related command: whoami u Lists requestor‟s user_name only CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.ix. terminal_name. Frazer 47 . login_time Syntax: who [am i] q Example: clyde% who root console krf ttyp0 q Jul 22 09:36 Aug 7 10:32 (dal-tx2-33.who q q Who is on the system and info about their login u User_name.

cal q q Prints a calendar for the specified year u Default is current year month . 11 days were skipped to make up for lack of prior leap year adjustments q Examples: q clyde% cal clyde% cal 9 1752 CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R. Frazer 48 .CALendar .number from 1 to 9999 Syntax: cal [ [ month ] year ] u u Note: September 1752 is odd.number from 1 to 12 year .

date
Display or set the date q Syntax:date [-u] [-a [-] sss.fff] [yymmddhhmm [.ss]]
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u - display date in GMT, default is local time a - slowly adjust system clock yymmddhhmm [.ss] - set system date and time l Only superuser can set the date and time

If the argument begins with a +, the output of date is under user control q Examples:
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clyde% date clyde% date -u clyde% date +%T
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finger
Displays information about users q Syntax: finger [options] user_name q By default, finger displays user_name‟s:
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login name full name terminal name idle time login time location first line of .plan file

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finger options
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-m Match arguments only on user name (not first or last name) -l Long output format -s Short output format -q Quick output format, only the login name, terminal, and login time are printed -i “idle” output format, only the login name, terminal, login time, and idle time are printed. -b Suppress printing the user's home directory and shell
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CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R. Frazer

Frazer 52 .plan file CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.More finger options -f q -w q -h q -p q Suppress printing the header Suppress printing the full name Suppress printing of the .project file Suppress printing of the .

Frazer .. second is for sending mail q For this class: q u u u Read mail: mail Send mail: mail -s “subject” recipient or: mail -s “subject” recipient < file_name 53 CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.mail Read or send electronic mail messages q Syntax: mail [-deHinNUv] [-f [filename | +folder] ] [-T file] or: mail [-dFinUv] [-h number] [-r address] [-s subject] recipient .. q First form is for reading mail.

Frazer 54 .man Read online documentation or find reference pages by keyword q Syntax: man [[section] title] or: man [[-k keyword] | [-f filename]] q Examples: q clyde% man ps clyde% man -k compile clyde% man -f /var/spool/mail clyde% man link clyde% man 2 link clyde% man 8 link CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.MANual pages .

whatis Displays a one line summary about a command q Syntax: whatis command q Example: q clyde% whatis vi CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R. Frazer 55 .

Frazer 56 .apropos Locate commands by keyword lookup q Syntax: apropos keyword q Example: q clyde% apropos compiler q Note: apropos is no different than man -k CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.

net „Krol.net l Names are stored as – last name. Ed*‟ CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.com clyde% whois -h rs.internic.net Earthlink.name of host computer to use for lookup l Default is nic.ddn. first name.whois q Internet „white pages‟ u u Searches for a TCP/IP directory entry Used to find people or domain owners/contacts host .internic.internic. titles q Syntax: who [-h host] identifier u q Examples: clyde% whois -h rs.mil. which no longer supports anything but MILNET. Current host is rs. Frazer 57 .

ps Displays the status of current processes q Syntax: ps [ [-] acCegjklnrSuUvwx] [-tx] | [num] [kernel-name] [c-dump-file] [swap-file] q Default is to display only processes with your effective user ID q We will only use the following options: q u u u a . Frazer .show only running processes q Example: clyde% ps -a 58 CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.include processes that are not owned by you x .show ProcesSes .show processes that don‟t have a controlling terminal r .

Frazer 59 .talk Talk to another user q Syntax: talk username [ttyname] q username .login name if on the same machine. username@machinename if on a different machine ttyname .login session to use if username is logged in more than once CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.

talk Example clyde% talk krf Message from Talk_Daemon@clyde at 17:39 .edu. type Control-c q CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R. talk: respond with: talk krf@clyde. talk: connection requested by krf@clyde..dcccd.. Frazer 60 .dcccd.edu Respond as shown and a split screen will be displayed with your input in one half and your talkmate‟s output in the other q To end the session.

MESsaGe . Frazer 61 .mesg Permit or deny messages on your terminal q Syntax: mesg [n] [y] q u u u default reports current state without changing it n .reinstates permission CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.forbids messages to be sent to you from talk or write y .

write Write a message to another user q Syntax: write username [ttyname] q username .terminal name if user is logged in more than once Whatever you type is then copied. Frazer 62 . line by line. to the recipient‟s terminal until you enter on EOF (control-d) CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.login name of the message recipient ttyname .

Hi there! Heard any good Unix jokes lately? clyde% CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R..write Example: clyde% write krf Hi there! Heard any good Unix jokes lately? control-d u On krf‟s terminal.. the following appears: clyde% Message from krf@clyde on ttyp1 at 17:50 . Frazer 63 .

pwd Displays the pathname of the current working directory q Syntax: pwd q Example: q clyde% pwd /home/clyde/krf clyde% CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R. Frazer 64 .Print Working Directory .

Disk Free . such as NFS filename ...report on all file systems.] [filename. print * is no information is available t type ..df Reports amount of free disk space on file system q Syntax: df [-a] [-i] [-t type] [filesystem.report space used by the file system containing filename 65 CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.report number of used and free inodes. Frazer .] q u u u u u default is to report on all mounted file systems a . including “uninteresting” ones with zero total blocks i ..report on file systems of a given type.

df Examples clyde% df Filesystem /dev/sd0a /dev/sd0g /dev/sd0h /dev/sd0f kbytes 30807 204535 239391 425767 used 6462 180363 180222 296019 avail capacity Mounted on 21265 23% / 3719 98% /usr 35230 84% /home 87172 77% /usr/local clyde% df my_file /dev/sd0h 239391 180222 35230 84% /home 66 CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R. Frazer .

Disk Utilized .du Displays the number of disk blocks used per directory or file q Syntax: du [-s] [-a] [filename] q s .display a value for each file u CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.only display grand total for each of the specified file names u a . Frazer 67 .

sunview 3 .login 1 ./.cshrc 3 .plan 1 .pinerc 1 ./.du Examples clyde% du -a 3 ./. clyde% CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.project 3 ./././. clyde% du -s 33 ./mail 10 ./mbox 33 . Frazer 68 .rootmenu 6 ./ttg_public 1 ./.

Report current settings in a format that can be used as an argument to another stty command\ q Most common user use is to remap control keys.. Frazer .login file 69 CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R. such as erase u u To set the erase command to be a backspace: clyde% stty erase ^h Key mapping good candidate for inclusion in your .Set TTY . q u u a .Report all option settings g ..stty Display and set terminal options q Syntax: stty [-ag] [option] .

evenp -inpck imaxbel -tabs iexten crt clyde% stty -a speed 38400 baud. 0 columns parenb -parodd cs7 -cstopb -hupcl cread -clocal -crtscts -ignbrk brkint ignpar -parmrk -inpck istrip -inlcr -igncr icrnl -iuclc ixon -ixany -ixoff imaxbel isig iexten icanon -xcase echo echoe echok -echonl -noflsh tostop echoctl -echoprt echoke opost -olcuc onlcr -ocrnl -onocr -onlret -ofill -ofdel -tabs erase kill werase rprnt flush lnext susp intr quit stop eof ^? ^U ^W ^R ^O ^V ^Z/^Y ^C ^\ ^S/^Q ^D clyde% stty -g 2526:1805:1af:8a3b:3:1c:7f:15:4:0:0:0:11:13:1a:19:12:f:17:16:0 CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.stty Examples clyde% stty speed 38400 baud. 0 rows. Frazer 70 .

mail(pine) PINE 4.Configure Pine Options .10 ? HELP C COMPOSE MESSAGE I MESSAGE CHECK MAIN MENU Folder : INBOX No Messages .Update address book .Select a folder to view .Leave the Pine program L FOLDER LIST A ADDRESS BOOK S SETUP Q QUIT ? Help P PrevCmd R RelNotes K KBlock 71 O OTHER CMDS > [ListFldrs] N NextCmd CISC 1480/KRF Copyright © 1999 by Kenneth R.View messages in current folder . Frazer .Get help using Pine .Compose and send a message .