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Theory Movements Functions


Proponents of The Cell Theory

Robert Hooke (1665)
little boxes of cells

Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1674)

Observes tiny living organisms in drops of pond water through his simple microscope.

Matthias Schleiden (1838)

He concludes that all plants are made up of cells.

Theodor Schwann (1839)

He concludes that all animals are made up of cells.

Rudolph Virchow (1855)

He proposes that all cells come from existing cells.

The Cell Theory states that:

All living things are composed of cells. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. New cells are produced from existing cells.

Cell Categories

The cells of prokaryotes are generally smaller and simpler than cells of eukaryotes. The prokaryotes have cell membranes and cytoplasm but do not contain nuclei. All bacteria are prokaryotes.

The cells of eukaryotes do contain nuclei. In addition to a nucleus, a cell membrane, and cytoplasm, most cells of eukaryotes contain dozens of other specialized structures called organelles, that perform important cellular function.

Cell Structures

Basic Cell Structures

Nucleus Cell Membrane A large structure that contains A thin, flexible barrier around the the cells genetic material and cell. controls cell activities. Cell Wall Cytoplasm The cell wall lies outside the cell Material inside the cell membrane. membranebut not including the nucleus. Its main function is to provide support and protection for the cell.


The nucleus controls most cell processes and contains the hereditary information of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). a. Chromatin the granular material visible within the nucleus. b. Chromosomes cell divides, the chromatin condenses to chromosomes. c. Nucleolus its function was still a mystery, however, this is where the assembly of ribosomes begins. d. Nuclear Envelope it is dotted with thousands of nuclear pores, w/c allow material to move into and out of nucleus.


The cytoskeleton is a network of protein filament that helps the cell to maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement. a. Microtubules hallow tubes of protein. They maintain cell shape and can also serve as tracks along w/c organelles are moved. b. Microfilaments long, thin fibers that function in the movement and support of cell.

Organelles in the Cytoplasm


They produce proteins following coded instructions that come from the nucleus.

Endoplasmic Reticulum
The endoplasmic reticulum is the organelle in which components of the cell membrane are assembled and some proteins are modified.
a. Rough ER involved in the synthesis of proteins b. Smooth ER contains collections of enzymes that perform specialized tasks, such as synthesis of lipids.

Golgi Apparatus
Proteins produced by the rough endoplasmic reticulum move into a stack of membranes called the Golgi apparatus. Enzymes in the Golgi apparatus attach carbohydrates and lipids to proteins.

Small organelles filled with enzymes. One function of lysosomes is to break down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins from food into particles that can be used by the rest of the cell.

Cells often store materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates in saclike structures known as vacuoles.

Chloroplasts use the energy from sunlight to make energy rich-food molecules in a process known as photosynthesis.

Organelles that release energy from stored food molecules. Mitochondria use energy from food to make high energy compounds that the cell can use to power growth, development, and movement.

Organelle DNA
These small DNA molecules contain information that is essential for the normal function of organelles.