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WEAR

FRICTION Impeding motion in sliding Damage to a solid surface, generally involving progressive loss of material, due to relative motion between the surface and a contacting substance or substances Progressive loss of original material from a solid surface due to mechanical interaction between that surface and a fluid, a multi component fluid, or an impinging liquid or solid particles LUBRICATION Substances that separate rubbing surfaces and readily shear while adhering to the surfaces

WEAR EROSION

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FRICTION
Manufactured surfaces are not perfectly flat or smooth
When these imperfect planes are put on another, they will contact at spots

When motion is attempted, the resistance to the motion is called friction

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Real surfaces do not only contain surface asperities, also contain errors of form: wave form machining features patterns resulting from machine tool used

SURFACE ROUGHNESS

FRICTION

When a solid surface rubs on another solid surface deformation, wear, oxide removal and film shear occur.

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Coefficiant Of Friction (COF) ,,
0.03 : cold working 0.7 : hot working 2.0 : machining Plastic : very low or self lubricating

Friction cannot be eliminated


Reducing Friction
i) The selection of materials that have low adhesion. e.g. carbide , ceramic ii) The use of surface film or coating. Lubricant (such as oil) and solid film (such as graphite) iii) Subjecting the tool or die-workpiece interface to ultrasonic vibration (~20kHz)

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TYPES OF WEAR
ADHESION ABRASION SURFACE FATIGUE

Adhesive Galling/Seizure Scuffing/Scoring Oxidative Fretting Requires adhesion of one surface to the other

Low Stress High Stress Gouging Polishing Requires hard, sharp surfaces imposed on softer surfaces

Spalling Brinelling Impact Wear Pitting

Requires repetitive compressive stresses

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A) TYPES OF WEAR (Sliding Contact) - ADHESION
1. ADHESIVE WEAR Due to localised bonding between contacting solids leading to a material transfer or loss from either contacting surface. All material systems are susceptible to adhesive wear factors control this type of wear is wear coefficients
Examples of wear coefficients: Clean lubricated soft metals 1 to 3 x 10-3 self-mated Clean unlubricated hard metals 2 to 5 x 10-5 self-mated Clean unlubricated hard metal 1 to 3 x 10-6 to plastic Clean unlubricated plastic - 1 x 10-3 to 3 x 10-6 to plastic Well-lubricated hard metals 1 to 3 x 10-7 self mated

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eg : gears, cam, slides and valves Adhesive wear can be reduced by : i. Selecting materials that do not form strong adhesive bonds ii. Using harder material as one of the pair iii. Applying hard coating

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2. GALLING Occurs when adhesive wear becomes severe Formation of macroscopic excrescences ~ material flows up from the surface this large up-feature often leads to seizure in systems where the sliding members rub with little clearance. Soft single phase metals are particularly susceptible to galling ~ stainless steel

Propeller shaft

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3. SCUFFING and SCORING Scuffing : Moderate form of adhesive wear ~ macroscopic scratches or surface deformation aligned with the direction of motion eg: If a piston in a cylinder working properly, only mild wear occurs, the cylinder stay smooth, and its diameter just gets larger as wear occurs Scoring : Leads to unacceptable high wear rates (surface is roughened) eg: Overloaded or unlubricated gears often score

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4. OXIDATIVE WEAR (Mild Wear) The least severe form of adhesive wear. Starts by adhesion at the real areas of contact, then wear particles form and with repeated rubbing, these particles react with the environment an usually form an oxide eg: Ferrous systems rubbing surfaces appeared to be rusted Almost all household door hinge pins develop oxidative wear neglect to oil

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5. FRETTING Due to oscillatory motion of small amplitude (less than 300 m) which can produce fretting wear or fretting corrosion ~ surface that looks gnarled and pitted. With oscillating rubbing , contacting surfaces locally adhere at asperities or upfeatures, the junction is broken, and, with repeated rubbing, wear particles roll back and forth in between the contacting surfaces. If wear particles react with ambient environment, the damage is called fretting corrosion. If the surfaces and particles do not react with the environment, the result is fretting wear. eg: Ferrous metals : always display fretting Plastics : exhibit fretting wear

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ALL WEAR PROCESSES IN THE ADHESION CATEGORY AT LEAST START BY SURFACE ADHESION. TYPIFIED BY CONFORMING SURFACES IN SLIDING CONTACT. MOTION CAN BE UNIDIRECTIONAL , ROTATIONAL OR OSCILLATING. LONGER TIMES AND HIGH LOADS LEAD TO WEAR

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B) TYPES OF WEAR - ABRASION
Abrasive wear : Unintentional wear produced by a hard/sharp particle imposed on and moving on a softer surface. The harder/sharper the particle, the greater the wear. Particles : in sand paper, pavement or grinding wheel. 1. LOW-STRESS Fine scratches of the surface due imposed/moved sharp/hard particles Materials can be removed through chip formation from a fixed grain sliding on a surface (grinding wheel) or that grain could just produce a scratch

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2. HIGH-STRESS More severe form of abrasion in which the abrasive substance is imposed on the surface with sufficient stress to cause the abrasive to fracture or crush. eg : surface grinding the abrasive grains or the grinding wheel fracture during process. The mechanism of material removal is usually scratching. Furrows are plowed in the material from the sharp edges of the abrasive, and chips are formed

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3. GOUGING ABRASION Damage to a solid surface characterised by macroscopic plastic deformation from a single impact The damage is in the form of a gouge groove or deep scratch. Damage produced by dropping a large rock on a rigid metal surface or pressing the rock against the surface with sufficient force to crush it. eg: normally occurs in mining equipment and rock crusher and on power shovel teeth and buckets

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4. POLISHING Produce by fine abrasives, and yet there are no scratches or furrows produced by the polishing abrasive. eg : Polishing of steel with aluminium oxide or diamond particles ( 1 m ). They remove scratches and polish. The abrasive particles remove oxides, the polishing fluids corrode the surface and this removes material.

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C) TYPES OF WEAR - SURFACE FATIGUE
1. PITTING One of the common forms of surface fatigue. Formation of cavities/pits when regions of tribosurface spall. Pits initiated as substrate cracks and the cracks propagate to allow ejection of a fragment. Once a metal or hard material fragment contaminates the rolling /moving surface, it is rolled into the surface, other pits form and the surface is ruined. Eg : All heavily used rail-road tracks

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2. IMPACT WEAR Wear that occurs on surfaces subjected to repeated impact eg : chisels, impact drivers and hammers of all types Plastic flow like that on the end of a well-used cold chisel. Some times, a subsurface crack occurs and fragments can spall from the surface.

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3. SPALLING Fracture of a portion of the surface of a material that is subjected to repeated stresses usually compressive When a hard brittle coating or hardened layer is applied to a significantly softer substrate, repeated loading cause spalling. Usual solution : back up thin hard coatings with a surface that is only about 20% softer

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EROSION Progressive loss of original material from a solid surface due to mechanical interaction between that surface and a fluid, a multi component fluid, or an impinging liquid or solid particles
Erosion

Solid Particles

Liquid Impact

Cavitation

Slurry

Liquid

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Types of Erosion :
1. Solid Particle Damage to a surface caused by impingement of solid particles carried by a gas usually air The mechanism of material removal can range from spalling in brittle materials to cutting in ductile materials. Abrasive grains in sand blasting, when they impact the target surface, they behave as tiny cutters to form chips A particle forms a crater, repeated strikes hit the extended material around the crater and the lips eventually fracture eg : fans used in dirty areas, jet engine blade, soot blowers, cyclone separators

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2. Slurry Erosion Material removal caused by slurry motion across a solid surface Mechanism : similar to solid particles however involve mostly parallel flow of slurry and the action of the particles is like scratching eg : water pumps handling drilling and mines, conveying slurries in pipelines

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3. Liquid Impact Erosion is produced by impingement of very high velocity liquid droplets on a solid surface eg : rain erosion of aircraft, steam turbine when condensate is present. Liquid Erosion Removal of material by the action of a liquid impinging or moving along the surface of a solid Mechanical action of the liquid removes protective oxide. eg : metal pipes steel, stainless steel and copper

4.

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5. Cavitation Damage to a solid surface by implosion of bubbles near a surface When a bubble collapses, the surrounding liquid rushes in to fill the void. A jet is form that can develop stresses that exceed the yield strength of materials produce microscopic fracture to form pits eg : fluid propulsion devices : pumps, on ship propellers

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To reduce erosion (minimisation of friction) i. Surface hardened components ii. Minimize surface roughness iii. Improving the quality of materials to minimize local point for crack initiation iv. Ceramic and cermets ideal wear resistant

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LUBRICATIONS
Lubricants substances that separate rubbing surfaces and readily shear while adhering to the surface 3 major categories : Oils, Greases and Solid-film lubricants Oils (mineral oils) and greases (synthetic oils) can be made from crude oil or from chemical feedstock Oils Viscous fluid : eg, mineral oil very low friction EP (extreme-pressure) Lubricant (Synthetic) - Chemicals (usually organic materials with S, Cl and P content) reacts at elevated temp with metal surface. Requires continual checking of oil supply

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2. Greases combination of an oil (80-90%), a thickener ( 3-D sponge that releases oil when the device is in use and retains oil when not in use) and an additive eg : fatty acid, fats, waxes Convenient and the easiest to use, and with seals, possible to lubricate over 20 years

Solid lubricants applied as coatings to metals and compounded (mixed) into plastic. Develop films between rubbing surfaces which reduce friction.

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3. Solid lubricants Applied as coatings to metals and compounded (mixed) into plastic. Develop films ( a few microns to more than 50 microns) between rubbing surfaces which reduce friction. Solving lubrication problems where oil and grease do not work. eg : Molybdenum disulfide, Tungsten disulfide, Graphite, Silver etc

Self lubricated plastic

Graphite Self lubricated bearings

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Pin-on-disc test
To determine materials wear rate The wear is determined using pin which is press onto the rotating disc under a defined load. The pin can also be replaced by a ball (ball-on-disc.) Either the pin or the disc can be the test piece of interest. The contact surface of the pin may be flat, spherical, or of any convenient geometry, including that of actual wear components. The loading condition is defined by the normal load, the sliding velocity and the initial temp. of the test medium
Wear units : mass loss ( mg/hr) Thickness loss ( mm/hr) Distances (mg/m)

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Specifications Conforms to the specifications of: ASTM G G99 Sliding Speed Range: 0.26-10 m/sec Disc Rotation Speed: 100-2000 rpm Maximum Normal Load: 200 N Pin Size: 3-12 mm diagonal/diameter Disc Size: 160 mm x 8 mm thick The wear volume can either be determined by the changed geometry of the specimen: Shortening of the pin Determination of the wear track volume of the of the pin on the disc) or By the mass reduction of the specimens.