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Process Engineering

Basics of Process Planning
for computer implementation

IE550 -- Manufacturing Systems
Fall 2008
Dr. R. A. Wysk

01/16/15

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Chapter 6 -- Process Engineering

01/16/15

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The Engineering Process
Design
specifications

Process
capability

Process planning

Stock Material

Processes

Inspection

Finished part

Need to understand the process capabilities.
01/16/15

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g. and its limitations. relative cost. drill press. 01/16/15 4. other cutting constraints. shape and size.g.PROCESS CAPABILITIES Process: certain way an operation is carried out. dimensional and geometric tolerances. Process capability: The geometry and tolerance a manufacturing process can produce. machining center. milling machine. e. Tool: physical object which is used to carrying out a process. e. gun drill. twist drill. . material removal rate. e. turning. milling. Machine tool: machine on which process is carried out. drilling.e. lathe.g. i. spade drill.4 .

01/16/15 4. Aggregate characterization of what can be expected. Shop level: Specific to a particular manufacturing system.g. e. yet a large slant bed lathe may be able to handle a 20"x 10' part. Machines in the same shop has very different capability.5 . the turning capability of the student machine shop is far worse than that in the shop of a precision spindle manufacturer. Machine level: Specific to a machine. What is the best attainable capability in one specific shop. What the process can accomplish in an average shop on a typical machine tool. A table top lathe can machine a small part.LEVELS OF PROCESS CAPABILITIES Universal level: Handbook and textbook level data. General measures of the process capability such as shape and size.

machining data handbook. 01/16/15 4. Certain information can be found in the textbooks.PROCESS KNOWLEDGE COLLECTION Few scientific data available or published.6 . and on-line sensor data. etc. Practical manufacturing knowledge is still an art instead of a science. Most process knowledge are gained during actual manufacturing practice. inspection reports. Tolerance capability may be obtained from control charts. handbooks.

EXPERIENCE-BASED PLANNING Relay on one's experience. Experience is not directly applicable to new processes or new systems. c. 01/16/15 4. b. Experience requires a significant period of time to accumulate. Most frequently this is the way industry operates. Need to automate. Problems: a. Experience represents only approximate.7 . not exact knowledge.

0. Turning limit (6. Surface-finish chart .use grinding.8 .3 .limiting extremes of process 8  in . polishing.5 nm or 0.4 m or 250 .47  inch) 01/16/15 4. however. The information is general.g.16  inch) Diamond turning at Lawrence Livermore Lab (12.MACHINIST HANDBOOKS Universal or shop level knowledge. finish milling may achieve the specification. It does not mean every machine or shop can achieve that accuracy. e. lapping Usually not with milling.

9 .SURFACE FINISH CHART 01/16/15 4.

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11 .Dimensional accuracies for Process Planning 01/16/15 4.

00" 01/16/15 4. semi-finish bore. Tolerance < 0.002" Drill.5" A.05" < dia < 1. Tolerance < 0.010" Drill the hole.12 . II.010" 1.010” 1. True position > 0.010" Drill. B. 0. True position < 0.010" Drill and ream the hole. I.HOLE MAKING KNOWLEDGE Following data is taken from a manufacturer's process planner's handbook. 2. Tolerance < 0. then finish bore the hole. Tolerance > 0. 2. Dia < 0. then finish bore the hole.

Each entry contain one rule.DECISION TABLES To computerize the decision making.13 . If the conditions set in an entry are satisfied. one simple way is to use decision tables. the actions in the entry are executed. Stub Entries Conditions Actions 01/16/15 4. Entries mark which conditions or actions are applicable. The stub contains the condition or action statements.

010 0.002 < Tol < 0.010 Tol > 0.010 T.5 < Dia < 1.P < 0.P < 0.14 .EXAMPLE DECISION TABLE Dia < 0.5 0.010 Tol < 0.0 T.002 Drill Ream Semi-finish bore Finish bore 01/16/15 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 4.

15 . one simple way is to use decision trees. In this case. terminal Branch Root The node may be "AND" nodes or "OR" nodes. Each branch has a condition statement associate with it. the tree represents probabilistic state transitions. Decision tree is a graph with a single root and branches emanating from the root. Node 01/16/15 4. Actions are written at the terminal.DECISION TREES To computerize the decision making. Probabilities may be assigned to the branches.

then ream T.5 < Dia < 1.EXAMPLE DECISION TREE Tol > 0. semifinish bore.010 Drill.5 T.0 0.P < 0.010 Dia < 0. then finish bore 01/16/15 4.010 Drill.16 .002 < Tol < 0.010 Drill Tol < 0. then finish bore Tol < 0.010 0.002 Drill.P < 0.

001 * 0.0005 * 0. ** 0.007 * 0.17 . ** 0.0625 >= ) ( diameter! 2. 111: hole ( ( if (shape ! 111 = ) ( length ! 12. .5 ** 0.004 >= ) ( parallelism ! length ! diameter ! / 3.008 >= ) ( sf ! 100 >= ) ) 01/16/15 4.PROCESS-CAPABILITY ANALYSIS PROCESS BOUNDARY Data .5 ** 0.007 * >= ) ( tln ! diameter ! 0.000 <= ) ( tlp ! diameter ! 0.0 diameter ! * <= ) ( diameter! 0. twist drilling (code 1) .003 + >= ) ( straightness ! length ! diameter ! / 3.002 + >= ) ( roundness ! 0.003 + >= ) ( true ! 0.

PROCESSES. TOOLS. AND MACHINES Process Sub­Process Face milling Milling Peripheral milling • End milling Drilling Reaming Broaching 01/16/15 Plain  Inserted­tooth Plain  Slittting Saw  Form  Inserted­tooth  Staggered­tooth  Angle  T­slot cutter  Woodruff keyseat cutter  Form milling cutter Plain  Shell end  Hollow end  Ball end Twist drill  Spade drill  Deep­hole drill  Gun drill  Trepanning cutter  Center drill  Combination drill  Countersink  Counterbore Shell reamer  Expansion reamer  Adjustable reamer  Taper reamer Adjustable boring bar  Simple boring bar Boring Turning Cutters Turning  Facing  Parting    Knurling    Boring  Drilling  Reaming Plain  Inserted Knurling tool Boring bars  Drills  Reamers Form tool Machines Vertical milling machine  Horizontal milling machine    Column­and­knee  Bed type  Planer type  Special type    Machining center Column & upright  Gang drilling machine  Radial drilling machine  Multispindle drilling machine  Bench type  Deepth hole drilling machine Drill press  Lathe Lathe  Boring machine  Jig bore Speed lathe  Engine lathe  Toolroom lathe  Special lathe    Turret lathe  Screw machine Broaching press  Vertical Pull­down  Vertical Pull­up  Surface broaching machine  Horizontal broaching machine  Surface broaching machine  Rotary broaching machine 4.18 .

19 . AND MACHINES Process Sub­Process Cutters Sawing Hacksaw  Bandsaw  Circular saw Reciprocating saw  Band saw  Circular saw Shaping Form tool Shaper  Horizontal & Vertical Inserted tool Double housing planer  Open­side planer  Edge planer  Pit Planer Grinding wheels  Points External cylindrical grinder  Internal cylindrical grinder  Surface grinder  Creep feed grinder  Tool grinder  Disk grinder Honing Honing stone Honing machine Lapping Lap Lapping machine Tapping Tap Drill press  Milling machine  Machining center Planing Grinding 01/16/15 Machines Cylindrical grinding  Centerless grinding  Internal grinding  External grinding  Surface grinding 4.PROCESSES. TOOLS.

CUTTING EDGE AND FEED cutting edge Drill Boring Reaming minor feed Turning Peripheral Milling Face Milling feed range Ball End Milling 01/16/15 Broaching Sawing 4.20 .

 slot.VOLUME PRODUCING CAPABILITIES Process Milling Sub­Process Face milling Peripheral milling Plain  Slittting Saw  Form  Inserted­tooth  Staggered­tooth  Angle  T­slot cutter  Woodruff keyseat cutter  flat bottom volume  slot   formed volume        T­slot   Internal groove   End milling Plain  Shell end  Hollow end  Ball end Twist drill  Spade drill  Deep­hole drill  Gun drill  Trepanning cutter  Center drill  Combination drill  Countersink  Counterbore Shell reamer  Expansion reamer  Adjustable reamer  Taper reamer pocket.21 . flat round hole  round hole  deep round hole  deep round hole  large round hole  shallow round hole  multiple diameter round hole  countersink hole  counterbore hole thin wall of round hole  thin wall of round hole  thin wall of round hole  thin wall of round hole thin wall of round hole  thin wall of round hole ?  disk  disk    ?    thin wall of round hole  round hole  thin wall of round hole flat bottom volume  slot   step  polyhedral through hole   formed through volume 4. flat Reaming Adjustable boring bar  Simple boring bar Boring Broaching 01/16/15 Volume Capabilities flat bottom volume Drilling Turning Cutters Plain  Inserted­tooth Turning  Facing  Parting    Knurling    Boring  Drilling  Reaming Plain  Inserted Knurling tool Boring bars  Drills  Reamers Form tool sculptured surface.

VOLUME PRODUCING CAPABILITIES Process Sub­Process Cutters Volume Capabilities Hacksaw  Bandsaw  Circular saw ? Sawing Shaping Form tool flat bottom volume. slot  Inserted tool flat bottom volume Grinding wheels  Points ?  internal wall of round hole  flat bottom volume   Honing Honing stone ? Lapping Lap most surfaces Tapping Tap threaded wall of hole Planing Grinding 01/16/15 Cylindrical grinding  Centerless grinding  Internal grinding  External grinding  Surface grinding 4.22 .

003     0.PROCESS TOLERANCE RANGE Process Sub­Process Face milling Milling Peripheral milling End milling Cutters Plain  Inserted­tooth Plain  Slittting Saw  Form  Inserted­tooth  Staggered­tooth  Angle  T­slot cutter  Woodruff keyseat cutter  Form milling cutter Plain  Shell end  Hollow end  Ball end Twist drill  Spade drill  Trepanning cutter  Center drill  Combination drill  Countersink  Counterbore        Deep­hole drill  Gun drill Drilling Shell reamer  Expansion reamer  Adjustable reamer  Taper reamer Reaming Tolerances.0005  1/2­  1     0.012 ­0.0001          surface finish   8                                  surface finish  250 to 16 tolerance 0.002       0.0005     0.008 ­0.004 ­0.0004  roundness               0.001       0.0002                       roundness       0.002  2 ­ 4            0.001  roundness        0.008   0.0002   1  ­  2     0.0          0.004     0.004 Dia      Tolerance  surface finish  > 100  < 5/8    0. capabilities                    roughting  finishing  tol                 0.0015  surface finish   60           50                         length/dia  = 3 usual   =8  maximum  mtl  < Rc 30 usual    < Rc 50  maximum                             usuall    best    Dia        Tolerance  0   ­ 1/8  +0.001  True position    0.002   1  ­  2    +0.001  surface finish 50           30                                            roughting  finishing  tol                 0. etc.001  parallelism    0.001  angularity     0.002     0.001  flatness         0.01   1  ­  2     0.002 diameter     tolerance   to 1.002   surface finish   125           50                          2  ­  4     0.003   2  ­  4    +0.001   true position    0.001  surface finish  125 to 32 4.0004   2  ­  4     0.001   6  ­ 12    0.004        0.001     0.001       0.0015      0.010 ­0.003  length/dia     5 to 8 Adjustable boring bar  Simple boring bar Boring Turning Broaching 01/16/15 Turning  Facing  Parting    Knurling    Boring  Drilling  Reaming Plain  Inserted Knurling tool Boring bars  Drills  Reamers Form tool   Dia        Tolerance              roughing finishing  0   ­ 3/4   0.001       0.001  surface finish           100 1/4­1/2   +0.001  1/2­  1    +0.0003       true position    0.001       0.001  surface finish 50           30                                            roughting  finishing  tol                 0.004  parallelism    0.005 in 6 inch  >5/8    0.0008   4  ­  6     0.0002  3/4­  1     0.002   Dia        Tolerance                     roughting  finishing  0   ­ 1/2   0.005     0.003   straightness    0.0015   0.01         0.0005 to 0.23 . surface finish.006 ­0.001  1 ­ 2            0.001  flatness         0.002       0.003 ­0.0015  straightness  0.004  1/8­1/4   +0.

24 .001       0.0    +0.00005  1 ­ 2     0.01                  0.000012  surface fin      4­6             1­4 Tapping Tap tolerance    0.000025   0.01                  0. etc.0   +0.000025   0.001  flatness             0.0001  parallelism     0.0010­0.003  surface fin     75 surface finish   4  roundness         0. capabilities length tol     squareness    surface finish   cutting rate       material  0.003  roundness   0.0003     0.0002  roundness       0.0001  surface fin           8             2                        roughing   finishing  tolerance        0.2             200 ­ 300      4­30 sq in/min    to Rc45  0.00005  2 ­ 4     0.0  4     +0.0008­0.0005­0.0  2     +0.0005      0.PROCESS TOLERANCE RANGE Process Sub­Process Cutters Sawing Hacksaw  Bandsaw  Circular saw Shaping Form tool Planing Inserted tool Internal grinding    Cylindrical grinding  Centerless grinding    External grinding  Surface grinding Grinding Internal center ground  and centerless flat 01/16/15 Tolerances.0001  4 ­  8    0.0001  parallelism     0. surface finish.0002     0.0008    0.0005      0.001       0.0    +0.2               125             7­36 sq in/min    to Rc45                      roughting    finishing  location tol       0.0005     0.0008­0.005        0.0  Lapping Lap                    roughing   finishing  tolerance    0.0001­0.00015   0.00013  8 ­ 16    0.0001  surface fin           32            2 Honing Honing stone   Dia        Tolerance             roughing   finishing  1     +0.2              200 ­ 300       3­6 sq in/min    to Rc45  0.0005 4.000015  flatness       0.0005­0.0005  surface finish   60             32       (cast iron)  surface finish   125           32       (steel)                           Dia        Tolerance             roughing   finishing  0 ­ 1     0.008                 0.0002                         roughing   finishing  tolerance        0.001       0.0005      0.

200 in Crankshaft bearing 3-13 in polished Brake drum 63-125 in turned Clutch pressure plate 25-100 in turned 4.25 .AUTOMOTIVE PARTS REQUIREMENTS • • • • • 01/16/15 Cylinder bore13 .25 in honed Main bearing bore 63 .

and milling:    L tm = L + vf  L : clearance or overhang distance. one pass turning. For drilling.26 . For multipass turning    D – D + i n p= o integer round up 2a p For milling +     w + n p = h ap D 01/16/15 n    p : # of passes    : total height of material to be removed h w  : workpiece width   : cutter overlapping factor = effective cutting width / tool dia  1.0 4.BASIC MACHINING CALCULATIONS Machining time Total amount of time to finish a workpiece.

Feed and feedrate   :f inch / rev V f : inch / min rp m V f= fn turning or drilling V f = f nN milling N: Vf # of teech in milling 1 in drilling n : rpm 01/16/15 4. ap. V.27 . a.BASIC MACHINING CALCULATIONS Machine control parameters are: f.

BASIC MACHINING CALCULATIONS Cutting speed V V in sfpm V =  D n 12 D surface speed D: Diameter Depth of cut D0 a     inch p     ap = 01/16/15 Do – Di 2 Di 4.28 .

BASIC MACHINING CALCULATIONS D 4 Metal removal rate    in 3 min MRR    MRR cutting time tool life vf Drilling 2   D MRR = vf 4 = 3D f V  (D Milling  = a pw v MRR 2 2 o – D i) 4 Turning 2 2   ( D o – D i) MRR = vf 4 = 6( Do – Di ) f V vf W vf ap f 12 a p w n = D 01/16/15 2 fV 4.29 .

BASIC MACHINING CALCULATIONS Machining time Total amount of time to finish a workpiece. and milling:    L tm = L + vf  L : clearance or overhang distance.0 4. For multipass turning    D – D + i n p= o integer round up 2a p For milling +     w + n p = h ap D 01/16/15 n    p : # of passes    : total height of material to be removed h w  : workpiece width   : cutter overlapping factor = effective cutting width / tool dia  1. L For drilling. one pass turning.30 .

000  m Shaping Planing Broaching where:   Vc ::  cutting speed fpm  m :  machine efficiency   Ts   :  Torque 01/16/15 4.CUTTING FORCE AND POWER Process Milling Sub­Process Cutting Force F c (lb) Face milling K F  v FafFapFDtFbwFz F Peripheral milling End milling K F f FapFDtFbw z Drilling K F f FapF DtF torque Reaming Power (hp) Fc Vc 33.000 m T s rpm 63.31 .030 m Boring Turning Turning Facing K F f FapF Fc Vc 33.000  m K F apF Dmzc Fc Vc 33.

32 .MATERIAL REMOVAL RATE Process Sub­Process MRR Face milling Milling Drilling 2 (  D /4) f ND : tool  diameter  Boring 12 V f  ap Turning 01/16/15 W: width of the cutter  Peripheral milling W ap f n N ap : depth of cut  f : feed  n : number of teeth  End milling N : spindle rpm  Turning 12 V f  ap Facing 6 V f  ap Broaching tr : rise per tooth  12 tr W V nW : Width of the tool  V : cutting speed  n : number of tooth in  contact with part Shaping L t f  Ns L : strock length  Ns : number of strock per minute 4.

CONSTRAINTS Spindle-speed constraint:     nmin  nw  nmax    ntmin  nt  ntmax workpiece tool Feed constraint: f min  f  f max Cutting-force constraint: F   c  Fc.max 01/16/15 4.33 .max Power constraint: Pm    Pmax Surface-finish constraint: R   a  Ra.

MODELS Multiple pass model      np t pr  t h + i (t m =1    c pr i t im + t t t) n p cb  n + cmt h +  ci pr i=1 b i : pass number Additional constraint:   depth of cut a p n p : number of passes is a function of the depth of cut. Productivity model:    s – c pr pr  t pr 01/16/15 s: sale price/piece 4.34 .